First, on the topics of approach.
Papers Category:Work Plan
Post Time:2008/10/22 16:19:00
Topics of research work is the first step. Maide how this step will have a direct bearing on whether follow-up study to achieve the desired results. In terms of the Master, in the main topics of the existence of two cognitive errors. One is not good to discover their own problems, on which the problem is worth studying the suitability of research can not accurately tell their own, resulting in reliance on mentors for their own turned a deaf ear, the mental proposition; two is not clear when to coordinate research projects and tend to select problem as a purely short-term tasks, in order to coordinate research projects and topics of, but not really the topics of as a process, learning is a daily synchronization process. In these two areas will certainly have a bias in understanding topics of attitude and the quality of topics of direct impact, it must be corrected. How do I correct it? This would first need to establish the knowledge structure according to their own interest and expertise to the topics of consciousness, rather than over-reliance on the arrangements for mentors, and to coordinate research projects resides in the whole learning process, rather than to treat it as an independent study outside the task. On this basis, focusing on topics of the following three pairs of terms is also vital.
First, we must pay attention to the current reality that almost no one mentioned the environment for the special needs of the issues involved. Such as the appearance of the new economy presents us with new economic and accounting, the new economy and finance a range of topics in each issue also contains many of the specific content of the branch, these are some emerging areas of urgent need to go to in-depth study of topics of nature also has a high value.
Second, we should pay attention to academic research has been arguing against each other and the inherent conflicts. The one hand, different scholars on a particular issue in dispute, we should be good to find out the reasons for controversy, background, focus, and in this regard should be thinking and research. The other hand, some well-known scholars (or research institutions), explaining the issue of academic areas before and after the conflicting, we must be good at capture, find, and its amendments to be improved.
Third, we must focus on the development of the theory and its changes arising from the development of practical impact. Course of the study is not just theory, the use of the process, but also the theoretical development. According to the changes in real conditions to discover deficiencies in existing theory and to propose to enrich and improve the idea is being studied, should develop a professional qualities. This quality will significantly advance our develop topics of depth. Meanwhile, after changes in the development of the theory of how to guide policy formulation and practice of conduct is worthy of close attention to issues, which should be some hard thinking in order to expand research space.
Secondly, with regard to data-collection methods. For the collection of information mainly related to the timing and the method of choice of two ways. Arrangements at the time, but also the same as the topics of data collection resides in the learning process, that is usually relies on the accumulation, not just before writing the temporary expect to find. To some extent, can also be considered, usually to collect information to learn which is actually an issue have a better understanding on the topics of thinking the process of expansion, in many cases, when learning to a certain stage of data collection, to a certain extent, to a certain some questions there will be a certain degree of understanding and grasp of the future research directions and gradually became clear, the subject can also choose the basic set, and even language of the framework can be roughly taken shape, which does not need to order a study, a articles devoted a great deal of information to find a job (of course, some of the major research topics are not included).
In this way, while learning, side to collect information on topics of edge set, all three simultaneously, efficiency will naturally be greatly increased. In the choice of specific methods to collect information, my suggestion is to do the card to enjoy the articles, flash the conclusion of the argument wonderful it down and indicate the source, such as the preparation of the library's access to directory categorized to imputation as well. That no amount of information can also be collected in good order.
In addition, the right to information from the following three aspects should also pay attention to: First, all kinds of 'Yearbook' on the data. The comprehensiveness of such information, comprehensive, authoritative strong, with a high reference value. The second is on-line information. Web-based information content, faster updates, access to convenient, modern society a very important source of information channels. Meanwhile, in line also with a number of masters and scholars to conduct a direct dialogue and exchanges, which is also to have access to a large number of other methods are difficult to obtain data or information. Third, other people's articles or excerpts of books behind the reference. Such information are generally in the course of the study authors were chosen for further study of related issues with a certain reference value.
Thirdly, with regard to research methods. Research methods are mainly two categories, one is deductive and inductive methods, the other is normative and empirical methods.
On the two kinds of deductive and inductive methods, the former refers to the general to the specific, from the basic principles slowly to the specific application of its deduction in all aspects, the latter refers specifically to the general, from concrete examples began to creep generalize a universally applicable conclusions. Among the specific studies, there will be two methods used together, but also one of the methods used alone. Combine the use of reasonable, strong persuasive. If used alone, then the process of deductive reasoning should be emphasized that a thorough, in the induction process, we need pay attention to arguments in full. Especially in the use of inductive methods, must be prevented from point to cover face, sweeping phenomenon.
Two methods on the normative and empirical, the former is mainly the use of reasoning to answer 'what should be' such problems, which are based mainly on the fact that to answer 'what' these problems. Currently in the West, whether it is economics or accounting studies, most have adopted empirical methods. Such as the United States 'ACCOUNT REVIEW' is the world's first-class accounting magazines, which are empirical research articles, there is no empirical research on the content not published. In China, although the traditional norms are still the dominant research methods, but due to the impact of international trends, empirical research methods have gradually been introduced. So, first and foremost of these two methods we are required to have a correct understanding. For the empirical research, its biggest advantage is that the conclusions on the basis of objective data, so it is verifiable. But it's correct, rationality must also be established on the basis of the following three: First, assumptions must be reasonable and can not be assumed out of thin air; Second, there must be protection of the authenticity of the data can not be man-made fabrications; third collection of material can not be mixed personal feelings of the factors, such as in the design of the questionnaire, you can not own tendency to mislead them resides in the questionnaire have been the subject of investigation. If you can not meet the above several requests, then the empirical findings of the study certainly would be difficult to accurately reflect the actual situation. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
For the normative research, its biggest advantage is that is recognized through the existing material to promote a new conclusion, and it also provides a number of empirical studies for the assumptions. But the study also defective specification, the most prominent is its normative difficult to verify. This requires engaging in normative study, with a strong sense of responsibility to carry out the academic depth and comprehensive theory of thinking. Taken together, the norms of research and empirical research is different, and each other director, both are desirable and are from China's current situation should be strengthened. In practice, among the key lies in how to study based on individual circumstances and conditions to choose the appropriate method, and give full play to the strengths of the chosen method, try to make up for its shortcomings.
Here, another point to note is that research questions are sometimes the methods and ways of writing papers is not the same. As Marx wrote 'Das Kapital' when using a deductive approach, from commodities, layers of the dual nature of the beginning to start a thorough analysis. However, he was conducting the study of political economy, first of all to see is not a commodity, but rather between capitalists and workers against exploitation, exploitation and bloody battle. This prompted him to start thinking: Why could the capitalist exploitation of workers? Because he was in possession of capital. Why do the workers being exploited? Because they have no capital. Capital, then what is it? Capital is already a valuable asset. Wealth come from? Capitalists said to be the result of living frugally, is his father left his legacy. Father's property then he is come from?
Early money was originally hired some workers, opened a workshop, factory after production earned. So why does he can earn huge amount of wealth? He had squeezed the residual value of the workers. Why he was able to extract surplus value of workers do? That is because with a dual character of labor, goods with a duality of reasons. This dates back to the source, and then extrapolating back from the source, they formed a 'Das Kapital' This macro book. This shows that the trajectory of Marx's research and writing at that time the track is completely the opposite. Our research and writing process is also likely to come across a similar situation, which tells us not to believe that the method used Yimei study what methods should be writing, if always way of thinking would be limited.
Fourthly, on the proof method. There are many ways argument from the argument the choice of point of view, to be useful for theoretical analysis argues that the factual basis is also useful to be argued, from the argument point of view, there are minutes after the first general-type argument, but also demonstrated the first fraction the General Logistics Department , from the argument the direction of view, there are cis-permits, and they have evidence to the contrary and so on. I will not elaborate on their 11, only to talk about the reference to the views of others to demonstrate the problem.
First of all, it should be clear that we are engaged in research, their papers, we often come across references to demonstrate another point of view the situation. If an article is full of his or her own point of view, it is unrealistic, such as Marx's 'Das Kapital' in the invocation of a lot of other people's point of view. Second, the need to emphasize that the reference does not mean copying copy away in order to piece together the article, it should be for the purpose of the following three considerations: First, in favor of the views of others, and the views of others to build their own point of view based on the , you need to reference.
If they vote for the financial relationship between a monetary point of view, but at the same time that such monetary nature of the relationship of interest is divided, the value of distribution relations, and then could rely on other people's point of view to articulate their views; 2 in favor of other people's point of view, But from another perspective to argue for its, you need to reference. If another person from the perspective of protecting the interests of investors of the company discussed the importance of disclosure of financial information, and you prepare the company's financial accounting practices from the normative point of view to demonstrate this, then invoke the conclusions of others to develop their own point of view; 3 is not in favor of the views of others, and is prepared to criticize or amend them, you need to reference.
If people think that the formulation of accounting standards is a political process, but you are saying that it is not a political process in China, but an administrative process, then invoke the views of others and to refute them to form their own point of view. Finally, in reference to other people's viewpoints, there is a need to source, author, time, etc. 11 made clear, both to test for future reference needs, but also a prudent and responsible attitude toward research is all about.
In short, in the course of the study need to know in many ways, there are many problems to be solved, which are subject to greater feel through the practice gradually improved. Mentioned above is just my personal feelings, hopes that it will play a role in attracting valuable opinions. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com