How to Write Summary

A summary of the concept and role of
        Summary also known as a summary of executive summary.
Summary is based on the content outline of the purpose of providing documentation, without comment and the additional explanatory, concise and accurate account of an important part of the essay documents. The basic elements include research purposes, methods, results and conclusions. Specifically, the main target is to study and scope of the work, using the means and methods, results and important conclusions, sometimes including those with intelligence value of the other important information. Abstract should have the independence and self-evidence, and have the same amount with the literature the main message that does not read the text, you can obtain the necessary information. For a complete call for papers to write with the digest, summary main functions are:
        1) Let the reader understand the paper's main content as quickly as possible to supplement the lack of titles. A broad array of modern science and technology literature information, the reader retrieves the papers will read the text after the title, mainly by reading the summary to determine; Therefore, the summary will be responsible for the articles to attract readers and introduced to the reader the main elements of the task.
        2) The literature search for scientific and technical information database to facilitate the construction and maintenance. Published papers, abstracts, magazine, or a variety of databases on the summary can not be modified or the direct use of minor modification in order to avoid preparation of summaries of others that may arise from misunderstanding or lack of errors. With the computer technology and the rapid development of Internet networks, online query, retrieval and downloading of professional scientific and technical information data has become an important means of information retrieval, online all kinds of text databases, abstracts database, more and more shows that the exchange of information in modern society levels and trends. At the same time abstracts index is an important tool for readers to retrieve the documents. Therefore, the quality of abstract level, a direct impact on the papers have been retrieved rate and cites.

        2 Summary of classification
        Different functions according to a summary to divide, roughly the following 3 types.
        2.1 The summary reports
        Reported that a literature summary is to indicate the scope and content of the outline of the subject of a concise summary, which is equivalent profile. Report summary is generally used to reflect the purpose of scientific papers, method and main results and conclusions, in a limited number of words within the readers as much as possible qualitative or quantitative information, to fully reflect the research innovations. Scientific and technological papers without innovative content, if not stand the test of different methods or conclusions will not arouse the reader's interest in reading; it is proposed academic journals (or Essays) multi-use nature of summary reports, with more than other types of summary number of words a bit more length, Paper presented to the reader the main content. In order to 'extract the main points' in the form of reports out of the author's main research results and relatively complete quantitative and qualitative information. Length to 300 words or so is appropriate.
        2.2 Indicative Abstract
        Indicative abstract is to indicate the subject of a literature and the results achieved in nature and level of a summary, the purpose is to enable the reader to the main content of the study (ie, by what has been done) has an outline of understanding. Innovative content with fewer papers can be written summary of indicative summary generally applies to academic journals briefing and discuss problems and other columns, as well as technical journals and other papers only an overview of the topic of 'allowing the reader to the main contents of papers broadly understanding. Length to 100 words or so is appropriate.
    
        2.3 report - Indicative Summary
        Reports - reports of indicative summary is based on papers statements in summary form the highest value of that part of the contents of rest and some others are indicative to express in summary form. Length of 100 ~ 200 words is appropriate.
        Summary of the above three kinds of classification forms are available by choice. Generally speaking, the academic journal submissions, reports of summary form should be used; only a few innovations of papers, a summary report can be written - or indicative summary of the indicative. Papers published in the ultimate goal is to be exploited. If the summary is written well, the explosion of information in today's era of paper into the Digest magazine, searchable database, was read, much less chances of references, or even lose. A paper of great value, innovation and a great many things, if the written summary of indicative and may lose more readers. In this case, if the author had written summary of Jane, editors retreat should remind them of their change.
        Note 3 Summary of Writing
        1) The summary should be excluded from the disciplines have become the common sense of the content; avoid them from appearing in the introduction written summary of the contents; generally to refrain from interpreting the contents of papers and comments (especially self-evaluation).
        2) not to simply duplicate the information already in title. For example an article title is' the seeds of several Chinese orchid cultivation in vitro study of rhizome place ', a summary at the beginning, do not write:' In order to ... ..., the seeds of several Chinese orchid cultivation in vitro for the occurrence of rhizome research '.
        3) well-structured, concise expression, the precise semantics. Abstract The first, what to write, after what to write, according to a logical order to arrange. Coherence between sentences should be up and down, to each other. Abstract used with caution in long sentences, sentences should be kept simple. Intended to understand every word to the table, no vague, general, vague words, but after all, is a complete summary of short, telegraphic style of writing and undesirable. Summary of the Do not Fragment.
        4) a third person. Recommended to adopt the 'right ... ... conducted a study', 'reported on ... ... the status quo', 'survey carried out ... ...' and other methods of labeling an account of the nature of literature and literature topic, no need to use 'this', 'author', etc., as subject .
        5) To the use of standardized terminology, non-public knowledge without common symbols and terminology. The new terms or there is no suitable Chinese language terminology, available after the original or translated text indicated in parentheses.
        6) In addition to simply can not work outside the general without mathematical formulas and chemical structure, there are no illustrations, tables.
        7) do not have citations, unless the documentation to confirm or deny the published works of others.
        8) acronym, an abbreviation, code-named, in addition to the professional reader adjacent to a clear understanding of the outside appear to be the first to illustrate this. Scientific Writing should pay attention to other matters, such as the use of legal units of measurement, the correct use of language and punctuation, also apply equally to the preparation of a summary. Preparation of the present summary of the main problems are: elements of incomplete, or lack of purpose or lack of method; appeared citations, no independence and self-evident; simplified misconduct.
        4 English Abstract
        To be discussed here is mainly the Chinese scientific and technological papers accompanying English summary, which contains titles, abstracts and keywords. GB 7713-87 provides that for international exchanges, scientific and technical reports, theses and dissertations should be accompanied by foreign (mostly English) feeds. In principle, the above summary prepared by the Chinese's attention the issues that are applicable to the English summary, but the English have their own forms of expression, language habits, in writing English abstracts should be special attention.
        4.
1 English title
        1) The title structure. English title to the phrase as the main form, particularly in noun phrase (noun phrase) of the most common, that title is basically one or several terms combined with their pre-and (or) post-modifier composition. For example: The Frequent Bryophytes in the Mountain Helanshan (Helan Mountains, commonly seen bryophytes); Thermodynamic Characteristics of Water Absorption of Heattreated Wood (heat treatment of wood moisture sorption thermodynamic properties). Phrase-based title to determine the good-word, and then carried out before and after the modification. The order of each word is important, word order properly, will result in expression are not allowed. Title generally should not be declarative sentences, as indicated from the role of the main title, while the declarative sentence is easy for the title with a judge-like semantics; Moreover, declarative sentence is not enough refining and eye-catching, the focus is also not easy to highlight. A few cases (evaluating, review and refute the sexual) may be done with the interrogative title, because it may have exploratory interrogative tone, easy to arouse the reader interested. For example: Can Agricultural Mechanization be Realized Without Petroleum? (Agricultural mechanization can leave the oil it?).
        2) The title of the words. Title should not be too long. Foreign scientific journals generally be limited to the title words. For example, the American Medical Association, the provisions of Title no more than 2 lines, each line is not more than 42 printing symbols and spaces; the U.S. National Cancer Institute J Nat Cancer Inst requested title not exceeding 14 words; British mathematics would require no more than 12 titles words. These provisions are available for reference. The general principle is that title should be precise, concise, eye-catching, in the paper can accurately reflect the specific content of the premise, goal is to minimize the number of title terms.
        3) the consistency of Chinese and English title. With a paper in English and Chinese title content title to be consistent, but does not mean that the words to-one correspondence. In many cases, individual non-substantive word can be omitted or altered. For example: the direct heat of industrial wet steam calculations, The Direct Measurement of Heat Transmitted Wet Steam. The literal translation of the English title is 'wet steam by the heat transfer from the direct measurement', compared with the Chinese title, though the difference between the two terms, but the content is consistent.
        4) The title of the definite article. In the early years, scientific and technological papers of the definite article titles used more, the trend in recent years have simplified, where the definite article may or may not can not. For example: The Effect of Groundwater Quality on the Wheat Yield and Quality. Of the definite article the two of them can not.
        5) The title of the case. Title case letters have the following three kinds of formats.
        All capital letters. For example: OPTIMAL DISPOSITION OF ROLLER CHAIN DRIVE
        The first letter of each word capitalized, but the 3 or 4 letters below the definite article, conjunctions, prepositions all lowercase. For example: The Deformation and Strength of Concrete Dams with Defects
        Title the first the first letter of a word capitalized, the rest are all lowercase letters. For example: Topographic inversion of interval velocities.
        B. format currently used the most, while the use of c. form a growing trend.
        6) The title of Abbreviations. Has been the entire scientific community or the industry recognized Abbreviations scientific and technical personnel in order for the title, it would be not easy to use.
        4.
2 units in the English translation of the author and authors
        A) Author. According to Pinyin spelling of Chinese names; other non-English speaking countries, the names provided by the author's own spelling of the Roman alphabet spelling.
        2) flats. Name to write the whole (small to large), along with address and zip code, to ensure the linkages facilitated. Some time ago, some units have adopted the English translation agency abbreviation incomprehensible to outsiders, resulting in confusion. FAO'WHO'MIT well known, while the BFU is a Beijing Forestry University 'I am afraid that only' insiders' own trumpet. In addition, the unit must be used the English translation of a unified translation units (ie, the unit standard translation), must not start all over again. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com

        4.
3 English Abstract
        1) English summary of tenses. English summary, the use of state also concise and better, often in general present tense, simple past tense, with less use the present perfect, past perfect tense, progressive tense, and basically no other compound tenses.
        In general the present tense. Used to describe research purposes, describing the research content, describing the results, draw conclusions, make recommendations or discussions. Respectively, the following examples: This study (investigation) is (conducted 'undertaken) to ... The anatomy of secondary xylem (secondary xylem) in stem of Davidia involucrata (Dove tree) and Camptotheca acuminata (Camptotheca acuminata) is compared. The result shows ( reveals) ..., It is found that ... The conclusions are ... The author suggests .... Related to recognized the fact that laws of nature, eternal truth, and so on, of course, have to apply the general present tense.
        Simple past tense. Be used to describe the past, at some point (time) and found that a certain course of the study (experiment, observation, investigation, medical and other processes). For example: The heat pulse technique was applied to study the stemstaflow (sap flow) of two main deciduous broadleaved tree species in July and August'1996. Should be noted that, with a general description of the past, when the discovery of the phenomenon is often not yet recognized as natural law, eternal truth, but rather how the time is; described in the research process is also evident with the time traces of the past.
        The present perfect and past perfect tense. Less complete, but not at all. The present perfect to past incidents or past things that have been completed and is now linked, but the past perfect tense is used to that in the past a certain time ago, things have been completed, or in a past events have been completed prior to the completion of another past behavior . For example: Concrete has been studied for many years. Man has not yet learned to store the solar energy.?
        2) English summary of the voice. In what voice, it is necessary to consider the summary of the characteristics, but also to meet the needs expressed. A summary is very short, try not to mix lightly, not to mix in a sentence.
        The active voice. Now advocated in the summary predicate verb as far as possible in the active voice more and more help text for its clear, concise and express strong. The author systematically introduces the history and development of the tissue culture of poplar than The history and development of the tissue culture of poplar are introduced systematically stronger sense of language. When necessary, The author systematically can be removed, but directly Introduces beginning.
        The passive voice. Previously stressed the multi-purpose passive voice on the grounds that science and technology is to specify the paper after the fact, as the matter of who do, no 11 proof. In fact, in the indicative summary, for special emphasis bearer, or use the passive voice is better. Even in the report summary, there are some cases, passive and does not matter, it must be emphasized that the subject of things to do. For example: In this case 'a greater accuracy in measuring distance might be obtained.?
        3) English summary of the person. More than the original sentence summary of the third person, etc. This paper ... at the beginning, and now tend to adopt a more simple at the beginning of the passive voice or the infinitive. For example: To describe ..., To study ..., To investigate ..., To assess ..., To determine ..., The torrent classification model and the hazard zone mapping model are developed based on the geography information system. Wording is best not the first person to Manuscripts Digest editorial convenience.
        4) Note. Should avoid some common mistakes.
        Definite article. Mainly use the definite article the easily missed. the is used to represent the entire group, classification, time, names other than the unique things, adjectives such as acquiring the most advanced used specifically refers often been missed by. There is a principle that when we use the time, the listener or reader has to ascertain what we mean. For example: The author designed a new machine.The machine is operated with solar energy.? Acronyms now and more and more should pay attention to distinguish between a and an, such as an X ray.
        Numerals. Avoid using Arabic numerals as the first word, such as: Three hundred Dendrolimus tabulaeformis larvae are collected ... in Three hundred? Do not write 300.?
        Singular and plural. Singular and plural forms of some terms is not easy to identify, resulting in the form of an error predicate.
        Make full use of phrases. Because long sentence easily lead to semantic unclear; but to avoid monotony and repetition. Science and technology involved in professional journals and more English is not easy to master, all walks of life and even of expression, words and sentences are different. If you have a chance to contact more with the English-speaking counterparts, many people ask them to alter some of the written summaries or papers, accumulated experience, and explore the law. In the absence of such opportunities, see more of the English literature, will help us to raise the level of writing and English. ... From the journal literature of the subject property to achieve ethnic retrieval, and the article's classification statistics to create the conditions required of papers published in academic journals should be marked words. Science and technology authors should actively cooperate with the editorial board do this work. Currently the world's commonly used classification of the following categories:
        1) 'Chinese Library Classification' (formerly known as 'Chinese Library Classification', hereinafter referred to as 'CLC') is China's widespread use of libraries and information units of a comprehensive classification. By 1999 'CLC' has been revised four times
(For F economy, TN radio-electronics, telecommunications technology, TP automation technology, computer technology, focusing on three major categories amended).
        2) In addition to 'CLC', efforts are also commonly used in China 'Chinese books and reference materials Classification' (referred to as 'Information Act'), 'Information Act' is in 'CLC' basis, by the China Science and Technology Information Institute in conjunction with the relevant units, according to the needs of scientific and technical literature, for refinement and appropriate amendments made. 'Information Act' in architecture, setting and marking symbols categories, etc., are with the 'CLC' consistency.
        3) Foreign classification of many different types of documents, mainly large-scale comprehensive library classification as 'Universal Decimal Classification' (the UDC). 'Universal Decimal Classification'
        Originally published in 1905, has been responsible for the revision by the International Federation of literature, which focuses on various types of science and technology, there is expansion of a breakdown by type of destination, the independent sub-compiled volumes for specialized libraries and scientific and technological intelligence departments. China's scientific and technological intelligence community in the 20th century, 50 and 60 years promoting the use of UDC.
        At present, the major literature databases 'Chinese Science Citation Database', 'Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database', as well as digital libraries, China Journal Net and so require Xueshulunwen press 'CLC' mark in the CLC.
        CLC - refers to the use of 'Chinese Library Classification' thematic analysis of science and technology literature, and literature in accordance with the contents of attributes and characteristics of subjects into different categories to organize documents, the access to the classification code. 'CLC' is divided into five basic categories of, 22 major categories. Pinyin letters and Arabic numerals using a combination of mixed numbers, with a letter on behalf of a large class categories in alphabetical order to reflect the order of the letters after the numerical marking. To meet the industrial technology development and the classification of such literature, two categories of industrial technology, using the two-letter. Category names are as follows:
        Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought ... ... ... A Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought?
        Philosophy ... ... ... ... ... ... B Philosophy
        Social Science ... ... ... ... C Social Science General remarks
        D political, legal
        Natural Science ... ... ... ... N s remarks?
        O mathematics and science and chemistry?
        P astronomy, earth science
        Q Biological Sciences
        R Medicine, health
        S Agricultural Sciences
        T Industrial Technology
        U Transportation
        V aviation, aerospace p
        X Environmental Science, labor protection research
        Integrated ... ... ... Z book a comprehensive book reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com

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