Papers Category:Work Plan
Post Time:2006/11/15 11:12:00
Keywords:: Results section
"The result" is a core part of the paper, the author's hard work results.
Its content is the observation studies of information and data with text and diagrams, tables expressed in the form. It is the author of their original design purpose or directly answer the issues raised, but also below, logical reasoning, in-depth discussion basis. Therefore, the results of some of the papers actually reflect the level and value, so it is very important part of the written results. The results of part of the title, can also be used according to different characteristics of paper "experimental results", "clinical efficacy", "operation result" different wording to more accurately reflect its actual content. According to my experience and some experts realized that to be written "results" should pay attention to the following points.
A comprehensive grasp, careful analysis, and accurately reflect the acquired materials
Have complete control of materials (including information and data), requires the author's carefully all the materials collected and reviewed, and strive to not let valuable material is lost, but also the reliability of textual materials; to make reliable materials can be fully applied will not be reliable or do not meet the scientific requirements of the material removed, done to the pseudo-truth. But as long as is true of the material, can not be arbitrarily discarded. Whatever the outcome is positive or negative, positive or negative, success or failure, in line with, or does not meet the expected results, should be faithfully reflected. Must not "sweeping," "glossy." Especially when their results with the literature reports inconsistent. To achieve this, for the majority of scholars said that has not come easy. For example, "bio-phase scoring," Detection of fetal conditions, initially reported in the literature, high reliability, but after a lot of commonly used by clinical scholars have found is not the case, however, still have not seen in a magazine are reflected in the report. While it is impossible to do accurately reflect the different views, not only courage, but also need to spend a lot of energy to carefully research, analyze their own scientific data and reliability. Scientific knowledge is always by practice → → → re-cognition re-practice to develop. Then the basis of the purpose of analysis of the material can be from the general to specific, you can also from the particular to the general, but to pay attention to focus on materials and articles closely related to the analysis, in order to make the results achieve the highest possible clarity of purpose. The material is generally reflected in the overall profile of a special part of the material in relation to the core part of the article; general background material for the special materials, special materials, such as the performance of the conditions under which access is obtained, so long as it can illustrate this point, the rest can be omitted as far as possible. Such as obstetrics articles, general information number, including: age, maternity times, production methods, neonatal conditions, "sampling" time, the past history and so on. Often do not have to use a lot of space, as long as the refinery can be revealing. The special data, then often the results of which may affect the various circumstances, such as a fetal heart rate monitoring results, should be listed when the guardianship, temporary care to the newborn parturition of time; perinatal outcome should include fetal distress, fetal heart rate changes in amniotic fluid character; neonatal Apgar score (1 minute and 5 minutes), neonatal morbidity, otherwise people can not determine the reliability of the results, or so that the results remain at the level of duplication of past research. The analysis process is to use all his knowledge and wisdom, repeated scrutiny of the data, comprehensive measurement process. Forward-looking study, due to more stringent design and variation factors are simple, so analysis and comparison easier. The retrospective study, the influence factors are very complex, and often have to spend a lot of effort for analysis. Right at first glance it can be concluded, we must in-depth analysis to see if it invulnerable to explore to explore its inherent regularity. See no conclusions on the initial material needs to have patience, and are not afraid of multiple rework, review materials, from different perspectives to the analysis and study. Statistical problems encountered should be familiar with statistical experts humbly ask for help, can yield a great deal more. When reached a conclusion, would also need to review whether the result is often a reliable, reasonable and valuable, and the need for domestic and foreign similar studies have compared the results to see what similarities and differences between basic conclusion whether there is new content, new discoveries. If inconsistent, often to re-examination, checking the reliability of the material will be their own materials and domestic and foreign materials carefully compare and check the reasons for the differences. Only after careful analysis in order to make the conclusions reasonable, clear-cut argument, legislation, according to reliable. Not only the results of part of the writing much easier, but writing can also be a matter of course when the discussion part. Some authors have not been posting a paper published, often because of the lack of detailed information and data analysis and reflection, resulting in some data inconsistent with the subject; some information and data have not been a true reflection; some ambiguous results of analysis can not be The exact description of the problem, and even self-contradictory; some statistical mistakes, so that the conclusions to gain a foothold; Although some statistically significant, but because of project is not strict, so that the data appears to be trusted; some results just to stay in the low - the level of repetition, no new ideas for research and clinical work without guidance. If each of the study, each clinical experience, can fully grasp the material, a careful analysis, the results of some of it is easy to written.
Second, pay attention to logic, focused, to avoid discussion of a list of materials and Inclusion
The logic clear: the result is partly an argument paper, so the use of information and data presentation, we should note that a sequential, structured to conform to logic paper, layer upon layer forward, before and after the anaphoric, to distinguish between primary and secondary , a clear causal relationship, so that the reader easy to understand.
2. Prominence to key points: To prioritize, of detail properly, in a limited space, the important results Xie Qing. This has nothing to do with the subject first of all the information you want to be deleted, and then the contents of general information or the well-known to be streamlined and concentrated. This will enable closely related with the subject material, in particular new findings of this study, new findings can be fully expressed, avoiding the listed materials, confuse the general information has been concealed focus and core. Results are generally expressed with words, and some can be used graphs, charts, and some maps, tables and text use either, but it should be text-based. Decide what methods are mainly based on which method is more easy to make it clear that even more determined to save space.
3. To avoid the mixture of the discussion: The result is based on information and data to express, but on this basis to form appropriate conclusions and make a brief description. For example: "the two groups by statistical observation group was significantly superior to the efficacy of the control group, in particular, the cure rate is 30% higher than the control group, reaching 80%, is a very prominent effect" and the like, but in principle, Results section should not be discussed. So as to avoid the "discussion" section, mixed with or duplication. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
3, graphs, tables produced
Charts and tables are an important means of expressing the results, its aim is to obtain data and information to express more clearly the image, while striving to save ink and reduce the length of purposes.
Drawings requirements: presentation drawings in general there are two, one line diagram (including the plot), the second is a photo of.
Multi-line diagram used to describe the anatomical location, methods of operation, equipment structures, results of experiments. Composition should be accurate, the line should be clear and uniform, and use black ink on the drawing paper, white paper, or accurately map coordinates. Surface to be printed larger than expected to double. Plot ratio should be accurate, points, lines should be clear, and indicate the vertical and the horizontal axis of the meaning and use units of measurement. Apparatus, equipment, or schematic design drawings, etc. must be marked with the size of size, length of the unit.
Photo of shape features commonly used in the show, in general specimens, tissue biopsies under a microscope camera, X ray photography, CT photography and B-mode ultrasound images and so on. Should be printed on white glossy photo paper printing, the size should be consistent to 9cm × 7cm or so a better option. Images should be clear and sharp contrast to the background in order to facilitate the main background is appropriate. And if it only needs to show the body of a local time should be used at close range photography. Under a microscope tissue section diagram we must accurately identify the need to show some of stating the staining method and magnification. X-ray photograph showing the need should focus on the location, do not have all the original film print. Such as a photo diagram needs to arrows, foreign letters or text description, do not directly mark on the screen, it can be on a separate paper attached to a transparent surface, arrows, foreign language letters or characters marked in transparent paper, maps note the word request paste printed word, not handwritten. Diagram, such as note the word too much, too crowded, can be numbers, plus a note under the diagram.
A variety of map on the back or beside the text should indicate title and figure number. Diagram shows the order of the other paper should be written and should be concise, consistent with the presentation. In order to avoid impairment, photos do not have attached to the manuscript, it can be hard on the paper bag. X ray of the original films and tissue sections in general do not have to be sent with the manuscript, if necessary, a separate claim by the editorial send.
2. The list of requirements: the text in the list of statistical information in order to be expressed in a concise and accurate manner, so that the reader easy to understand. Therefore, to concise, clear columns, figures are accurate. If the table number is not large, can be clearly described in the text, you do not have a list. Set the table column should not be too complex, too much text. Schedule and content of the body is basically to avoid duplication. The division of sections and levels should concise, the content of the secondary should be omitted. There are three types of the form: "three horizontal-style", "dry-type character (actually," King "character style) and" multi-vertical-style. "At present, many three-horizontal type, without any vertical line, the top two horizontal section to form two horizontal grid for the table head, table body under the left is the subject's location, the right is a predicate location. each column the number of units of measurement to be consistent. in the same table in the number of decimal places to be unified, decimal value is 0 effective but also to write "0." the number of cases