How to write scientific papers




Abstract: The significance of writing papers, theses, the format and requirements, steps and methods in writing papers, theses, standards writing, expression, etc. have to be described were made.






Keywords:: Scientific Writing




1, the general concept of



The concept and classification of a paper


(1) the concept paper


Technology thesis was a creative scientific and technological research achievements of scientific exposition is purely theoretical, experimental or observational science and new knowledge record is known principles to practice, made new progress, new scientific summary of the success.


Scientific and technological papers of scientific and technological exchanges are the main carrier is to obtain scientific and technological information, and promote the development of science and technology an important way.


(2) Classification of papers


Science - From a theoretical explanation of natural phenomena (the law) "-what" and "whv" to provide new facts, theories and concepts, the development of technology to develop new ways.


Technology - under the guidance of scientific theory, the answer "do Shi Yao" and "ruffle do that.
"

According to the distinction between science and technology, as well as to express the contents of the papers, technology papers are divided into academic (scientific) papers and technical papers two broad categories:

① Xueshulunwen: theoretical papers, experimental papers.


② Technical Paper: Innovative technologies (product, design) papers, new technologies applied papers, experimental papers.


Two characteristics of paper


Paper Science and Technology is a creative scientific and technological research results of theoretical analysis and summary of the scientific writing style. Therefore, both the scientific and technological papers of a general discussion of the characteristics of the text, arguments, argument, conclusions composition, but also has the text and the general discussion of different features:

a) scientific and accurate.


b) academic or theoretical.


c) creativity and originality.


d) Standardization and artificial language symbols (charts, photographs, formulas, chemical, etc.
) applications.


Second, the meaning of thesis writing


Scientific and technological research paper writing is an integral part of


Writing scientific papers is conducive to the promotion of scientific and technological development (which is an important scientific and technological achievements logo)

Scientific and technological papers writing help to improve the quality scientific and technical personnel (which is an important scientific and technological research tools)


Science and technology is conducive to writing papers for academic exchanges and talent discovery


Well-known physics, chemist Michael Faraday's famous "scientific research has three phases, first is to expand, followed by the completion of the third is an expression." Scientific Writing of all scientific and technological exchanges (research results, technological innovation, scientific and technical information) is based on, whether the state, units or individuals, its meaning is practical and useful.


Third, the format and requirements for papers


● basic requirements: academic, realistic, logical, normative


● Format: science and technology an integral part of the paper and arrange the order of (format) to:


Title


Author


(Work unit name address)


Abstract


Keywords


① Introduction


② discussed in the body of the body of


③ Conclusion


④ thanks (if necessary)


⑤ References


1 Title


Namely, title, topic, proposition, etc.
, is an important part of the article, but also abstracts, index, or to mention recording an important part of intelligence information.


Development of the requirements of Title: concise, accurate, appropriate and complete.
It should be noted:

(1) accuracy.
Appropriately reflect the scope of the study and depth.


Common problems include:


The first big title, small content.
Such as: "... ... Precipitation Characteristics of study"

Second, pay attention to sense of proportion, intentionally or unintentionally, overstating.
Such as "... ... ... ... of the mechanism of action (impact)"

3 is a generalization of the title, there is no characteristic.
Such as: "... ... the relationship between hydrological station water level and flow analysis (of )"--" ... ... characteristics of the river water level analysis"

(2) simplicity.
That is able to accurately reflect the clearly expressed "the most important specific content" under the premise of title as few words, then the memory and applications.


GB7713 - 87 provides that title, "generally not exceed 20 words.
" So: First, delete abandoned as superfluous words; second is to avoid the synonym or synonyms used in conjunction, such as "... .... The problem analysis and calculation," "analysis" and "calculated" in the area in recent unjust; common there, "... .... to study and explore," "... ... an analysis of research", and can be deleted one of them. Third, when the title is not easy simplicity, you can use the theme name (the center of that thesis or argument) and the subtitle (for the central thesis or argument concerning the scope of) the approach that the subtitle of the subject name from the contents of a kinds of constraint. For example: deep excavation support technique


- Anchor retaining wall design and construction of


(3) The title should have a distinct nature.
That is, to clear at a glance.


More "nature" is a science and technology paper titles should have the basic properties, in addition to title of text organization should be a reasonable structure, choice of words accurately, of detail appropriate, word order is correct, in line with modern Chinese grammar, rhetoric and logic of planning, giving people aesthetic.


When the title is longer, header spaces 4 or 5 grid cells, such as the line I will never finish, and the other starting line, compared to the previous line of retreat two grid writing. If the subtitle, another starting line, compared with themes were written back 2 Giga dash title. When the shorter title, the title centered writing.


2 signature, unit name and address of


To be signed by the author's name, workplace name and address.


(1) The purpose of signature


① owns the copyright statement.
A statement signed by the community itself, ie, the authors of the works have a copyright, all individuals and units can not be violated.


② said the text signed commitment to responsible self-sufficient.


③ signature, reader-friendly contact with the author.


⑵ signature


Signature of the scheduling problem (two or more)


Work unit name, address and zip code written on the signature below the writing center.
Cases


Huang Ying 1, Wang Yu 2



(1.
Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources of Yunnan Province, Yunnan, Kunming 650118; 2. In Yunnan Observatory, Yunnan, Kunming 650034)


3 Summary


Abstract

The paper is not to explain and comment on the content of the brief statement, the exchange of information is the paper (for readers) and retrieve (secondary literature compilation) needs.


(1) The summary of the role of


① reporting role.
The reader can understand from the summary paper of the key information to facilitate the readers, have played a role in coverage.


② the index effect.
Summary is the content of secondary bibliographic literature.


(2) Summary of Classification


Summary of their nature, are divided into three types:


Indicative Abstract - also known as the overview summary or profile of summary;


Reported summary - also known as an information summary or abstract of information;


Indicative summary reports ---- - Intermediate summary.


(3) Summary of Writing Requirements


① with the third person.
Way to use the third person accurately reported to enhance the objective effect, to exclude subjective factors. "This article describes the ... ....", "This paper reports ... ..." in "this" do the subject, language and logic is made, but the requirements of GB6447 ---- 86, "this" also deleted.


② brief and concise, specific, content integrity.
There are 10 words the shortest length of 300-500 words. General: To report to 200-300 word abstract suitable, indicative Abstract 50-100 words is appropriate, the report - Indicative abstract to 100-200 words is appropriate.


Abstract

writing should be weighing every word, and strive to achieve "multi-word more than, less and less than the word."

③ format specification, text-based.
In the body of graphs, charts, formulas and other non-text portion is generally not included, for example, generally do not permit. Also avoid duplication of titles already listed in the paragraph of information and summary of the title instead.


④ a separate segment.
That there should be further divided into paragraphs.


(4) The summary of the content and writing method of writing


① summary of the contents of the writing.
Abstract The paper concentrates the full text of its writing mainly for research purposes, methods, results, conclusions and so on. But the attention to the different types of summary level of detail of its content is different.


② summary writing method.
Abstract The author's intention can have different wording, but that response must be the main contents of papers, ie not read the text, you can obtain the necessary information, summary of independence and self-contained, and is a complete short, and couldUse.


Report summary: to "extract paper points" in the form, to provide readers with all the innovative content and as many qualitative or quantitative information. The purpose of entry may be simpler to write. Innovative contents, contributing articles to scholarly journals should be written summary report. Example: "Hydrology and Water Resources of Yunnan Information Key Technology Research of Automatic Monitoring System," a summary of the text:

     Abstract The automatic monitoring the current hydrology and water resources of information technology, equipment problems (purpose, scope), through modern electronics, telemetry, automation, communications and other new technologies and industry technology, multi-disciplinary integration (methods), research and development with the characteristics of Yunnan automatic monitoring information on hydrology and water resources, transmission equipment, and real-time information processing analysis and data integration software, and other key technology to achieve scientific and technological achievements into practical, information on hydrology and water resources of our province to achieve the automatic collection, remote transmission of data integration in the overall integration objectives (results). This article describes the information on hydrology and water resources in Yunnan Province automatic monitoring system design goal, contents and function, focusing on the key technologies of the system and its characteristics.


     Indicative Abstract: a brief introduction of the topic papers, or general purpose of the study presentation to illustrate the theme of the article. (The purpose of entry to write something small, easy to write some other items.). Technical journals a summary of technical papers in general is of an indicative summary. Example: "Yunnan Province, a different method of calculating water surface evaporation more" a summary of the text:

     Abstract: Based on a variety of surface evaporation method of calculating the value of the error E601-type evaporation comparative analysis (purpose, method), resulting in a formal amendment Penman used to calculate the water surface evaporation small error in Yunnan Province, and other computing formula less accuracy (results). Based on analysis and calculation of water surface evaporation around Yunnan, and its spatial and temporal variation.


Innovative content with fewer papers can be written summary of indicative summaries or reports ---- indicative summary.


Reports ---- Indicative Abstract: The report summaries in the form of presentation papers of the most important elements, but to indicate the nature of representation in summary form the rest of the content authors considered less important to highlight the focus, but also to avoid the summary written in a very long. Example: "Yunnan Province Water Environment and problem analysis," a summary of the text:


Abstract

Based on the major rivers in Yunnan Province in 2000 water quality monitoring results of the evaluation, the province's chief 9280KM in the evaluation of river water quality of Ⅰ ~ Ⅲ class accounted for 76.3% of river length. In general, the major river systems in Yunnan Province, the water quality is good, but water pollution in general is increasing. From 1985 to 2000, Ⅰ class average reduction in river length 2.3%, Ⅴ class river long-average annual growth of 0.6%. Waste water directly into rivers is an important reason for contamination. Water environmental issues have become key issues of sustainable socio-economic development is essential to strengthen the protection of water resources, scientific development and utilization of land and water resources. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the environment, pollution control at source from the beginning and take comprehensive measures.


Summary "to write the word left parietal cells, the latter space to write a summary of the contents of the grid.
Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com


4 Keywords


The key word is a condensed summary of the content, but also reflect the theme of the content of papers the most important words, phrases and phrases, generally used in 3-8 months.


How do I select keywords? Available from a site to search for 4:


First of all, from the title in the search.
Title is the subject of papers concentrates, the most easy to find.


Secondly, from the abstracts in the search.
Digest is a condensed the content of papers, the most important methods, results, conclusions, critical data can be reflected therein.


Third, from the papers to find the subtitle.
Its level to reflect the thesis title.


Fourth, from the conclusion to find.
Can be found in the titles, abstracts, and subtitled in the election of the more important missing keywords.


"Keywords:" writing left parietal cells, the latter a space to write keywords.
Keywords: and key words written in a space between.


Substatutes 1: "Hydrology and Water Resources of Yunnan Information Automatic Monitoring System for Key Technology Research," a text:


Keywords:: hydrology and water resources information; automatic monitoring; key technologies


Substatutes 2: "Yunnan Province Water Environment and problem analysis," a text:


Keywords:: water environment; water pollution; water quality changes; impact analysis; Yunnan


5 Introduction (Preamble)


Introduction called Foreword, introduction, preamble, preface, etc.
. Introduction is the article's opening remarks, its role is to reveal to the reader the subject of the article, purpose and general principles, easy to readers to understand the topics discussed in this article the ins and outs, as well as the author is how to start the discourse.


(1) Introduction, including the contents of the


Common in the introduction include the following:


① The reality of the subject and background;


② explain the nature of the subject, scope and importance, highlight the purpose of the study or the need to solve the problem;


③ previous research results and their evaluation;


④ research methods to achieve research purposes and real (test) inspection equipment;


⑤ research discovery.


An introduction to scientific papers, research background, purpose, methods and results should be included.


(2) Introduction of Writing Requirements


① straight to the point, unconventional.


Introduction Writing common problems are:


● bedding too far around in a big circle before entering the theme;


● too cookie cutter.
Such as: Some of courtesy, unnecessary.


"As we all know," "you know" - does not meet the seriousness of scientific papers


"If not, please criticize correction" - should have a minimum sense of responsibility and self-confidence and can not go wrong, it should not Received.


"Reference is available .
.. ..." - the level of high or low, good or bad, is it necessary to refer, not to mention the reader to evaluate since.


② Introduction Jane Yi-ming, well-organized.
In the most concise language, clear statement of the circumstances surrounding the research topics and research results. Scientific and technological papers of words in the introduction is generally 300 words or less;

③ respect for the scientific and realistic.
Do not use "domestic rare", "first proposed", "first discovered" and so on.


(3) Introduction to Writing


Theoretical and technical research papers and thesis writing introductory content, method is basically the same, generally based on the study background, purpose of the study significance of this leads to the question, briefly explain the study means (methods) and results as at the end. Experiments and experimental papers are commonly based on actual (test) the purpose of inspection, as the beginning of introduction, a brief account of actual (test) examination of the environmental conditions, the main method and results, you can also just realism (test) examination of the environmental conditions, the main method and results, you can also just realism (test) testing purposes.


Example: "Yunnan Province, a different method of calculating water surface evaporation more" a text of Introduction:


Water surface evaporation, also known as the maximum possible evaporation, is defined as sufficiently large body of water, there are ample water supply, controlled by the atmospheric conditions the maximum evaporation capacity evaporation process. It is mainly affected by local weather and climate conditions, the impact of general and local solar radiation, temperature, humidity and wind speed and so close. Experiments demonstrated that when the larger body of water (20m2), there is a certain depth (2m above) by the measured evaporation can be representative of the actual water surface evaporation. (Background)

Worked hydrological, meteorological departments widely used in evaporating dish of 20cm diameter, due to water body size is very small, very shallow wall, which measured the evaporation and actual evaporation bigger difference. At present, China set up by the small number of large-scale evaporation ponds, commonly used by E601 Evaporator observed surface evaporation; According to the literature description, that its observations and large-scale evaporation ponds measured closest to the water surface evaporation. As the E601 Evaporator observational data use, subject to the site less, data limitations of short sequences (leads to the problem), so all kinds of empirical formula has been widely used to calculate the water surface evaporation (meaning).


At home and abroad formula for calculation of water surface evaporation has Penman formula, Budko formula, Takahashi formula, Ivanov formula, Sangsiweite formula, LU Qi-yao formula, Xie Rachmaninov formula, as well as from Dalton's law , combined E601 evaporator and large evaporation ponds of information such as the establishment of a number of empirical formula. Yunnan Province, there is no large-scale evaporation ponds observed water surface evaporation data, measured using E601 Evaporator station with a variety of surface evaporation of water surface evaporation formula to calculate a comparative analysis of the error (method), results showed that the Penman formula (Amendment formal) apply to Yunnan, the calculation of water surface evaporation error to a minimum. Application of the formula obtained in Yunnan counties (cities, districts) of water surface evaporation, and the analysis of temporal and spatial distribution pattern, the results of information in water resources, meteorology, agriculture and other sectors have a comparatively good value (outcome).


6 Text


Is the core of the body of a paper, their level of academic standards of marking papers, or the extent of technological innovation is the main part of the paper. The general requirement is to be realistic, objective and true, complete and accurate and logical, structured, concise and readable.


(1) The body of the writing requirement


① theoretical papers.
With the theoretical analysis or the calculation and analysis to prove the point the correct papers. For the study an accurate description of the factors quantitatively revealed the relationship between the writing method, used for example, reasoning, evidence to the contrary, analogy, contrast, causal analysis, reductio ad absurdum and so on. Writing requirements, should be clear and the only argument, arguments, sufficient and necessary level of clear, reasonable structure, strong logical thinking.


② experimental papers.
Experiment is to achieve a new scientific discovery of a means. The content of their papers generally include theoretical analysis, experimental materials, methods, experimental results and analysis sections. In his discussion of experimental materials and methods section, should the material source, nature and quantity of the experimental use of instruments, equipment, experimental conditions and test methods made clear, the purpose is to enable others to repeat the operation to conduct the same experiments to verify your new discoveries of the correctness and reliability.


③ experimental papers.
Testing is relatively technical in terms of technical measures for the settlement or validate the feasibility of service. Writing the contents of the general purposes, including testing, that is to solve the problem or verify, test methods, test results and analysis.


② ~ ③ type of paper writing the body of research questions should be the logical relationship to write, experiment or test should not be the time to write the order.


④ innovative technical papers.
Natural based on the theory and application of latest achievements in natural sciences to achieve technological innovation, or the use of existing theories of science and technology and their own practical experience delivering technological innovations, the formation of the paper (these papers are more prevalent). Simple version: "Gray System Theory in drought analysis."

The content of their writing generally include theoretical analysis, it is the application of scientific theory or principle, the results of research and practice of verification. Presentation will focus on the body of theoretical analysis, but also where the value of academic papers. As the technology research with a clear purpose, therefore, technical papers emphasizing its practicality in order to prove the correctness of theoretical analysis and technical feasibility. (Technical emphasize its economy and efficiency, so the results be proven and validated in order to prove their economic, social benefits, the use of effect size and precision.)

⑤ application of new technologies of paper.
Application of a new technology (processes, products, equipment), to solve problems encountered in engineering practice. And has achieved good economic and social benefits formed a paper, known for its technical summary. Simple version: "Total Station at (mountains) far (L) from the standard of measurement", "3S technology in Yunnan Province, the application of soil erosion investigation."

Their papers as writing, mainly in answering the question "Why do you want to apply this new technology," "how to apply" and "the result," three questions. The body of writing focuses on applying this theory to answer the necessity and feasibility of new technologies, as well as how to apply. For the application of improvement or suggestions for improvement can be written in the concluding section.


(2) the level of the body


Ideas and views expressed by the body is the most important part, to express clear, the body must be divided into several levels to write.


● Some body wrapped up into several paragraphs of, pay attention to a paragraph of only indicate that a central meaning.


● Some of the body is divided into a number of stratified subtitle statements, attention to the development and formulation subtitle Attention title as a subhead under discussion can only be around the subtitle to describe. Each subtitle should have a title, can not be that some leaders have titles, some without titles.


Stratified with the subtitle of the text, the subtitle of each layer are coded with consecutive Arabic numerals.
Coding between the two figures with the dot (

Work Plan