[Keywords] mode, Exploration, run, and their, insurance, science and technology,
A Risk of Science and Technology Insurance
(A technology risk
Technology risk refers to the process of scientific research and development, due to the limited nature of the uncertainty of the external environment, the complexity of the project itself, as well as research and development capabilities, a result of research and development projects fail, abort, fail to achieve the technical and economic indicators may technology risk stage transformed by scientific and technological research and development risks, results of risk and the risk of market applications three organic links which showed the risk of facing high-tech enterprise in R & D, production, sales, or other business management activities including key equipment risk of personal safety, loss of key R & D personnel, R & D abort risk R & D risk of failure, technical trading risk, liability risks of high-tech products, high-tech products export risk.
(B) The Technology Insurance
Technology Insurance technology risk in order to circumvent the above set of insurance on the theory of a science and technology research, development of new products or new technology industrialization, as a precondition to the failure of the insurance period, the waiting period without success the fact conditions of contract bargaining for the payment of the insurance of the insurance amount. Technology Insurance also can be understood as follows: tangible or intangible property related to the technological innovation activities of enterprises, human resources, should bear the financial liability to third parties, as well as innovative activities in the The expected results for the object of insurance by the insurer when the insurance contract, the insured event has occurred causing insured losses, according to the agreed payment of insurance technology insurance and general insurance compared with the policy, innovative, integration features.
Technology Insurance enables high input, high risks of science and technology enterprises and related activities in the event of a loss, make up lost funded R & D personnel in science and technology enterprises can effectively resolve the risk, financial instruments become effectively circumvent technological risk management a.
Technology Insurance main factors
(A) The Government of the support and guidance of the Technology Insurance
Insurance policy in science and technology and the resulting imbalance between supply and demand, government intervention objectively requires Government Technology Insurance support and guidance, establish a policy and legal support security system and government-led multi-stakeholder coordination mechanism operation of the platform, and then on this basis to establish the mode of operation of government-led market, insurance development (especially in its early stages of development, a key factor.
At present, China's science and technology insurance work is steadily Government Technology Insurance of theoretical studies and pilot practice confirmed.
(20 science and technology enterprises Technology Insurance
Enterprise market economy and technological innovation, scientific and technological innovation of science and technology enterprises activities dominate the enterprise technology innovation, facing greater risk, high-risk high-return characteristics of science and technology enterprises in science and technology insurance the inevitability of science and technology enterprises, scientific and technological innovation activities by the internal and external environment, the quality and level of development of a special insurance needs, and thus the number of science and technology insurance from the demand point of view, the structure, size, quality and technical level affect the Technology Insurance fundamental market factors and other requests.
Science and technology enterprises in the field of science and technology insurance as the insured to the insurance company payment technology insurance premiums, access to the underwriting activities of its scientific and technological innovation of science and technology enterprises in addition to the general needs of the traditional property-casualty and life insurance, with the increase of the innovation activities innovation status is increasingly prominent, including key equipment insurance, Casualty key R & D personnel, R & D aborted insurance, research and development of the risk of failure, and increasing demand for technical trading risk, high-tech product liability insurance, high-tech products export insurance technology insurance.
(C insurance companies supply Technology Insurance
Technology Insurance is a product of the combination of technology and finance, insurance company fit the financial innovations of the technological innovation of science and technology enterprises. Insurer Technology Insurance that insurance companies in accordance with the contract technology insurance premiums charged to the science and technology enterprises, and its scientific and technological innovation activity underwriting Payout losses caused by the technology risk covered.
Insurance companies with innovative technology insurance products supply general insurance products can not be guaranteed due to the higher risk of science and technology enterprises, professional, special risks of technology enterprises, the same time, the science and technology enterprises are usually smaller, shortage of funds, the conventional market insurance mechanisms can not promote the the insurance combination of supply and demand. need technology insurers strengthening the Insurance product innovation and its operational mechanism innovation Technology insurers should actively explore Technology Insurance work, innovative product content and business model external interaction score linkage, pilot, promote innovation and entrepreneurial risk of the science and technology enterprises to provide comprehensive insurance protection mechanisms.
(D intermediary organizations to promote the organization and implementation of science and technology insurance
Intermediary organizations is the special subject of the modern market economy, generally bear the related functions of the modern service industry and public services, the supply and demand sides communicate through a strong information support system, play a huge boost for the efficient allocation of resources and the value of the product role.
Technology Insurance innovative, complex, information asymmetry and other features only rely on science and technology enterprises and insurance companies respective capabilities and information, it is difficult to achieve both supply and demand effective docking and balanced. Therefore, has a strong information resources, channels and The role of the the configuration capabilities intermediary organizations stand out.
In our country, the administrative department of the public service of science and technology is often derived from science and technology intermediary organizations such as the Productivity Promotion Center, achievement transformation center, a specific implementation of government guidance technology insurance run division of specialized products, at the same time, as the insurance market insurance intermediary (such as insurance brokers the Technology Insurance docking of supply and demand and to provide a more efficient and comprehensive service.
(E other technical factors
Technology Insurance as one of the tools of financial innovation, has strong technical requirements for credit evaluation of the scientific and technological enterprises, technology risk assessment estimates Technology Insurance premiums determined, science and technology subject matter of the insurance and the design of the insurance, government subsidies objects and subsidies the development of standards, etc., need to be measured statistics and financial engineering and quantitative analysis techniques and models, so the appropriate knowledge and human capital base to become an important factor to affect the actual operation and running of the Technology Insurance.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
Technology Insurance operating mode
The policy is an important feature of the technology insurance policy insurance run in, the government can build technology insurance system through legal, administrative, fiscal and other tools for system supply and product supply, technology insurance policy business can also The provisions of the science and technology of insurance products to give fiscal support.
According to the extent and manner of government combined with the market, the mode of operation of the technology insurance, in theory, the following three:
(A government-sponsored, government business model
This mode, the Government's commitment to science and technology insurance products supplied by the government in person or business through its subsidiary bodies.
Market environment through the establishment of science and technology insurance company or technology re-insurance companies, the cost of all operations Technology Insurance of government, Over Payout, etc., in order to ensure that reserve accumulation and long-term stable business. So, the government not only carry out macro intervention, providing institutional policies, but also to participate in the micro-business management, both referees and athletes Therefore, the government-sponsored, government business model is a technology policy most insurance run mode.
Government involvement in the operations, implementation take own business or the establishment of a scientific and technological way of insurance companies, in conjunction with the insurance company, the technology choice of insurance products and efficient allocation of common as the supply main and specific organization-oriented science and technology enterprises.
During operation, the special fund set up by the government to provide all of the costs of the operation of a technology insurance Payout ratio to ensure that reserve accumulation and long-term stable business.
[Keywords] mode, Exploration, run, and their, insurance, science and technology,
(The two government-sponsored agency business model of commercial insurance companies
In this mode, the Government Technology supply of insurance products, agency management entrusted to the commercial insurance companies.
Insurance policies provided by the government and agency costs, commissioned operating experience, the viability of the insurance agents to insurance business, co-ordinate the collection of premiums and give Payout plot and I stored in the reserve, or delivery of the government, this process independently operated, independent accounting . This model the government to bear all the risk, insurance agents and companies only charge fees for agency, does not enjoy any other interests.
In this way, the government the technology insurance system supply, product design and supply to achieve, but does not participate in the micro business management, through the commission agent in the form of operations by commercial insurance companies. "Government-sponsored agency business model of commercial insurance companies policy center.
Government has introduced policies and systems, and to bear the subsidy funds and agency fees, guide the science and technology enterprises involved in insuring commissioned a commercial insurance company agent technology insurance business at the same time, by the insurance company is responsible for the specific operation, such as co-ordinating the collection of premiums and give Payout and surplus stored in the reserve or delivered to the Government.
In this model, the government is not involved in specific business management, to achieve a market-oriented operation to a certain extent, but the government also assumed all the risks.
(C) under the government-led market mode of operation
In this mode, the government system supply and insurance designed to provide financial subsidies or tax incentives and other support, but the supply of insurance products (supply and supply numbers by commercial insurance companies decided how insurance companies operate independently under the guidance of the market mechanism, self-financing, the government does not undertake any market risk.
In this way, the government-led market "mode of operation, the government behavior away from the the market microstructure run distance play design and guiding role; insurance companies operate independently, self-financing, rights and responsibilities effectively match guarantee insurance company products supply of enthusiasm and effectiveness.
Technology insurance under the guidance of the government, through the operation of the market, supply and demand docking and balanced, and science and technology enterprises (or science and technology enterprises and insurance companies (or insurance brokerage firm technology insurance products by means of contract is a contract and market price signals, select and effective configuration.
On this basis, relying on science and technology intermediary Productivity Promotion Center, establishment of the Science and Technology Department, Insurance Regulatory Bureau and the Department of Finance and other government departments, as well as science and technology enterprises, insurance companies, insurance brokerage companies, banks, venture capital and other multi-main participation coordination and cooperation mechanism in the group, as well as auditing, finance, science and technology, OCI department coalition regulatory system.
The establishment of an innovative country and the transformation of economic development mode needs to support the power of scientific and technological innovation, technology risks facing technology insurance financial innovation tools to circumvent and dispersed.
Technology Insurance the technology financial activities with innovative policy features, which determines the special status of government guidance in science and technology in the insurance run. Policy position premise, the government is not only involved in macroeconomic policy decisions, sometimes directly management activities involved in micro-management., based on the extent of government intervention and market, the mode of operation of the technology insurance, in theory, the following three modes: "government-sponsored, government business model", "government-sponsored commercial insurance company agent business model "and" government-led market operation mode.
China's reform and opening up, the practice of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, the market economy, technology, finance, and the system should be read in conjunction with the basic conditions and the environment to adapt technology insurance development model.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com