On the track and field athletes physical and mental qualities of training

Paper Keywords: track and field athletes physical mental quality training

Abstract: In athletics, the athlete's physical and mental qualities of movement completed quality and the ability to obtain good results of the game plays a decisive role, athletics training, it is necessary to strengthen the athletes' physical fitness training , but also strengthen the psychological quality of training of the athletes.

A physical fitness training

Strength training strength quality basic physical fitness of the human body is the basis for all sports activities and various sports activities are the force generated by the contraction and relaxation of the muscles pulling bones exercise, running, jumping, investment other sports are inseparable from the power of the quality of strength quality is good, necessarily control the ability of the body, joint stability, fatigue occurs late in the course of the campaign, can significantly reduce the incidence of injury, so it is in the prevention of sports injuries plays a key role. sprint, prone to share in the long jump and hurdles sports Muscle Injury, which is mainly caused by femoral group of muscle strength is weak and often training and do not have to attach importance to, so femoral group of muscles in peacetime training, increase strength training, muscle damage that can substantially reduce the femoral group.

Balance ability training body balance by the vestibular analyzer to control, such as the displacement of the body, the ups and downs, rotation, acceleration and spatial location. Limb balance mainly controlled by proprioceptors, such as the completion of the course of action control of limb position; running bumpy the whole, but it will not fall, will also sprained ankle, precisely because of the precise control of the proprioceptors, but in the injured joint or muscle health after an injury, due to some anatomical relationship changes, such as the organization of the tear, destruction the proprioceptors devices and their functions will be bad, thus losing the precise control of limb position, again easily cause injury, this part is easy to overlook, therefore, training process, we must pay attention to balance the ability of the training, the event of injury, in addition to functional recovery training, must also balance the ability to recover training.

Endurance training. Athletics injury, chronic injury and strain the most common, especially in long-distance projects should pay attention to some damage will not let athletes stop training, but it is precisely because most athletes are in such cases persisted in training, so difficult to heal chronic injury and strain occur after the accumulation of long-term training. middle and long distance due to the knee prolonged repeated flexion-extension, the iliotibial band and slide back and forth back and forth, with repeated friction between the femoral condyle easily lead to lateral knee pain syndrome, can also cause the tibia and fibula fatigue the periostitis and even fractures; marathon athletes lateral knee pain syndrome often occurs tibialis anterior muscle tenosynovitis and toes crush injury Modern research shows that the system ground joint and muscle strength, endurance training is very effective in reducing these injuries will appear at the end of the endurance training, muscle aches, stiff phenomenon, which may be increased due to fatigue the muscle the feelings systems (muscle spindle) excitability, so that is strained muscles in a long time soreness or stiffness state, this rigid if not timely elimination, you can gradually accumulated to develop into a chronic soft tissue injury. should make some adjustments in order to relax the muscles at the end of each endurance training : toes, twist go, relax and swing arm, kicking the heartbeat, breathing calmed down, so that the dispersion of blood to the body, which is of great benefit in the prevention of chronic sports injuries.

4. Sensitive and coordination training. Sensitive the Coordination qualities are more complex qualities of movement, motor skills and qualities and overall performance in sports activities. Improve dynamic stereotype of the motor cortex and neural processes flexibility to complete the movement skills, motor coordination and stable and highly automated, flexible performance in the activity and labor-saving. sudden changes in environmental conditions, but also need to create a new action to adapt to the new conditions, which requires the functional activity of the nerve center and analysis highly developed comprehensive ability to quickly make judgments, and act decisively to the completion of the new action. athletics, uncoordinated mismatch of the upper and lower limbs, active muscle and passive muscle uncoordinated, breathing and forced uncoordinated and human and equipment etc. are caused by muscle strain. sensitivity and improved coordination can increase stress and ability to protect themselves, thus effectively reducing sports injuries, for example, in projects such as the long jump, high jump, pole vault landing process normal landing position, but if the sensitivity is better coordination can be quickly adjusted over, landing in the security posture. reposted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
5. Flexibility Training Flexibility quality training track and field sports injury prevention important qualities. flexibility including joint activities of the amplitude and cross joints of muscles, ligaments, tendons, skin stretch resistance, range of motion, muscle stretching poor leading to sports injuries is an important reason. enhance flexibility exercises can improve joint and muscle flexibility, improve central nervous system regulation against muscle coordination and the tension and the ability to relax, thereby reducing sports injuries. Flexibility Training must be static and dynamic binding, static exercises too long dynamic exercises, the ligament is stretched, muscle recovery time is inadequate, not only can not achieve the purpose of the exercise, but also may cause the joint is loose or muscle relaxation, flexibility exercises must be supplemented kick, kick In addition, the flexibility and power of peacetime training must be combined, especially after strength training should be a special stretch exercises to help the recovery of muscle fatigue.

Second, the psychological quality training  

Self-awareness and self-knowledge is subjective self of objective self-awareness and evaluation, self-awareness is the awareness of their own physical and mental characteristics, self-evaluation is to make some judgment on this basis. Correct self-evaluation, mental life and behavior of the individual. individual estimated with others in society of their own objective evaluation of the distance is too great, it will make the relationship between the individual and the people around them out of balance, contradictions, and long-term since, will form a stable psychological characteristics of complacency or low self-esteem, will not be conducive to the healthy growth of the personal psychological.

The self-evaluation self-evaluation is the main ingredient and the main indicator of the development of self-awareness, is generated on the basis of the understanding of their behavior and activities, through social comparison. Are mostly due to the ability of our self-evaluation is often not too high, too low, too high type. Therefore, in order to improve our self-evaluation, you should learn to compare with peers, by comparison to evaluate, you should also Society with the evaluation of others to evaluate themselves and learn to evaluate themselves into two perspectives. 
3. Self experience. Self-experience is the main understanding heart and caused emotional experience, subjective objective I hold some kind of attitude, such as self-confidence, low self-esteem, self-esteem, complacency, guilt, shame, self-experience are good self-experience to contribute to the development of self-monitoring.

4 self-monitoring. Self-monitoring their own control of their own behavior and ideological speech, manifested in two aspects: First, launch the role is to stop the effect, that is to dominate a particular behavior has nothing to do with the behavior or hinder the behavior, behavior self-awareness, self-experience training aimed at self-monitoring, and to regulate their own behavior, so that actions are consistent with group norms, in line with the social and moral requirements, adjust their own understanding by self-monitoring activities, improve learning efficiency.

References:

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[2] Li Xuefeng quality education in college track and field teaching [J] Yuncheng University, 2007, (2).
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[4] the Constitution of the road. Track and Field Teaching Situation and Reform of Physical Education in Universities in Shaanxi Province explore [J]., 2010, (3) Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

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