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Post Time:2011-12-23 11:33:00
[Paper Keywords] operations research teaching reform of teaching content
[Abstract] This paper On the contents and characteristics of operations research, and teaching content and teaching methods of its improvement were discussed.
Application of operations research is a highly interdisciplinary, the main object of study is management, the basic tool is the mathematical study of Operational Research is also known as management science.
Operations research originated in the 1930s, is generally considered the application of operations research from the military department of early World War II began. Operations Research now has formed a relatively complete system of academic disciplines, and in the socio-economic aspects have a wide range of applications such as military, energy, ecology and environment, transport, urban planning, education, industry, agriculture, commerce and other systems are used in a variety of operational research approach to planning and management in recent years, due to the rapid development of computers, operations research able to solve larger, more complex problems. With the extensive application of operations research, operations research theories, methods, constantly enriched, and the formation of many branches of operations research.
Based on the above application of operations research and development trends, a brief introduction to operations research content and features, and operations research focuses on teaching content and teaching methods of reform.
First, the content and characteristics of operations research
1. The contents of the Operations Research
In general, operations research can be divided into planning theory, decision theory, stochastic theory which planning theory, including linear programming, nonlinear programming, goal programming, dynamic programming, etc., mainly to solve the optimal use of resources and configuration, the best route the determination of nonlinear systems optimization problems. Decision theory, including game theory, decision theory, graph and network, network planning and technology, mainly to solve the management of a variety of complex decision problems. Random field theory, including more extensive, such as queuing theory, storage theory, simulation technology, as update order theory, reliability, and quality management branch, it is mainly to solve stochastic systems, fuzzy systems and uncertain systems of complex issues. Thus, operations research is a lot of branches, methods and applications of a wide range of disciplines.
2. Characteristics of operations research
(1 Operations research is a discipline based on mathematical Operational Research is actually a mathematical method, under certain constraints, the optimization problem with certain goals, such as economics, management and defense departments in the external environment constraints under the rational allocation of human, material, financial and other resources. It is the full use of mathematical tools, the actual complexity of the system as far as possible quantify the problem and realize scientific decision-making. (2 development and practical application of operations research are closely related.
The produce origins in military operations research problems, then gradually form their own theoretical system, and was applied to the social, economic, industrial, agricultural and other fields.
(3 Operations Research is an interdisciplinary Operational Research in the development process, to absorb the results of many other disciplines, such as systems engineering, management science, computer technology and other disciplines, ideas, methods and techniques, constantly enrich the content of their own, form a more perfect the edge of the disciplinary system, and many disciplines have become increasingly close relationship.
(4 growing field of operations research in recent 20 years, with the development of computers, there have been many new branch of operations research and new algorithms, such as planning theory of stochastic programming and fuzzy linear programming planning and some of the new algorithms, decision support systems and expert systems, MRP theory, simulation techniques, genetic algorithms, etc. are accelerating to expand their operations research applications. (5 operations research to promote the development of many related disciplines.
In the past, operations research applications generally confined to the military, industry, agriculture and other sectors is limited, but gradually extended to the social, cultural, and service areas, such as ecology and environment, urban planning, service industry, education sector and other systems use various methods for quantitative operations research planning, these sectors continue to absorb the ideas and methods of operations research, the qualitative and quantitative, and scientific modernization .
Second, the reform of teaching operations research
1. The need for reform of teaching operations research
As with the above-mentioned operations research content and characteristics of domestic and foreign universities, many faculty will be compulsory as operations research, operations research has become the core of university management class based courses and other courses, but our logistics offered by tertiary institutions courses, its cumbersome, outdated teaching methods, it is difficult to adapt to the rapid development of disciplines and application needs, so must the university teaching of operations research content and teaching methods of reform.
(1 because of the rapid development of operations research, branch content, more and more emerging new theory and algorithms, so the content must be taught some trade-offs. Choice of the standard should be placed to help students way of thinking, analysis and application ability and improve, and solve practical problems of significance, in follow-up courses use more content, that is, in practice, to the more commonly used as a standard. (2 because of a variety of applications of operations research, expanding the scope to adjust the content of operations research and reform.
(3 other high-tech with the development of computer technology, more and more advanced teaching methods and rich, especially the derivation of such a theory as complicated operations research, all the computational complexity, but should use the advanced teaching methods and methods to improve the efficiency of teaching, that teaching methods should be to reform the current.
2. Operations Research of reform (1) According to the application of Operations Research survey of operations research branch of the adjustments and trade-offs.
Different era, the application of operations research in different 20th century sixties and the seventies began to spread and Operations Research is a period of rapid development , application of operations research during this period is the sort of mathematical programming, queuing theory, decision theory, storage theory, network planning techniques, reliability theory, etc. Most of our current teaching is basically formed by the above system of the sort and arrange the content. For example, the use of more extensive operations research materials <<Operations Research>> (Tsinghua University Press, 'Operations Research tutorial>> (Tsinghua University Press, are the main elements include linear programming, dynamic programming, graph and network analysis, network planning techniques, queuing theory, storage theory, game theory, decision analysis and other sections, but in the 1980s, and especially those 90 years, great changes have taken place in order, according to statistics, 90 order of mathematical operations research applications planning, statistical methods, simulation, queuing theory, decision analysis, stochastic processes, network analysis, modeling techniques, and the current artificial intelligence and expert systems are more widely used, so in the teaching process, in order to keep times and the need to solve practical problems, operations research branch of timely adjustments and trade-offs such as reduced hours of queuing theory, statistical methods and simulation techniques to increase the number of courses to ensure students keep abreast of the modern application of operations research and trends. (2 according to the application of operations research needs of each branch of operations research to adjust the teaching content.
Linear programming is an important branch of operations research is a branch of the most widely used, but specific instruction, on-line planning of many content, where the focus is on an important issue, therefore, in teaching, in maintaining system based on linear programming, shadow prices and sensitivity should be emphasized that the analysis of the content, because the shadow price is important in the economic analysis significance and should make clear the concept of shadow prices and the application of economic analysis in the actual linear programming model, its coefficient will often change as conditions change, these factors change and decision-making influence on the optimal solution more and sensitivity analysis and parameter linear programming approach is to solve such problems, but in current textbooks and operations research outline, not enough emphasis on these, and many teachers from schools when they ignore this part, this is not desirable . Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com(3 based on professional characteristics, emphasizing the application of operations research.
Management's main task is to apply various theories and methods of operations research to solve complex management question, therefore, should be in the teaching of operations research with special emphasis on the application of operations research, such as the practical problems of linear programming modeling, integer programming and goal planning and transport applications. stochastic programming and simulation techniques are introduced and described To emphasize the importance for students to combine theory and practice to improve their ability to solve practical problems.
(4 focus on the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods because many system related to technical, economic, psychological, preferences, and other integrated factors, quantitative methods to solve such problems alone is not enough. Should be commonly used in operations research and other non-quantitative methods and mathematical method (a combination of qualitative, it can solve practical problems. AHP is a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods as a decision-making of these seemingly simple and rough way, to solve some of the structure is not very clear, complex The problem is indeed a feasible and effective way for these new ideas and new methods in operations research teaching should give adequate attention in the process of teaching qualitative methods will be introduced to these students, in order to broaden students' the scope of application of knowledge.
(5 stressed Computer Simulation in the role of operations research in recent years the application of operations research problems has been extended to large areas of complex systems, such as large-scale energy planning, ecology and environmental planning, regional economic planning, and many other areas for such complex systems to establish a strict mathematical model, are more difficult to solve. using computer simulation to solve these problems is a very effective method. the use of computer simulation of the system, easy access to a variety of possible options and the corresponding performance indicators for decision-making services, although not a very accurate analog technology, it provides only a statistical estimate, not an exact solution, but a short time-consuming computer simulation, lower cost method for those who can not resolve problems can be solved Therefore, emphasis and focus on computer simulation in operations research in the application is very important.
3. The reform of teaching operations research
(1 to keep teaching the same rigor, focus on resolving the student's understanding and application of mathematical rigor is well known, operations research theory is true, but if one-sided pursuit of rigor, for the management students who accept the difficulties that may arise negative impact, therefore, in specific lectures, for the important theorems to rigorous teaching, for the minor to avoid the tedious derivation of theorems, but stressed that the content of these theorems understanding and practical applications, such as linear programming, the simplex method is an effective algorithm, the simplex method and the principle of duality theory should allow students to thoroughly publicize the need to make clear to master, because it is the basis of sensitivity analysis, while the sensitivity analysis, integer programming and other content emphasizes the basic ideas and applications, reduce non- the necessary mathematical derivation, obtained a multiplier effect. (2 through case analysis and discussion, and raise their level of understanding and analysis.
Application of operations research is a very complex subject, it has a rich practical cases, if the combination of these examples and teaching will be able to get a good effects such as dynamic programming is the study of multi-stage decision-making process to optimize a method, many practical problems can be turned into a multi-stage decision-making process, so to solve some practical problems, dynamic programming is often used, but in the teaching process found that students generally feel more difficult to establish the dynamic programming model, because for a real problem, how to determine the state variables, decision variables, state transition equation there is no general method to solve this problem, you can select a typical case, multi-organizational case studies courses Through these cases, students can learn how to correctly determine the state variables, decision variables, state transition equation. Case analysis is often used in advanced countries, teaching methods, have a good teaching results.
China also attaches importance to the teaching system and improve the organization of teaching cases. (3 in teaching, enhance computer applications.
Most of the problems of operations research algorithm is complex, computationally intensive, relying on manual calculation is very difficult, and the computer has a computing speed, accuracy, etc., it is an important tool to solve operations research problems At present, there are many computer software to solve operations research problems. Therefore, operations research problem into a computer model, is important in teaching, we must take practical problems into operations research model as a key to increase the use of computer software teaching the class so that students using computers to solve as soon as possible.
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Industrial Engineering, 1999 (4) 2 'Operations Research>> materials for the group.
Operations Research (third edition [M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2005 3 Hu Yunquan Operational Research Tutorial [M].
Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 1998 4 Man-Fung, etc.
Operational Research Tutorial [M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2010 5 Xie JX, Xue Yi.
Modeling and optimization of LINDO / LINGO software [M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2005 Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com