Abstract) The article discusses the problems facing the the Xilinhot pastoral areas of drinking water safety, the general idea and the measures taken to protect the safety of drinking water in rural areas.
(Keywords) pastoral areas; drinking water safety; problems; countermeasures
Problems faced by a pastoral areas, drinking water safety work
Poor water quality 1.1 in most parts of the main problems facing the city pastoral areas, drinking water safety work in most parts of poor water quality, according to the 2004 and 2007 Xilinhot Forestry Water Authority and the Health Bureau, two of the city's drinking water projects in pastoral areas of water quality test results show existing water wells in the city and most of the water quality does not meet the national drinking water health standards, excessive fluoride content serious water supply project in pastoral areas due to the constraints of the construction funds, low standard, the lack of water treatment facilities, drinking water and water quality is not guaranteed. The drinking water standard can not be effectively improved.
1.2 drinking water problems
Due to the shortage of water resources in some areas in pastoral areas, the population living very dispersed, resulting in many residential areas to the level of the water intake point from the larger, causing difficulty in drinking water.
1.3 water supply to ensure low
Drinking water projects built by the pastoral areas in the past mostly shallow, small pressure wells, tube wells, dispersed engineering, water supply guarantee rate is low, encountered continuous drought caused by falling water tables, drinking water problems will reappear.
1.4 lack of water treatment design
In recent years, although the pastoral areas of water conservancy infrastructure construction continued to increase, but because pastoralists living in our city is very fragmented, leading to individual engineering solutions to small populations, the short term is difficult to solve all the lack of water treatment facilities, and most of the drinking water project, the water quality up to less than the required standard, unsafe drinking water posed a threat to the physical and mental health of the people, so the safety of drinking water in rural areas people most concerned about this, the most urgent need to solve the problem.
Two pairs of pastoral areas, the water quality of the drinking water requirements
Guaranteed the safety of drinking water for people and livestock in pastoral areas, pastoral areas of water supply, water quality must be consistent with existing national << rural and pastoral areas of drinking water quality standards >>. Physical properties, chemical properties, toxic and bacteriological water quality standards, including the four broad categories of indicators.
The physical properties of water, including indicators such as turbidity, smell and taste. Requirements of the water quality of the human body without adverse stimuli from the senses.
The chemical properties of water including PH, total hardness, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, volatile phenols and other indicators. Exceeds a certain limit, the water red and black, odor, smell, and water to a boil precipitation for the water of life should not be the most commonly encountered in rural groundwater iron, manganese and hardness is too high, then the removal of iron and manganese measures need to be taken.
Harmful substances, including fluoride, aluminum, arsenic, cyanide and other toxicological indicators of water exceeds health standards will cause harm to humans., Excessive fluoride content in the water unsuitable for drinking water purification treatment must be carried out.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
3 general idea to protect the safety of drinking water in rural areas
3.1 by playing deep well drilling wells in the no shallow water areas available to solve the safety of drinking water in rural areas, although the cost is very high, but herdsmen can effectively improve drinking water conditions.
3.2 installed water purification equipment
According to the results of the census of the pastoral areas of water quality in our city, the region exceeded the water quality of existing water wells to improve the quality of drinking water by installing water purification equipment, ensure the safety of drinking water of the herders.
3.3 funds from various sources
Economic capacity building water projects herdsman, funds from various sources, and the principle of "emergency relief after the first, easy things first, and gradually solve the problem of drinking water problems.
3.4 the relocation
Water scarcity, unable to build a regional water projects, the implementation of the relocation, and to improve their living and production conditions.
4 The main measures taken
4.1 engineering measures (1) enhanced the scientific nature of the drinking water project planning and design. Drinking water projects from planning and design to the overall aspects of the construction of the building, not only to the water supply level of assurance and full evaluation, and in conjunction with the environmental characteristics of the water supply area, industry structure and water status quo, the vision of development to assess the works. regardless of project size, must be in accordance with the overall plan to strictly enforce the system approval and acceptance of the project construction.
(2) construction of pastoral areas vigorously centralized water supply, good water conditions, the relative concentration of the living, the construction of centralized water supply project, not only can greatly reduce construction investment, but also can make a project to play a larger project benefits.
(3) live in scattered, the more difficult areas of regulation and storage of surface water, development of deep groundwater pastoralists water.
(4) to establish and improve the water quality monitoring systems, construction of additional water treatment and purification equipment.
4.2 Non-structural measures
(1) of prevention and comprehensive management of water source protection combined with water treatment, in particular, to strengthen the protection of drinking water sources, and strict monitoring of chemical fertilizer and pesticide use near water sources to prohibit the development of high-polluting industries, to prevent and gradually reduce the pollution of drinking water sources in pastoral areas, so that the people drink clean water.
(2) fund-raising measures. Drinking water safety engineering point over a broad area, is not enough to rely solely on the limited financial resources of the country. On financing the implementation of small-scale water conservancy reform of property rights from the start, in the flow of property rights, on the basis of pluralistic structure, to broaden financing, financing channels, the shares should actively develop cooperation, joint office water; big to take the lead, private office water; auction transfer, scroll to do water; lease contract, raising the water to the water; loan financing, debt to do water five financing do water ways, drinking water projects to ensure adequate investment under the premise of clear property rights, Right and Interest consistent, good run .
(3) the price of water control measures low supply price of drinking water projects, is one of the important factors restricting the normal operation of water supply projects, it is necessary to reform the current price of water supply management policies, the implementation of the insurance reserve price, cost and excess water price distinction enough the amount of charge of policy, the drinking water project paid water, water, water for gradually moving toward a virtuous circle.
(4) management and supervision measures. Reconstruction light tube has long been a lack of effective solutions, to ensure the safety of drinking water, in order to ensure the continued effective use of drinking water projects, and must take measures both from the ownership of the project from the fundamental operations strengthen management rights, etc., should strengthen supervision departments, service management functions, but also appropriate from the capital and other support, the only way to ensure sustainable use of drinking water projects in order to ensure the safety of drinking water of the pastoral areas of human and animal.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com