Abstract: solve the problem of safe drinking water for rural residents is an important part of building a new socialist countryside.Tianjin Jinghai County Water around the floods, droughts and people, people and water from the water management objectives, to explore a new model of centralized water supply in rural areas contiguous: Science planning, standardized construction, enterprise management, professional management, and growth of the water industry's own industry, the urbanization of rural water supply in the rural county within.
Keywords: rural drinking water; centralized water supply; Tianjin
Jinghai County, water is the source of life, is the basis for human survival, access to safe drinking water is a basic human need, let everyone get safe drinking water is the common aspiration of mankind for the majority of the rural masses and township residents to provide a safe, convenient drinking water, is the inevitable requirement of social development, is an important part of building a new socialist countryside, and help to promote social and economic development in rural areas, improve the quality of the rural population, stable social order in rural areas.
A rural drinking water status quo
Jinghai County is located in the southwest of Tianjin, east Dagang District of Tianjin is adjacent to the northeast across the sea Duliujian River and West Tsing District, remaining to Hebei Province, Zhu City surround have Daqinghe, River Duliujian, Ma plant by the river through the whole territory, the county has a total area of 1 414. 9 km2, jurisdiction over 16 towns and two townships, 383 administrative villages, with a total population of 55 million people, the rural population of 44.7 million people.
County addition the the county five streets and surrounding Dongwuli, Hu homes Three Mile Daqiuzhuang four streets and counties as well as units of water for drinking water company in Tianjin, the other villages are County Water Authority building concentration water supply plant for the water. villages laying of water pipelines, and households to install water meters, centralized water supply plant to a constant frequency by ozone disinfection 24 h all-weather high-pressure water supply.
The county has 30 centralized water supply plant, water supply, 355 villages, water supply a population of 41.7 million people, to achieve full coverage of rural centralized water supply project.
The development of rural water supply project, the planning and the effectiveness of the development of the water supply project of 2.1 after the founding of New China the people are the masters, collective find water, dig wells .20 1950s and 1960s, the broad masses of the people from Doi or ponds, ditches within fetch water, pull the water to eat, drinking water, poor condition of some water sources 2 to 3 km away from the village, the people's production and life is very convenient.
Sinking Technology popularized in the 1970s, the village after another hit the water dispenser well, -80's the end of the 1970s, the village has a deep motor-pumped wells as sources of drinking water, have also begun laying water supply pipes, the machine well water directly to households. Although poorly equipped , but improve drinking water conditions of the people. however, these water supply projects are managed by the village village committee, there is no appropriate management measures, the reconstruction of the light pipe phenomenon is serious, the village committee unable to funding its operation and management, not regular repair and maintenance of water supply system, not to mention renovation bad motor-pumped wells of some village village committee can not even pay maintenance, the villagers can only pull water to other villages, rural drinking water conditions caused can not keep up the development of the times, the contradiction between supply and demand is getting increased.
The turn of the century, seven, eight years of drought Jinghai County's severely depleted, Jinghai County, and there is no external water source, a sharp decline in the groundwater level, motor-pumped wells are drilled in the seventies and eighties of the 20th century structure well pipe, adjustable at over deep water well pumps reach of water, causing the card neck "motor-pumped wells scrapped by the end of 2001, the county has more than 20 million people in nearly 200 villages drinking water problems. County Water Conservancy Bureau in accordance with the" first life, after production the principles of the new hit motor-pumped wells 156, to solve the drinking water problems of 200 villages but the village is still fragmented, single-village water supply, water supply projects each village committee self-management, water bulls dispersed deployment management, some of the water supply scrapped facilities, the management system is not perfect, imperfect, capital investment in water conservancy can only play the short-term benefits, it is difficult to make a water supply project to achieve a virtuous circle, and play out the long-term effectiveness.
Water supply project exposes the following issues: (1) the original aging pipe network disrepair, severely corroded, "leaking" phenomenon generally occurs causing secondary pollution of the water supply in some areas, drinking water has far exceeded its total number of bacteria, a direct impact on the health of the majority of rural residents. (2) the lack of unified planning and management of water distribution network facilities. villages have been expanding with the increase in the number of residents, the water supply pipeline private ride random access, the diameter is too small to form a "strangle hold" phenomenon, explosion tube accident at any time may occur, combined with the lack of the old pipe network necessary to control the valve, pipe network an accident, resulting in most parts of the village or villages without water, a direct impact to the water supply. (3) water supply facilities, technological backwardness , water supply, energy consumption is larger, the higher cost of water supply. workover, repair the pump, the cost of the repair pipeline has become the economic burden of the village committee. (4) residents and businesses to install metering facilities, the county 90% village water charge. households living near water plants and trees in the courtyard, the water supply time for flood irrigation or water supply exports pass directly into the sewer long-term erosion, not only cause water waste, reduced water pressure pipe network, simply did not see the tap, and can only be installed in its own water mouth small pumps self-priming lift water again or to someone's home to fetch water to eat, the water is extremely inconvenient, and increase the burden of households living in the end of the pipe network. (5 ) due to the old water supply facilities, backward technology, high energy consumption, coupled with water charges less fees, part of the motor-pumped wells sick to run the county more than 95% of the village are limited water supply every day or every other day 2 ~ 3 h of water residents drinking water tank storage tank kept only inconvenience to people's normal life.
Combined with the county the actual face of the water management system the actual drawbacks and drinking water problems of rural residents, Jinghai County Water Authority, for the purpose to serve the grassroots of drinking water to the villagers for the work of the Centre, and to overcome the difficulties, to send engineers and technicians on the one hand to the field inspections, investigations, on the other hand went to the townships village, through discussions and town and village leaders understand the wishes of the masses of drinking water for rural residents the status quo and the majority of residents, in accordance with the development of large-scale, standardized construction, the operation of the market-oriented, entrepreneurial management, professional Management objectives and requirements, the preparation << township set water supply feasibility study report >> actively explore a rural centralized water supply project and construction management mode, to achieve unified management of water resources, optimize the allocation and improve the condition of drinking water for rural residents.
2.2 The water supply project planning
Jinghai County, built in 2006, the first five centralized water supply plant, water supply 30 village water supply population of 10 million people by the city's rural home renovation water pipe network policy Dongfeng .2006 early, prepared << Jinghai County, 2006-2010 rural the safety of drinking water pipe network home renovation project planning >> county rural planning for 30, 30 built centralized water supply plant, 355 villages 140,000 41.7 million people in the water supply.
2.3 the effectiveness of the water supply project
Jinghai County centralized water supply has been the cadres and the masses to accept, the enthusiasm of the centralized water supply plant in the township building in the village is also very high, with remarkable results.
3.1 to improve water conditions in rural centralized water supply project weather water supply for rural residents, improve the water conditions of the rural residents, the majority of rural residents improved drinking urbanization, rural residents livable environment, the standard of living has been further improved.
2.3 Rural Water Supply stimulating domestic demand, the revitalization of the economy centralized water supply works around the clock water supply, domestic water into the urbanization of rural residents, washing machines, solar energy, electric water heater is widely used in the rural areas, to stimulate domestic demand to revive the economy played significant role in promoting, at the same time to create a huge social benefits for other industries to create many jobs and economic benefits.
2 3.3 The implementation of the economic levers to promote water conservation centralized water supply project has changed the history of rural drinking 48 long-term welfare Water ", raise the people's awareness of water commodity, by the village past a water dispenser well, change 1 million to 2 million people a dispenser of 8 to 16 villages and even the 20 village wells, metering for billing. annual savings of groundwater estimated 30 county centralized water supply projects have been built, 6 million m3.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
2009 Jinghai County groundwater levels by 1990, 56 m down to 78 m, a drop of 18 m, the uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater caused by ground subsidence and other geological disasters. Daegu village Dafeng the heap, duliu and the surrounding Jinghai Jinghai County, three ground subsidence funnel area, ground decline of 80 mm annually. reduce groundwater exploitation is the primary means of controlling surface subsidence, centralized water supply project completion, the annual savings to nearly 6 million m3 of groundwater, conserve water, reduce the rate of land subsidence, annual county-wide groundwater extraction by 5300 million m3 in the late 20th century down to 4400 million m3 in 2010. shipped West King of mouth, along Zhuang ground water table has been effectively controlled, the ground subsidence average control at 20 mm or less.
3 rural centralized water supply engineering technical measures
Centralized water supply projects, breaking the administrative divisions and geographic boundaries on the basis of scientific planning, adhere to the cross-township, much radiation, the development of large-scale direction.
10,000 planning as the base, each at the water plant water ranging from 8 to 16 villages, water supply radius of 3 to 6 km, the premise does not affect the planning of towns and villages in the preferred good surrounding environment, convenient transportation, and lots of convenient location build a centralized water supply plant, an area of 2 500 to 4 000 m2.
New hit deep motor-pumped wells for the water 200 m3 reservoir built on the ground, laying 8 to 1 inch of high-quality the polypropylene water supply pipeline to the water supply village water as the center, pipe the network classification laying household walls outside, supporting for electrical facilities, installation of constant pressure frequency conversion water supply systems, water exports total installed control valve, the total water meter and remote pressure gauge, the total water meter and control valve installed in the village into the village on the main pipeline in each branch of the pipeline at the alley entrance or mouth floor install sub-control valve and 1.5-inch meter, household 6 sub-meter installed in the hospital around the clock water supply, metering and charging, the household terminal faucets design pressure of not less than 2 kg reservoir aqueduct network installation ozone The disinfection equipment be disinfected to prevent microbial excessive.
The design and layout of the water supply plant room using a plane, built bungalow of brick and concrete structure, including the distribution room, reservoir, office, lounge, warehouse, factory hospital surrounded by walls and perspective wall, door installed electric trackless titanium aluminum alloy folding door plant 24 h continuous Kong, install monitoring equipment at the door to ensure the safety of water supply.
Long-term planning of rural centralized water supply project
With the continuous expansion of the scale of construction of Jinghai County, centralized water supply projects in rural areas, while the benign operation of the centralized water supply plant, the County Water Authority is exploring the business model of the Group of continuous improvement construction technology, the introduction of state-of-the-art water supply equipment, into the village to village pipeline as the starting point, ready to switch the source of water supply in rural areas after the completion of the North Water Transfer Project, it will not only make the Yangtze River water flow to millions of households in rural Jinghai County, conservation of groundwater resources, control of land subsidence, water makes one management, unified allocation of water resources to be further enhanced.
5 rural centralized water supply engineering experience and enlightenment 5.1 experience. 1.1 adhere to the scientific planning, rational distribution, high standard construction of centralized water supply plant Jinghai County Village and more small, the relative concentration of the villages situated position taken dispersed combined with the concentrated form, developed a >> << Jinghai County to implement rural centralized water supply project planning program.
10,000 planning as the base, the county planning 30 centralized water supply plant, involving a total of 41.7 million people, accounting for 93% of the rural population, water supply radius from the original 3. 5 km expanded to 6 km through the construction of centralized contiguous water supply project, to achieve the rational development of water resources, improve the utilization of water resources, water supply engineering Water Industry Management road into the virtuous circle.
5.1 meticulously organized and strict management, to ensure the construction quality safety of drinking water pipe network home renovation project is a popular project, must adhere to high standards and high quality construction. First, to strengthen the leadership of the project construction, the establishment of engineering and construction leading group, organization and coordination of project construction., the Water Authority has established the Ministry of projects, specifically the work forward. third is to strengthen the management of construction projects in order to ensure the quality of the project, to develop a << rural centralized water supply project management approach >>. >> requirements in strict accordance with the implementation of the views of the "Tianjin rural drinking water safety pipe network home renovation project construction, the construction of the whole project is the implementation of the" six "system management, strict implementation of the construction process, the specification management of construction projects. involved in the engineering construction, publicity, and accept supervision by the masses. Fourth, under the supervision of the City Water Authority offices and county discipline inspection and supervision departments and projects department of engineering equipment and materials procurement through open tender strict selection of the construction team, strict quality engineering construction. strengthen the supervision and management of construction funds in accordance with the provisions of the << Tianjin rural safe drinking water pipe network home renovation project fund management approach >>, set up project special account. implement account storage, earmarking. Strengthen the supervision and management of project funds from the project construction began on the follow-up auditing to ensure the safe and effective use of project funds.
5.1 actively raise construction funds
Good financing is the premise of the rural centralized water supply project, the difficulty in financing the implementation of the self-financing of county matching funds and rural. Difficult in the county financially self-county matching funds to the Agricultural Development Bank loans principal by the Water Authority, the government subsidized; self-rural part way through "of a proposed" voluntary raise financing for labor, building villages bear the pipe trench excavation and backfill, responsible for the implementation of the water meter wells and gate valve well masonry to labor arrived funded.
5 1.4 implementation of independent accounting, self-financing operation mechanism for centralized water supply plant operating in the rural areas, and to ensure that the benign operation of the project, Jinghai County Water Authority established a rural water management station, the station to Juzhu section level institutions responsible for day-to-day management of the water supply plant water supply plant to implement enterprise operation and management, self-supporting, self-financing contract signed by the rural water management station and the contractor, the contractor shall annually depreciation charges and turned over to the tap water management station management fee, the remaining portion for electricity and maintenance costs, staff wages, management fees and expenses, the price of water in accordance with the principles of cost accounting, a reasonable return on, take the form of rural hearing hearing county Price Bureau, the price of water approved, reported that the county government approval to perform.
Specific water price standard: the living water of 2.20 yuan / m3, breeding specialized households with water 2.50 yuan / m3, government organizations and institutions with water to 3.10 yuan / m3 3.60 yuan, industrial, transportation, commercial, financial, construction water / m3, hotel entertainment water 4.60 yuan / m3, Special use 6.80 yuan / m3.
With the constant expansion of Jinghai County centralized water supply project, the Water Authority is exploring the group management model, powerful combination with the large-scale water supply enterprises, and actively implement the cooperative shares system, speed up rural centralized water supply to the market-oriented, the Group of the pace of development.
5 1.5 strict definition of water supply facilities, property rights waterworks built in accordance with the "who invests, who all" principle to determine property rights, specific management measures: water supply facilities alley entrance from the water treatment plant to the residents property owned by the Water Authority all , Water Authority is responsible for its day-to-day maintenance and management; property owned by the village water supply facilities in the alley below, related to the occurrence of the management and maintenance costs borne by the property owners responsible for water users. so clear property rights, accountability, not only conducive maintenance and management of water supply facilities, but also conducive to the improvement of management level and growth of the water industry through the construction of centralized water supply project, its own industrial the new the water conservancy fixed assets will reach 200 million yuan.
Water conservancy work is closely related to the livelihood of the people into account, centralized water supply in rural areas is a popular project to benefit rural millions of households. Rational development of groundwater resources, and production of domestic water for the majority of the people in rural areas to provide reliable drinking water safety and water supply to ensure Therefore, brings us the following three inspirations.
5 2.1 The centralized water supply project is an effective way to improve the quality of drinking water in rural areas and security through the construction of centralized water supply projects in rural areas, rural water supply from the daily limit water supply to the day 24 h of water supply, water pressure, water supply time guarantee, not only to solve the difficult problem of farmers Draft, and further improve the quality of life of farmers, washing machines, water heaters, solar is widely used, stimulating domestic demand, the revitalization of the economy, active in the rural market, promote rural small town residential buildings construction of rural living environment, living conditions and health status has been greatly improved, The village CunMao significantly changed. accelerate the pace of urbanization in rural areas.
5.2 2 a centralized water supply project is out of the water conservancy grab water conservancy, water affairs on the basis of a profound experience to practice, to grasp the construction of a centralized water supply in rural areas, can speed up the water industrialization process, the Water Conservancy new economic growth point, At the same time, also lay a solid foundation to accelerate the integration of water management. By centralized water supply projects for the construction, management and operation, we basically worked out a path for the development of rural water supply in the county, initial establishment of a rural water supply management model, and achieved a certain economic benefits, by the recognition of the broad masses of cadres and people in rural areas and support.
5. 2.3 centralized water supply project construction is rural drinking water the way the time changes in the implementation of rural life with water from the "welfare of water" to changes in commodity water's have a certain degree of difficulty, individual cadres and masses of enthusiasm is not high. Want through propaganda launched, to unify thinking, enhance understanding. combination of national support policies and higher authorities at the same time, made it clear that the significance and benefits of the project construction, shift the traditional concept of water for farmers, to mobilize the enthusiasm of the construction of village cadres and the masses to participate in the project, and the smooth implementation of the project construction to create a good the conditions at the same time, but also increase the administrative efforts to promote and ensure the smooth construction.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com