Abstract: The Road is experiencing the most serious hazards of geological disasters, one of engineering and construction.
Papers Category:Science Papers
- Geology Papers
Post Time:2011-4-5 9:07:00
Often requires the construction of a highway across the landscape unit, will encounter a variety of complex geological problems, such as collapse, landslide, debris flow, karst, etc. special geological disasters. With China's rapid economic development, to meet the requirements of economic construction, it is necessary to prevent a timely manner.
Keywords:: highway engineering, geological hazards, prevention and treatment
A common highway engineering overview of geological disasters
landslide: mainly in the slopes for some reason the rock under the action of gravity along certain surfaces or weak with the weakness of the overall downward slide of the phenomenon. The geological hazards in highway prone, easier to produce, reasons mainly because of its geological formation. collapse: steep slopes in rock and soil on the role of gravity from the mother suddenly falls down, rolling accumulation of geological phenomena in the foot of the slope. If the collapse occurs in the road, in fact, is very difficult to handle, will cause casualties. ground subsidence in the surface rocks, soil in the natural or human factors fall down and collapse pit in the ground formed a natural phenomenon. mainly by external causes can not mitigate their damage on the highway, and its great harm. unique in the mountains of debris flow is a natural phenomenon. It is formed as a band of precipitation a lot of sand, stones and other solid material conditions of the special torrent. mainly in the middle groove length asymmetry, uneven groove constitute or water to form a multi-level terraces and so on. is one of geological disasters in the common road. factors of geological hazards induced mainly due to mining of mineral resources are not standardized, reserved for a small pillar, causing the collapse of mined the mountain cracking, and subsequent landslides.
2, the common highway engineering analysis of geological disasters
There are many geological disasters road the impact is greater in the long highway with a simple measurement tools, instruments, devices and methods of measurement, monitoring disasters body, housing or structure fracture displacement monitoring methods. Commonly used monitoring methods are : buried pile. buried piles of geological disasters in the coming time, the most suitable for the geological observations. buried pile method is suitable for collapse, landslide occurred on the cracks were observed. fractures on both sides of the slope across the buried piles, steel tape to measure the distance between the piles, we can understand Landslide slip process. For the soil cracks from the crack can not be buried too close to the pile. This method is easy to test geological disasters to come. buried nailing. fractures on both sides of the building nail a nail, the nail by measuring the distance between the two sides to determine changes in the deformation of landslide slip. This method to determine the precursors of clinical disasters is very effective. painting method. two sides of cracks in the building Paint a mark on the painting, and buried nailing is the same principle, by measuring the distance between markers on both sides to determine whether there is cracks expand. patch method. cement paste cracks in the building across the piece or pieces of paper, if mortar piece or pieces of paper pulled off, indicating a clear landslide deformation, to be guard against. Compared with the above three methods, this method can not obtain specific data, however, directly determine the landslides can be very sudden change. in geological disaster comes, we used to test the above methods to prevent geological disasters to come. Landslides basic method of control is mainly a variety of support files, such as reinforcement, anchorage, load shedding, curing, etc.
, with a variety of water (surface drainage, underground drainage) project, the simple control method is filled with clay landslide or repair cracks on the surface drains. debris flow disaster prevention basic approach is to design and construction of drainage system to set the sound to prevent surface water infiltration, collapse pits were filled on the block have been processed to prevent surface water injection. because eliminate and reduce the hazards of surface water and groundwater often the occurrence of landslides and water are closely related to the role, the role of water is often the main factors causing landslides, therefore, eliminate and mitigate the hazards of water on the slope is particularly important, the purpose of is: reduce the pore water pressure and hydrodynamic pressure, to prevent softening and erosion of rock and soil decomposition, to eliminate or reduce water erosion and wave attack role. should establish risk assessment: risk factors through a variety of reflection into history hazard and potential hazard. based on historical experience to judge. hazard is already occurring geological disasters activity level, according to disaster activity intensity or scale of disaster frequency, disasters density, disaster hazard intensity. According to activities of more than forecast, reducing its risk. reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
3 on the highway in Engineering Geological Disaster Prevention
Highway construction quality management and safety problems in production: non-standard construction materials, management of scientific progress, the system is imperfect. In the presence of construction materials, road construction is not standardized and many other problems, is still a lot of gravel highway use is (especially in the rush period when a small sand and gravel from a variety of field collected, very irregular. need to build more roads because of the quality of highway damage occurs early Pavement, the highway should not reach its performance. that stone is often adapted housing and other construction needs or the needs of the general level of road, the highway will have with potential quality problems. because of their shoddy work, the quality simply can not be guaranteed. to finish the work, engage in gift, shoddy or layers of contract, withholding funds, cutting corners, no reasonable construction period. lead to slow period, so the quality can not guarantee the emergence of a number of reasons. lack of safety education. safety awareness is the key to security risks, many disasters have come from lack of safety awareness. and the current highway construction, safety education is one way, and did not form three dimensional safety education channels. lead to the production of many people fall in consciousness, low production capacity. imperfect implementation of oversight bodies. the whole body system is not perfect production safety supervision has become a weakness in many places can not form a provincial, municipal and county levels of production safety supervision system, can not provide for the safety and effective organizational guarantee. lead to reduced safety. How to combat natural disasters we have to do now, the main road is to minimize the risk of geological disasters. First, the first to establish a sound early warning system. the construction process and completed, should strengthen the side of the road Singapore and the mountain slopes of the inspection and monitoring. can be taken to fly the "warning signs", layout controls and other measures, a degree of forecasting and warning. on the eve of the disaster, there must be comprehensive measures to deal with impending disaster. Secondly, on the eve of the disaster, there must be effective measures for prevention. "prevention first, combining prevention with control, comprehensive planning, comprehensive management" principle, according to the weather and upcoming weather patterns and strong convective activity intensity, should be prohibited deforestation, Luancai digging or piling Dumping or other bad behavior, and more planting of trees to reduce geological disasters. Finally, on the imminent implementation of the road, we want to establish an effective system in the construction process, to According to the construction of the terrain, the terrain adequately consider the construction of geological disasters in the willingness to appear, reduce the maximum possible harm. to avoid the occurrence of geological hazards. In may cause geological disasters or hazards may be subject to geological hazard construction projects shall complete construction geological hazard. supporting the geological hazard or fail to pass without inspection, the main project into production or use shall not prevent the occurrence of geological hazards.
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