Gannan Tungsten regional geology and prospecting

Abstract: Gannan million located in South China fold system of the Yangshan - figuratively Zhuguangshan Long Wuyishan fold belt and fold belt. Paleozoic stage of an ancient Asian tectonic domain, Mesozoic tectonic stage is the Pacific coast. Tsung Yu Rao area is located million Yangshan - Zhuguangshan bend fold within the sub-thrust belt to the north east of the east wing compound syncline. area experienced a multi-stage intense tectonic movement, and almost every major tectonic movement of the magma has a corresponding rock formation, with multiple cycles of magmatic activity characteristics. regional magmatic rocks are widely distributed, from the Caledonian to the Himalayas since the different intensity of the multi-stage magmatism. in the rock types, the major rock types have different levels of distribution, which dominated granitoids, mafic rocks in the second. Yanshan granite intrusion height, and with the tungsten, tin, rare metal mineralization very close relationship. The cycle of movement of magma have different characteristics and metallogenic specialization. Mesozoic block frequent and intense tectonic movement and multi-stage magmatic activity, is conducive to tungsten, tin, rare elements such as precipitation and continued evolution of mineralization and magmatic evolution of the peak heights consistent with the district Yanshan tectonic cycle of the lecture is strongest, followed by a more invasive characteristics, and often the formation of some composite granite, magmatic differentiation and evolution of a more perfect is the main ore Yanshan granite rock, is looking for an important prerequisite for tungsten deposits.

Located in the south of jiangxi WanYang mount drape the extensive mountain bend so as to breakstubborn plait - and wuyi mountain long plait broken broken belt. GuYaZhou Paleozoic stage of Mesozoic tectonic domain, the coast of stage. Chung region WanYang located more than give - - the wide mountain mountain in fault depression plait subprime north to the entry to the east wing. Areas of experience and strong tectonic movement and almost every important crust tectonic movement, have corresponding magmatite, polycyclic magma activity. Widespread magmatic rocks, the area from the east to the Himalayan period since the intensity of the magma activity times. In the rock types, each big rock types are different degree of distribution, which dominates, class of granite rock type. Yanshanian granite magma intrusion activities, and with the tungsten, tin , rare metal mineralization is very close relationship. Each cycle of magma movement has different characteristics and metallogenic specificity. The Mesozoic frequent and strong fault block tectonic movement and many times for the magma activity, tungsten, tin, etc rare elements constantly separation and evolution of the peak, mineralization and magma evolution is consistent, the peak of yanshan period to tectonic activity, with the most intense speech more into the next, often formed some compound magmatic differentiation, granite rock relatively perfect yanshanian granite rocks, is also the important prerequisite for tungsten bed.

Keywords:: regional geological Gannan Tungsten ore indications of granite

Introduction: China Tungsten Mine in Jiangxi Province, the first discovered, Mountain West, Southern Jiangxi Tungsten ore mining is the earliest discovered. The deposit is a long history of mining, geological exploration and research higher degree, is a compound produced in the Mesozoic granite rock strains large wolframite - typical deposit of quartz vein type, has long been famous and widely rock scientists at home and abroad, scientists are concerned about the deposit. Xihuashan tungsten tungsten ore resources in China one of the important place of origin. deposit is located in Jiangxi Guangdong provinces over the junction of Ridge Mountains of Big Mountain, located in Jiangxi Dayu County North West Kowloon km. Gannan Tungsten is known the world are known, while the West Mountain Gannan Tungsten Tungsten is a typical representative of Based on the formation of Xihuashan tungsten discussions with the geological features, to simple Gannan Tungsten discuss regional geology and prospecting.

Regional geological setting Section

Xihuashan tungsten deposit (Field is located in Nanling rare in China - the heart of non-ferrous metal ore-forming domain, Gan Xinan Mazzoni - Big I - Shangrao (hereinafter referred to as W, Sn Chongyu Rao regions forming region, produced in the West Mountain - palm pit tungsten, tin with the southern end. deposits over areas where the Proterozoic strata and Lower Paleozoic mainly folds developed faults, magmatic activity frequently, tungsten, tin mineralization and development, especially in tungsten veins (tin deposits numerous and dense, is a high concentration of tungsten ore Nanling region.

First, the regional stratigraphy

Chong-Yu Rao stratigraphy and save still more complete, in addition to the Silurian, Lower Devonian, the Upper Triassic and Jurassic, but from the Sinian to Quaternary are distributed. Which are widely distributed in Lower Paleozoic , Upper Paleozoic and only found in Mesozoic and Cenozoic rift basin or depression zone. stratigraphic division of the system, using the <<Jiangxi Geological & Driver "> the results and added some of the large scale of the regional survey data. At the same time To illustrate the development of geological structures since the Mesozoic, also cited the neighboring regions on the Triassic and Jurassic data.

(A Sinian (Z

Mainly located in Ganzhou rift basin with pool between the river and lead plant faulted basin river basin, south side, and pool. In which the system is mainly distributed in the north, under the system exposed in the south.

Under the EC (under the Square on the applied group and the group consists of schungite, gray, thick layer of yellow-green slate and phyllite and phyllite-like shape composed of siltstone, sandstone more than change the folder layer, local features with outwash. Thickness more than 486-986 meters.

On the system (Tiger Tong group gray green, green, light gray layer varying in thickness of more than feldspar quartz sandstone and thin layer of thick slate, slate interbedded silty sand and siliceous rocks, tuffaceous sandstone and gray black tuff. in the vicinity of large Yuda Mei Kwan and nearly all of the system composed of volcanic tuff schist, phyllite and sandstone rocks. On the upper floor also saw changes andesitic lava and rhyolite porphyry, basalt change. top of the silicon was lavender or greenish gray rock. Nankang other places in the thick layered phase to a black marble and marble clip strip white, light gray thin cherts. thickness of 3,100 meters. Sinian sedimentary cycles significantly. rhythm clear, original stripes, bands or inclined layer structures are visible and form a class of flysch, southern Jiangxi oldest exposed strata. the unification between the two groups was Continuous deposition, the top of a more stable siliceous rock as a symbol, with the overlying Cambrian system was integrated contact.

(B Cambrian (

The region's most widely distributed formation, can be turned into upper, middle and lower three systems, the integration relationship between the excessive deposition was continuous.

Under the EC (Horn River to a more closed group of shallow - diarrhea Hunan class flysch and siliceous sedimentary rocks. Lithology is dark gray under the system, gray and black thick-bedded tuff and containing carbon more than change siliceous slate, folder change aftermath of the tuffaceous sandstone debris, silty slate, carbonaceous slate and carbonaceous cherts. have clarity in rhythmic layer, carbonaceous slate with pyrite nodules, siderite nodules and chert nodules Many sites were seen with stone coal, rich Protospongia sp. lithology of the upper part is gray, dark gray thick. like changing more than the hard sandy slate and hard sandstone and gray sand black like I tuff, dark gray to gray green silty slate and phyllite slate, and gray carbon-bearing chert, carbonaceous siliceous slate and carbonaceous slate, which often contain phosphorus, silica tuberculosis, rhythm and sequence deposited particle layers very clear structure, display typical turbidite features.

In the system (high-normal shallow beach group similar flysch lithology is gray green, thick layer of gray fine-grained feldspar quartz sandstone more than variable, changing more than the hard sandstone, tuffaceous sandstone and change more than one thousand of the same color slate, carbonaceous slate. slate in the level of micro-layer development, often has black and white particles often appear at the top of limestone. Homotreta sp production Acrothele sp and small, represented hingeless brachiopods fossils. thickness of 1747-2152 meters.

On the system (normal shallow water rock group similar flysch. Lithology is mainly gray-green feldspar quartz sandstone, arkose and variable than silty slate, slate cross. Slate development of micro-layer. Top Add a small amount of carbon-bearing slate, top of the development of unstable limestone or lenticular limestone.

(Three of the Ordovician (O

Mainly distributed in the large I - Mazzoni west line, can be divided into upper, middle, and lower system, which under the system were divided into two groups, each system, each group took the opportunity to transition relationships are continuous.

Under the EC (Grand River valley group, and seven or occlusion of the Gulf Ridge group similar flysch. Lithology is black thin - layered with carbon in the siliceous sericite slate, gray, dark gray thick - thick layer Green argillite, sericite, clip black slate and silty slate thin. graptolite production. thickness of about 1400-1530 meters.

In the system (Longxi occlusion group and the Jiang group is similar Gulf graptolite shale deposits. Lithology is mainly gray and black thin - in layered slate and silty slate gray, gray-green layer varying in thickness of more than feldspar and quartz sandstone, and dark gray in the layered chert, siliceous slate with thin layers of carbon-bearing sericite black slate, tuffaceous siltstone. slate development have long banded structure. yield graptolites glosscograptus hincksii nicholsoni diapason, etc. . thickness of about 169-694 meters.

On the system (rock group and the group lithology Pu Long gray-green slate and black slate silicon-based, bottom-up change over the gradual development of siltstone and sandstone. Graptolite orthograptus truncatus normalis production and so on. The thickness of greater than 263 systems -406 meters.

Missing in this area of ​​Silurian and Lower Devonian deposits.

(D Devonian (D

Only in this area are developed, the system, mainly in lead plants, such as synclinal basin Yoshimura, local scattered on the ridge on the left.
The system is mainly continental deposits, with high angular unconformity in the Early Paleozoic strata, they can be further divided into steep water group and Law Duan group. Steep upper part of the water for the purple shale, siltstone and sandstone interbeds, the lower white quartz sandstone, tuffaceous sandstone, conglomerate, conglomerate, purple, and gray-green shale folder and tuff, etc., the general thickness of 400-590 meters. LUO Duan group of mainly gray, gray purple quartz sandstone, feldspar quartz sandstone, muddy sandstone and dark purple, yellow, and green siltstone, shale and sandy dolomite, etc., 300-640 meters thick. The system protolepidodendron scharyanum platyphyllun sp production plants, as well as brachiopods emanuelle sp / ambocoelia sp, production of fish. In the north of the steep water and Mazzoni Brothers Shangrao pit area, the water group at the bottom of steep quartz or feldspar quartz sandstone conglomerate, the local section of ancient sand tin production has not yet found industrial deposits.

Shallow marine deposits on the system to the main field can be further divided into more than the bridge group and the tin mines group. I bridge group, the gray field to the thick layer of thin mica slate, gray to dark gray crystalline dolomite in the thick layer of gray matter, thickness of 248-350 meters. lithological tin mine to thick-bedded quartz sandstone, gray, dolomitic sandstone, calcareous siltstone and shale, folders purple, gray, grayish yellow silty mudstone and quartz conglomerate, thin or lenticular limestone, the thickness of about 387 meters. Upper Devonian brachiopods and capacity production plants.

(E Carboniferous (C

Lead plant is mainly distributed in the area basin, pool river basin margin fault there are sporadic outcrop.
Under the EC (Tsz Shan group in continental and sea-based alternative deposits, lithology is gray green, gray and purple in the thin-bedded silty mudstone, shale and siltstone and gray to black carbonaceous shale, calcium folder siltstone, impure limestone lenses, thick bottom layer of quartz conglomerate. in carbonaceous siltstone and carbonaceous shale containing siderite or pyrite nodules, coal unstable folder. production plants , in addition to producing corals. thickness of 90-150 meters. and was the Upper Devonian unconformity contact.

On the system (Huanglong group and shallow marine carbonate CHUANSHAN. Huanglong group consists of gray to light gray to a thick layer of thick crystalline dolomite, dolomitic limestone. Contained spindle fossils to fusuinella and fusulina most prosperous, thickness of about 290 meters. CHUANSHAN gray, dark gray thick layered limestone, crystalline limestone, dolomitic limestone, often near the top or spherical structure with Oolitic. producing bamboo pole, corals and so on. thickness of about 286 meters. Huanglong Chuanshan between the group and the continuous deposition of relationship, and the Huanglong Formation and its system was unconformity contact.

(F Permian (P

Plants exposed to lead only basin, under the EC group and the small river for the Qixia group, cloud forest on the mountain system is divided into groups and Dalong group.

System is mainly under the shallow sea or coastal carbonate deposition. Qixia group, dark gray, thick-bedded limestone, clip a small amount of thin limestone and chert nodules carbonaceous shale. Production spindle class. Thickness of 83-248 meters. Little River Group black carbonaceous shale, dark gray in the thick layered chert, tuff, argillaceous limestone lenses folder and calcareous shale and siltstone. production brachiopods. thickness variation, generally 40-135 meters. Qixia consecutive group of small river sediments and the underlying Qixia CHUANSHAN Upper Carboniferous unconformity was false.

Mainly on the continental system of land and sea-based alternating facies. Cloud forest mountain group is the one of main coal-bearing strata and lithology to the leaf-shaped purple gray siltstone, gray fine sand down to the Ministry, feldspar quartz sandstone increase folder carbonaceous shale and coal layers, siltstones often contain Ling iron tuberculosis. production plants are very rich. thickness of about 194 meters. Dalong generally siltstone, quartz fine sandstone and mudstone, often clip a small amount of argillaceous limestone, producing ammonoids. thickness of 12-23 meters. and cloud forest mountain group is a continuous deposition. Permian, and under the EC was slightly angular unconformity between or unconformity contact.

(G Triassic (T

Mazzoni left the area only in the river saw the Lower Triassic outcrops, southern Jiangxi Province in the Triassic sedimentary loss, Upper Triassic in the east of the region were seen in all regions.

Under the EC (Daye group mainly gray and yellow, yellow-green thin-bedded argillaceous shale, siltstone, and calcareous shale, argillaceous limestone interbedded with small, often developed near the upper purple, brown and red siltstone. Outcrop thickness of 195 meters. Integration and Upper Permian Dalong above.

On the system (no exposed areas Anyuan group. This group is not directly integrated with the Carboniferous CHUANSHAN above. As sandstone, siltstone and carbonaceous mudstone, siltstone and carbonaceous clip seam, the lower coarse quartz sandstone, folder
Carbon-bearing conglomerate and mudstone, coarse grains at the bottom of the sandstone and conglomerate with a thickness of 201 meters.

(H Jurassic (J

Jurassic no exposed areas.

(Ix Cretaceous (K

Located in Ganzhou, pool river, Whetstone rift basin, and no exposed Lower Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous is divided into groups and Ganzhou Nanxiong group.

Ganzhou group on the system purple, red sandstone, pebbly sandstone and siltstone interbedded with gray-green, gray, gray and yellow, and red mudstone, siltstone, some areas are basalt, tuff a rock salt, gypsum, brine, mud limestone, copper sandstone. production vertebrates and plants. thickness of 595-2406 meters. unconformity in the Cretaceous formation on the previous old.

On the upper part of the system Nanxiong purple, brick-red sandstone, siltstone and mudstone, clip a small amount of gravel and gray-green fine-grained sandstone, production and other vertebrates. Nanxiong in the lower part is purple, brick red to a thick layer of thick layer of gravel rock, gravel clip a small amount of fine-grained sandstone and siltstone, even clip celadon, yellow-green in thin-bedded silty mudstone, production gastropods, also produce medium-line classes, and production plants. thickness of 584-7300 meters. under and the integration of Ganzhou group relations generally or directly overlying the older formations and rock on.

(Ten of the Neogene (E

Distributed in the Pond River basin, mainly under the Tertiary Paleocene and the Eocene, Oligocene and not yet discovered Paleogene. Neogene terrestrial red construction.

, The Middle Miocene (brick red lion's mouth group, sandy mudstone, calcareous sandstone and conglomerate composition. Producing mammals. Thickness of approximately 128 meters. Nanxiong group under the integration with the contact relationship.

Upper Miocene (upper part of the purple pool of river sandstone mudstone, siltstone, mudstone of the lower layer of thick purple folder for the brick-red, gray-green calcareous mudstone and conglomerate. Producing mammals. Thickness of about 473 meters. With the lion's mouth group of continuous deposition.

Middle and lower Eocene (Ping Lake group is mainly purple, red mudstone gray-green or light gray, dark gray mudstone, calcareous mudstone conglomerate. Producing mammals and medium-line classes, Chara. Thickness of 118 - 239 m, no top. and the underlying pool of integrated river group was exposed.

(Xi Quaternary (Q

Distributed more widely, of which the mouth of Nam stone wedge - the distribution is more concentrated along the Don River, the main river and lake sediment types, all loose gravel. Gravel and clay, thickness variation. In alluvial or alluvial-phase production has tungsten, tin, sand Mine has some industrial value.

II. Regional structure
Jiangxi Province is located in the South China fold system of the southern Wanyangshan - figuratively Zhuguangshan Wuyishan fold belt and fold belt Long. Paleozoic stage of an ancient Asian tectonic domain, the Pacific coast of the Mesozoic tectonic stage is. Tsung million more than Yang Rao region is located Mountain - Zhuguangshan bend fold within the sub-thrust belt to the north east of the east wing compound syncline. area has gone through many cycles of tectonic movement, fold faults, magmatic activities between rich mineral resources.

Chong-Yu Rao areas Sinian and Early Paleozoic fold development, a close linear fold-based, in part for the same ramp overturned fold, fold axial mostly NNW - North west, near north-south or to the Near East. The district West on the otolith - Nie are mainly along the Ordovician, Cambrian, the complex composed of Sinian syncline, the axis of the north west to the north, south gradient for the northwest, there are two or less during the cross-axis horizontal Raising the end of the internal folds synclinorium considerable development, the general broad syncline, anticline narrow, west and south were destroyed by granite and fracture. The East Shangrao - Metro area for the Sinian and Cambrian composition anticlinorium, nearly north-south axis was anti-"S"-type extension of the West Wing generally overturned anticline complex, well-developed secondary folds.

Late Paleozoic strata area since the destruction of fault and intrusion, in addition to weathering and erosion, only remnants of the small syncline or fault among the mostly extending NNE or NW, a few showed EW. Late Paleozoic formation of the folds to the main type of spread, of which the oblique intersection of the central part of the steep water - lead smelter large syncline, from the Devonian to the next Triassic form, the axis from south to north from the NNE - SN - NNE was "S"-type extension, and early Paleozoic strata of the fold axis oblique, fracture failure of this syncline is the West Wing. In addition, there is thinking along the syncline, etc., most of the Devonian only posed.

Cenozoic basins in the formation and accumulation, mainly due to basement faults in particular the control of a large range of Ganzhou, pool river, Whetstone and other basins. Cenozoic folds in the basin is extremely weak, only the formation of some songs and bend gently fold the short axis. Basin and the shape and the extension direction of the development process, mainly by NE - NNE and EW trending faults control.

Chong-Yu Rao faults within the complex and diverse region, in particular the strong block in the role of the Cenozoic, forming a series of east-west, north east, north east and north west, north and south to the multiple fault zone, north of which East - north east, east-west fault zone is best developed, composed of the regional tectonic framework.

North East River fault zone in the region to pool the largest deep fault, for large I - South City part of deep faults along the fault zone and the hot springs and spill still the epicenter of basalt there, there are also a clear gravity gradient belt of gravity. deep river pool after a long and repeatedly breaking the strong activity, controls the formation of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary and distribution, but also control the intrusion of Mesozoic granites. Nghe An addition to the kiln, the higher the secondary north-east beach fault.

NNE faults in the fault zone of lead plant, is Mazzoni - Man On the southern section of large faults, thrust from the more than ten, crack parallel to the oblique columns, with a significant twist sit-line features, control of the late Paleozoic formation distribution and Whetstone Mesozoic sedimentary basin. and there is a similar lead factory fault on the north west of Fort NNE fault zone. Mountain in the north west region, sub-NNE shear and compression fractures with associated to the twisted crack NEE, North West - Photo NNW shear fracture is developed, the granite of the Yanshan and tungsten mine obviously control the distribution.

East-west fault zone is quite developed, to gutting - Nankang things to squeeze the larger fault, but the continuity is poor. Chongyi and large than in between the secondary faults from east to west, from south Long has the total population north of the Kowloon brain - Muzi Park, floating pond, left to pull out, five children cloud - brain, the Eight Immortals, the fracture was roughly equally spaced about 4 km there, on the brain, Kowloon, Yanshan granite and tungsten ore control action are obvious.

III. Regional magmatic rocks
Regional geological history, has experienced a strong multi-stage tectonic movements, and almost every major tectonic movements, have a corresponding formation of igneous rocks, with a multi-cycle features of magmatic activity. Regional magmatic rocks are widely distributed, from the Caledonian to the Himalayan of different intensity since the multi-stage magmatism. in the rock types, the major rock types have different levels of distribution, which dominated granitoids, mafic rocks in the second. Yanshan granite intrusion height, and with the tungsten, tin, rare metal mineralization very close relationship.

(A Caledonian magmatic cycles

Regional Caledonian Caledonian magmatic cycles of magmatic activity are frequent, and its distribution only to the extent and degree of development of Mesozoic magmatic activity, and has its own characteristics.

Caledonian cycle early, unless there is a widespread volcanic eruptions, the thermal power due to regional metamorphism, selective remelting - accountability, have occurred in migmatitic and granite of the role, there are mixed granite. To the cycles of the late Caledonian mixed magma contamination into the magma and lead to the intrusion of magma, the formation of granite contamination, and magma intrusion-type granite.

Chong Yu Rao mineralization in the area, mainly late Caledonian granitoid magma intrusion type, mostly small and medium rock foundation or rock line output, which typically Shangrao bunker.

Shangrao Shangrao county located in the west of rock, into the oval-shaped area of ​​about 100 square kilometers, with small rocks for the foundation. Rock the south, southeast and the northwest corner of the Cambrian strata and intrusive contact was a clear relationship between the thermal contact metamorphic phenomenon of apparent assimilation has a certain role in the north to the Upper Cretaceous rock group Nanxiong covered rock in the west side is steep water group Devonian sedimentary cover direct, more straight line. it implies the formation Late Caledonian period should be.

Shangrao mainly in the rock - in the coarse-grained porphyritic biotite granite, their edges as in the fine-grained biotite granite, often with a side account of the phenomenon and the worm-like net structure. The main rock-forming minerals: plagioclase, 20-30% 30-40% potassium feldspar, quartz 35%, 3-4% biotite, the main minerals are zircon, apatite, rutile, cassiterite, monazite, sphene, and allanite saw. rocks composition results (below the main chemical composition of rock Shangrao table (%



Cha chemical classification is Class 2 and 3 families that had saturated silicate-rich alkaline rocks. Dioxide content changed greatly, from 72.14-75.94%, the base of the group were low for the greedy rich silicon iron magnesium potassium rock. generally the entry of trace elements in rocks Sn \ W \ Pb \ Zn \ Cu \ Bi \ Mo, etc., where W \ Sn content higher than that of acid rock, on average, several times higher than tungsten.

Northwest steep rock in the water area of ​​Shangrao few small bunkers there, showing rock intruded into the tumor or branched Shangrao granite rock in the water as steep granite magma to form a deep part of Shangrao different granite intrusions later. Magmatic alteration late generally, the formation of large minerals and bubble-like gas into greisen. is the formation of late Caledonian magmatism in the product.

Muscovite granite rock is steep water, white or red meat microstrip, fine granite structure, the main rock-forming minerals and the average content: 20.4% plagioclase, potassium feldspar 41.5%, 34.1% quartz, muscovite 3.8% The main minerals are zircon, cassiterite, tourmaline, etc.. The chemical composition of rocks and Mesozoic granites are very similar mineralization with high silicon and low aluminum, poor calcium, iron, magnesium, titanium and other characteristics. trace elements in rocks W \ Sn \ Mo \ Be abundance is high, where W \ SN content of the average 16 times higher than the acid rock and 24-fold. that as the evolution of magmatic differentiation tend to improve, the relative concentration of ore-forming elements have a trend .

Links to free paper download http://eng.hi138.com

(B Hercynian - Indo-magmatic cycle

Regional Hercynian - Indosinian (Late Paleozoic - Triassic magmatism in the still controversial, has not confirmed the wide range of periods of volcanic activity, the formation of the lava, volcanic breccia and tuff, and also the base , acid intrusive rocks. while many isotopic age data suggest that the Hercynian - Triassic magmatism not only exist, but accompanied by migmatite and granite of the appearance.

According to many isotopic age data, combined with rock and other geological features output relationship, the preliminary view that the West over the South Mountain area of ​​the large gneissic granite, and the floating pool, large Yongsan, Luo back and other quartz diorite, mainly Hercynian - Indosinian magmatic product formed.


Dayu gneissic granite rock chemical composition table

Cha is a series of 2 classes in four subjects silica saturated alkaline rocks. Rock trace element tungsten, tin content is very high, Mo \ Bi \ Cu \ Pb \ Ag and other elements also have some content.

South of the Great Yu gneissic granite age division, there are two views: one that the late Caledonian vest, a rock that is Hercynian.
B. quartz diorite, diorite
Regional seen Hercynian - Indosinian quartz diorite, diorite more, but generally smaller and showed a small rock strain, rock or rock covered tumor-like output. Mainly exposed in the drift Tong, Tai Shan, Luo home back, Tong Ha, River Paper and other places, rock distribution of the North East or North West trending faults control the more obvious.

Yanyan Piaotang quartz diorite body larger, 1.2 km from east to west, 0.4 km from north to south, rock for the North West to the long axis of extension, under the small rock goes to a large funnel-shaped, invaded the south in the Cambrian the north and the Middle Devonian water group showed a steep fault then contact isotopic age 242MA, 253MA, 287MA. Piaotang hard rock of 5 kilometers back with them the same Luo quartz diorite intrusion in the Devonian steep water system group, and to the steep deterioration of water strongly quartz sandstone. can be seen, these two geological age of rocks formed more reliable.

Quartz diorite Piaotang major rock-forming mineral content (%: 40-50 plagioclase, potassium feldspar 10-15, 12-18 hornblende, quartz 5-10, 3-5 pyroxene, biotite, 5 - 20. minerals are zircon, apatite, magnetite, and minor ilmenite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, wolframite and cassiterite and so on. tin content of up to 60 trace elements, copper, lead contents were 30 and 40.

The main quartz diorite and diorite rock chemical composition of the body Yanyan list of features as shown above. Piaotang quartz diorite high silica content, is close to granodiorite class of chemical composition, K2O + Na2O total up to 7.72%, Fe2O3/FeO lower ratio, indicating the depth of the larger rock is formed under the redox potential of the.

(C Yanshanian magmatic cycle

Mesozoic magmatic activity within the region is extremely strong effect on the type of magma, the volcanic eruption and sub-volcanic shallow - the role of ultra-shallow intrusion, but also penetrated deep into the role of the speech. Rock types is quite complex, from spray plutonic rocks to class, from a deep source of magma intrusion in the basic rocks, and volcanic activity associated with a cause of acid rock, to the melting of the granite magma intrusion regeneration, etc., have different levels of development, which The distribution of granite is almost throughout the region, the scale ranging from rock foundation, rock strain, rock tumor and dikes. magmatic activity has the typical characteristics of multi-phase multi-stage, and often form a composite pluton, based on tectonic and magmatic activity characteristics, can be divided into three stages and the early Yanshan Yanshanian two stages.

Mesozoic granitic magma activity and tungsten-tin, rare earth and other minerals to form with genesis, is the region's most important ore-forming period.

West Mountain - palm pit belt range, Yanshanian magmatic activities are frequent, forming a multi-stage intrusion of the composite granite, some have been exposed to the surface, but most are still buried in the ground a certain depth, which the West Mountain granite strains were exposed in the largest range of multi-stage intrusion Yanshanian composite pluton. In addition, there are holes brain, Granite Peak and other tumors were rock output, with granite veins on the distribution of acid is more common. According to the deep drilling and tunnel project to expose data, has been successively in the floating pool, large Yongsan, Muzi Park, Xin son, ducks and other deposits in the brain found buried deep Mesozoic granite, which Piaotang porphyritic biotite granite, fine-grained K - Ar isotopic age 155.69_ +1.8 MA, speculated that the depth of each other in a certain trend has fused.

Concealed rock rock types are mainly of biotite granite, rock or top edge common with fine-grained two-mica garnet or muscovite granite, their edges are often a "side or the like pegmatite mass" or "cloud Ying Yan shell ", etc., and common aplite veins, pegmatite, and potassium, sodium of greisen veins of granite and so on.

The content of K-feldspar in granite buried more than plagioclase, and the microcline or microcline perthite-based, is rare feldspar, plagioclase feldspar mainly Ona, An is the general 7-13, and often a small amount of albite, less dark minerals, mainly biotite, content is generally below 5%, 30% quartz content and above. granites Vice
Mineral often wolframite, cassiterite, molybdenite there, and yttrium silicon beryllium ore and other characteristics of rare-earth minerals, and allanite, sphene, rutile, ilmenite. Magnetite content of little garnet and fluorite, tourmaline content of more, and sometimes the content of garnet minerals accounted for the vast majority of the total. granites generally have varying degrees of alteration from the account, often microcline petrochemical K Lord, this is the muscovite oriented, and albitization weak. these are all buried granite in this area to learn the common characteristics of the rock, but with different mineralization related to granites also have some differences.

Yanshan granites generally contain a higher abundance of Wu \ Sn \ Bi \ Mo \ Be \ Ta and other mineral ingredients, the tungsten content is generally higher than the average of 13-26 times the acid rock, these granite li \ Rb's content was high.

The common characteristics of Mesozoic granite, the formation of tungsten deposits in this area is important conditions, but also reflects a tungsten mine on the general characteristics of granite. But Yanshan granite rock between the characteristics and degree of differentiation and evolution there are certain differences , characteristics of mineralization and the mineralization intensity is different.

(D Himalayan magmatic cycle

Comparison of the Himalayan region of weak magmatic activity in the pool within the river basin, a large co-generation along, and there were rocks in the Himalayan tumor production of diabase, and the underlying Tertiary Paleocene river pool was intrusive contact group, and confining contact surface is very steep rock. The rocks are black, weathered yellow brown, with a porphyritic structure, plagioclase phenocrysts, pyroxene, stone base for the basic plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite and glassy composition. rocks of secondary alteration chlorite, carbonate, and saw a secondary calcite, and zeolite composition. The main content of oxides of silicon dioxide 47.04%, is sodium, iron base - ultramafic rocks class. and found a nickel mineralization.

In addition, along the pool Jiangbei East fault, in Jiangxi Au, collapsing under the other places Kong, saw a tumor-like output of granite rocks, according to the information reported may Himalayan intrusive, but the specific is unknown.

(E magmatic activity's role in the mineralization

A series of tungsten deposits in this area (points, both in time and space, or into mineral sources, are those with the Yanshan granite close genetic relationship.

Tungsten deposits in the formation of the time of each stage of the Yanshan granite closely follows, with the median age is 205-108Ma, the Yanshan tectonic - magmatic activity repeated strong, and its obvious many of mineralization, each time into mineralization in the mineralization intensity, characteristics of mineralization is also different (Chapter meet. Among the early Yanshan stage II and III as the main ore-forming period, with a median age of majority for the 175-135Ma. tungsten deposit (points in the spatial distribution, and Yanshan granite close companions, as long as the Mesozoic granite bodies found (including concealed the existence of granite, which can often be seen near the tungsten deposits (and vice versa.

Tungsten ore in this area and the granite, mainly biotite monzonite - alkali feldspar granite, its top or edge of the rock is often fine-grained garnet-bearing two-mica granite, and "like edge or masses of pegmatite" "greisen shell" and other development, with a super acid, alkali, poor dark components and other characteristics, are calc-alkaline rock series. granites generally contain W \ Sn \ Mo \ Bi other than the abundance of mineral components high, the abundance of rock at the top of W is generally higher than the average ten times more acidic rocks, and li \ Rb \ Ta \ Nb \ REE and other elements of the content is obviously high. granite, tungsten, ore-forming elements high abundance, is an important material basis for mineralization.

In addition, four major tungsten deposits in the area of ​​sulfur isotopic composition, two tungsten deposit of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition, carbon isotopic composition, are consistent with that material source of tungsten deposits mainly from granite.

The area has many cycles, multi-stage magmatic features, the intensity of Sub magmatic activities and methods related to different geological processes, the region from the Caledonian evolution of the Yanshan granite regularity is not obvious.

District Neijia Li East of magmatic rocks and Mesozoic granites is similar to the poor with high acid and alkali-rich dark component characteristics, they Hercynian granite is significantly different, especially Shangrao - steep water late Caledonian granite in the rock Science, petrochemistry, trace elements, etc., and tungsten ore-related with the Mesozoic granite very similar, but also from biotite granite to muscovite granite evolution regularity. have been identified above the cap rock overlying the steep in the water group Devonian sand at the bottom of the ancient presence of tin, and tungsten were found in the rock edge of the expansion. Therefore, a more complete differentiation and evolution of rock Caledonian granite magma intrusion, there is also the formation of tungsten, the possibility of tin, which for the expansion of tungsten, tin ore field has important significance.

For tungsten, tin, low levels of the crust in the distribution of the elements, often easy-to-peak in the stage of differentiation and evolution of magmatic mineralization. Yanshan granite in this area of ​​the degree of differentiation and evolution is not exactly the same, and associated mineralization strength characteristics and mineralization have some differences, and even some Yanshanian not mineralization. for specific rock, the magma evolution often from one wave peak to another peak in the development of magmatic evolution in the latest phase of the peak does not necessarily , and there are several stages and the corresponding relative peak mineralization. magmatic evolution of a more perfect stage invasion, the general has from the biotite granite - two-mica granite - the development of muscovite granite. Therefore, the degree of magma differentiation and evolution of sound and No, and tungsten, tin and other rare elements in the mineralization has a close relationship, but also discrimination and non-ore rock rock forming an important symbol. rich in alkali, acid, alkali-rich high-volatile components of the poor dark granite points differentiation and evolution of easy-to-perfect, the mineralization is more favorable.

In summary, the region polycyclic tectonic movement of magma movement associated with a number of cycles, each cycle of movement of magma have different characteristics and metallogenic specialization. Mesozoic block frequent and intense tectonic movement and multi-stage magmatic activity, in favor of tungsten, tin and other rare elements continue to precipitation and evolution of mineralization and magmatic evolution of the peak heights consistent with the district Yanshan tectonic cycle of the lecture is strongest, followed by a more invasive characteristics, and often the formation of some composite granite , magmatic differentiation and evolution of perfect Yanshan granite is the main ore host rock is an important prerequisite for finding tungsten deposit.

Case Study II a deposit. Xihuashan tungsten deposit
ɽ�ٿ�λɽʽϲ�,ĸ(r5 2-2״ĸ(r5 2-1),Ϊ�ٿ󡪳�ʯʯӢʯӢ�Ϳ�.2.9ƽǧ�׿Χ,�ѷִ�Сҵ(ä615,�տи�ʽ�ϵķֲ�,�ɻ�Ϊ�С�,�иԷ�Ϊ.ڝ,֮�F3�ϲԸ,֮�100-200�׿�޿�հ״�.

ʴɽ�ٿԲ�Χʴ�Ϊ,ҪΪӢ�һس�ʯ軯,�ֲضл񻯡�ʯĸĸʯ.ͬ�׶еĻеĿ�,ͬһ�׶λв�ͬ�εĿ�,ʴ�кܴ�ı仯.ͬһΧʴ,ˮƽֱ,һ�ĹԱ仯.

�ڰ�״ĸ�еĿԲ�ΧʴҪΪӢ�һ�,ӢΪ,ʴ10-40,1.Ӣ�ҵ,һ�㳣�п�2-5�׵ļس�ʯ.

ĸ�еĿԲ�,�ϲ�Ӣ�һ�ǿ,ΪӢ,�и�ĸӢ�ҵĿ�,Ӣ�һس�ʯ,ʴ10-50�ײ�,�в�Ӣ�һس�ʯǿ,�ֲضμس�ʯ�,Ӣ�һڼس�ʯ�.ʱ�ڼس�ʯ�֮,�ɼй軯,�ٿ�Դп�س�ʯ�Ľ�,�в�Ӣ�һ�,�е�ĸ,�Ӹ�ʯӢӢ�һ�Ϊ�軯.�²�ΧʴҪΪ�س�ʯ,�ֲ�ʴ1,ʱҲ�й軯ʯӢӢ.Ӧ�ҽں�-Һ϶״�ٿ�.

II.ƺ�ٿ󴲵�ƺλɽʽı�Ե.�󲿷ֲڰ�״ϸĸ,ʯ�ٿ�ʯӢ�Ϳ�.2.4ƽǧ�׿󻯷�Χ,֪�п�10�ϵĿ�ǧ(ä,�ой�ҵĿ�262.�״�͵Ϸֲ,�¿ɷ�Ϊ�ϡ�,�б�ֲ�С�ӡ�ƺ�ֽһ,ֲڰɽ�߶�һ.

Χʴ�䱾ΧҪΪ״ϸ,ʴҪΪӢ�һ�,Ϊ�س�ʯ.ʴˮƽ�ִ�Ϊ,ƽ�ϴοɴۺ�Ϊ�ʴ�.

(һĸӢҪɷַ�Ϊĸ,90%,ʯӢөʯ󡢻󡢻�ͭ,ʱ�кٿ�ʯ.ڶֲ�ſ�״,һ�Ƚ�1-10.֧�쳣,�ٿ󻯹�ϵΪ.

(ӢΪĸ50%,ʯӢ45%,�ֲɼٿ�.ʴ�ΪӢ�һ�Ҫʽ,�ڷֲ�,ʴ10-100�ײ�.ڿ�Ը�λ,�޿󻯵�֮Լ30.һ�ı�ϵ,̬�仯�ӵĵض�,ʴԽϴ�.

(ʯӢӢҪɷ�ʯӢΪ70-80%,ĸΪ20-25%,ʱөʯ�,�ֲڿԲ�,�һΪʮ.
(Ӣ�һ�ҪΪ�вֳ�ʯʴΪĸ�ĸ,ĸ�ѻ�ʧ.һ�Ӣ�һ�,ȼ׵�ʮ�ײ�.

(س�ʯΪ�ɫҰ�ɫ,״�ֲ�Ӣ�һ�Ե,Һ�ɫӢ�,�ֳ�ΪĿdzɫﶱ�,5-30�ײ�,һӢ�һ�ȳ,�ڿ520�ж�Ҳ϶�ļس�ʯ.
еĿ�,ʴ�Թ軯Ϊ,�ϴ߹軯ΧҲ�ϴ�,�ձжİ�ĸﶱ�,ĸƬ״�崹ֱ.
�ҿ־һʯ�ṹϸ׶λҶ�һЩ�ᾧ�Ϻ�,�ɷ־ȵĿ�״ʯ,�󲿷ִ,�ڲ�Ϊϸ�״ʯ,�Ե�༫.
�ڴλҵ�ʯ,�ձ�е͵Ļڽṹ,Ҫ�ڽṹ�Ͱ�״�ڽṹ,�ʵĿ�,"",�絽׶𽥱�ϸ,ϸϸ΢ϸ.
II.Ҫ�ҿ�
A�س�ʯ�ڸϸڴλ�,�س�ʯҪΪ΢бʯ΢б�Ƴ�ʯ.�絽׶λ�,�س�ʯ΢бʯ�ĺ�.΢б�Ƴ�ʯ�𽥼�.΢б�Ƴ�ʯ�еƳ�ʯ�ƽ�Ϊ,�ʸ�̬(100(010(1502�,�Ƴ�ʯǶС,�ʲ�Ƭ״�״�ƶ�״.

�س�ʯʯ�вɷ�Ϊ:һ�԰߾�ʽ,Ϊ΢б�Ƴ�ʯ,�ʰΰ�״,�ձ�߿ϰ߾ԵĻ�,ż״˫,бʯʯӢĸ�Ȱ�.һʻҿǶ,Ϊ�β�״�򳤰�״,Լ�ɼ�״˫�뿨˫,ĸбʯʯӢ,ҲʯӢ,�Ե�ʲʳ״.

BбʯбʯΪ�κ״״,�ҿǶ,ż�гΡεİ߾�.
CʯӢ�ڸڴλ�,ʯӢ�ĺ�һ28-36%֮,�ֲ�ʯӢ�ɴ�40-50%.ʯӢ�ʲ�״,�γɾ�,ɴ�Сһ�ſ�״,ϴ�84,ʱ�԰߾�ʽ.ʯӢ�бڼس�ʯ�߾�,Ҳ�н�,س�ʯбʯĸ�ȿ�.ʯӢҲ�ɼ�ĸбʯ�س�ʯĸ�Ͷ�ʯ�ʯ�ȿϸС,ʱʯӢ�ڻ׻�ʯ�ƿ�Ȱ�.

Χʴ
AˮҺ�ڳɿ,һΧ�ҷ�ѧӦ,ʹΧ�ҷ�ѧ�ɷ֡�ɷּṹı仯.�ֱ仯ҪΧ�ܵ�Һ�û򺬿�Һʱ,Һϵѧƽ״̬�,ΪʹΧҺ�ﵽƽ״̬,ΧҺ�֮ض�ҪѧӦӦ�仯,ʹ�¿γ�,�ɿ�ʧ,Һ�ݴ�ı仯ΪΧʴ.

ΧʴˮҺ�ձ顢Ҫ֮һ.,�о�Χʴ�Ҫʵ.,ʴΧ�Ҵֲڿ�Χ,�Ϳ�̬һ,�е�ʴΧ�ԡӰ,̬�Ƚϸ�,�ռ�Ҳ�ڿ帽.ʴΧ�ҵķ�Χһ�㶼�Ͽ,�ҿ�ʯʱ�ڱ�.�,Χ�ܵı仯ҲΪǿ,ʴǿ.�ͨʴִо�,�԰�ȷ�λ.,ʴΧ�ҿ�ΪҺ�󴲵�Ҫ�ҿ־.�ڶ�,һΧʴ�ͳ�һ�Ŀй�,˿�ͨȷΧʴб�ҵ�ij�͵Ŀ�.Ӣ�һ�״�١.�,�о�Χʴ�䲻�˽⵽Ĵ�̬λ,Ѱ�ҵ弰Ԥҵ�ij�͵Ŀ�Ҳָ.,ʴΧ�ұ�Ҳһ�ֿɹõĿ�.,ͨΧʴ�Ϻͷֲ�,�԰�ʶɿҺ�Ƶ�ͨ,ָ�ҿ�̽.

BҪΧʴ
(һӢ�һ�ͨΪ�ܸ�ˮҺʴ�,�绨�ҵ�Ӣ�һ�,ҪΪ�س�ʯбʯҺ�÷ֽʯӢ�Ͱ�ĸ.
Ӣ�һйصĿ�Ҫ�١.,�ɷ�Ϊ:һ�Ǻٻ�ȫ�,�ռ�,�ռ϶,һ�Ǻ൱ͭп�ȵ�,󴲽�,Ҫ�ͻй�.

ϵٿ�γɲ�żȻ,ҽ�±�Ȼ�γɵ�,ͨ�ĿԿ�,�ٿ�γҽ�еĹ�ϵ,ɽ�ҽ�ɿ�ʱ,Ԫ�صĸɿγ�һʮ,˱ٵķֵƽֵ�˼�ʮ.�ҿ�,Χʴ�Dzɺӵ�һ,ָ�ҿ�ʮҪʵ.

Ҫ�ο�:
[1]ڡ�<<�ϲٿ־>>�ò�ʵ�,ר,�ֵ�ʮ�ߺ�,1943.
[2] ¬ ɽƯ״�ٿ�Ĺʽ<<�ٿ�ۻļ�>>293-303ҳ,�ʳ�,1981.
[3] ʡ�ʿ <<ʡ�־>>�ʳ�,1984.
[4]�Ƽ <<�й�ع>>�ʳ�,1962.
[5]�³� �۸ٿ�ﹹѻ�Ķԡ�<<ѧ>>,1975,�ڶ�,142-151ҳ.
[6] ڵ� �ٿ󴲵�ɿ�<<�ٿ�ۻļ�>>,243-258ҳ,�ʳ�,1981.
[7] �֡�÷ ɽ�ٿγҳɿݻɡ�<<�ٿ�ۻļ�>>,207-220ҳ,�ʳ�,1981.
[8]�֡�÷�ġ�̡̳�¬ͬ <<ɽ�ٿ>>�ʳ�,1987.
[9] �º�ұ־ѩ÷ <<ѧ>>�ʳ�,2007.
[10] <<�ٿ>>�,1981.
[11]�ٷ� �ٿо�չҵ / ұҵ̳#,2010.
[12]¬ �ٿ�Դϵͳ<<�й�>>1985.
[13]κ �ٿ�GIS�ɿۡ�<<�Ϸʹ�ҵѧ>>2006˶ʿ.
[14] �ٿ�ɽ�ܱ߽ҿ�ǰҵ�ڿ�ѧ�2001.
[15] �ٿ�Դ״һ�ҿ�ս�ԵĻ�˼·<<>>2003.
[16] �ٿ�γҽĹ�ϵ�ҿ־�Ŀռ�2009.

Links to free paper download http://eng.
hi138.com

Geology Papers