Masson pine (Pinusmassonianalamb.) of the most widely distributed, the largest number of pine trees, in the southern provinces in the forest stock volume, Masson pine accounted for more than half of pine hi light requires a warm and humid climate on the soil loose, can can grow in the gravel soil, sandy soil, clay, ridges and bare rock crevice. avoid waterlogging, salinity, hi acidic and slightly acidic soil, pH value of 4. 5-6. growth often poor growth in calcareous soil and soil on limestone weathering.
The pipe shop forestry total field is the largest state-owned forest in Anhui Province, is now operating a total area of 250,000 acres, the forest area of nearly 20 million mu, masson pine forest 13 acres, occupies 65% of the woodland, the author through the last ten years cultivation observation and gradually explored, realized through the following specific measures to promote Masson, increasing the yield per unit area, and is conducive to improve economic efficiency.
Pinus afforestation technology
1.1 The choice of the plantation and
The Masson pine afforestation land should not focus on contiguous large area, according to the species characteristics and site conditions, local conditions, rational distribution, so Mixed and broad-leaved trees, not only conducive to soil and water conservation and improvement of forest ecological environment, but also conducive to the prevention of the spread of Dendrolimus punctatus development and forest fires. different wood species, should be based on the objectives of the operation, traffic conditions, training and operations in order to take appropriate measures to give full play to the productive potential of masson pine.
1.2 Site Preparation Methods
Afforestation autumn and winter of the year before site preparation effect is better. The the Wandong foothills general multi-block site preparation. Hidden cave site preparation of the half on the next hole to prevent soil erosion and reduce the cost of afforestation. Adequate labor force, better economic conditions, advocate on the next hole preparation, ensure site preparation quality; help to improve the survival rate of afforestation and promote the growth of seedlings early. massive site preparation specifications can be generally 50 × 50 × 30cm.
1.3 afforestation density
Forestation Site disadvantaged, initial planting density should be appropriate to a large number of 500-600 plants per acre.
Better site conditions, soil thickness up to 50cm fertility on the middle, and convenient transportation, higher operating Intensity planting 300-400 trees per acre to cultivate large diameter material for the purpose.
1.4 afforestation methods
PLANTING Masson pine reforestation timely planting is guarantee the the afforestation survival of one of the key. Pine seedlings in early spring the terminal bud Choushao earlier, it should be early planted early planting with early-onset root, easy to survive, early growth can Drought the advantages generally suitable planting period early in late mid-January to mid-March. the Wandong hills around the Spring Festival, soil thaw, melting snow, or under soaker, can be planted, cloudy drizzle or rain TQ moist soil when planting, and should not be planted in the drying wind.
Seedlings for afforestation (Ⅰ, Ⅱ grade seedlings) to be properly protected to ensure that does not destroy the root system, with the beating with the heel, heel, no more than 24 hours, not thin not thick mud, transport seedling roots to prevent dehydration and to plant When the mud dehydration dry should be secondary beating. planting must be done with the check seedlings with planted pine planted when the basic point is: grading planting, planted deep Rattus buried not Wo root, not hanging empty roots stretch righting seedlings, step on solid whack tight.
Higher degree of intensive management of the place, with a basic fertilizer afforestation, fairly obvious effect on the promotion of young forest of fast-growing and early canopy.
2.1 young forest tending
3-5 years after planting, root buried shallow, poor resistance to adverse environmental strengthen the tending of young forest management, which is an important part of measures to consolidate the achievements of afforestation Sapling Growth.
2.1 tillage weeding newly planted seedling growth and development, with its surrounding environment conditions closely related to woodland weeds bushes compete for water, nutrients and light, with young growth; weed roots twine also hinder root saplings stretching, weeding, can improve young forest growing conditions, conducive to photosynthesis and growth of young trees. weeding tillage saplings around, the range should be slightly larger than the original hole from the inside to the outside, from shallow to deep, Free injury roots and branches, and pay attention to pick stones, soil culture into a bread-shaped, weeds, shrub blanket in saplings around.
Weeding to Cultivators time and frequency, depending on Sapling Growth characteristics of weeds lush level and climatic conditions most suitable period in seedling growth before the advent of the exuberant period to May-June, as well, in autumn before the weeds have not yet seed, weeding tillage effects, and can reduce the coming year, the breeding of weeds. generally continuous tending three years, the first year to the third year mayLinks to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
3,2,1 the number of times the initial planting density afforestation young growth vigorous growth can be tending two years, respectively, 2 and reforestation during the first three years, must be strictly closing hillsides to facilitate or enhance care, prevent mowing, drinking destruction.
The 2.1 2 replanting: Sapling Quezhu, a survival rate of afforestation in the fall of that year, a comprehensive examination, understand survival and to propose solutions. Replanting provisions, should be re-afforestation survival rate of less than 40%, 41-84% should be carried out replanting, or survival rate of over 85%, but local section survived low or death the plants concentrated, should also be replanted. replanting work should normally be carried out in the fall of that year or the following spring. replanting should point in the original planting the conducted or soil preparation peers seedlings replanted.
2.2 into Tending
The young forest canopy to stand on Felling before the entire growth process belongs stand differentiation sparse stage, the performance of reduction in the number of trees for the forest, the increase in tree height and diameter. Necessary tending grow up, you can not reach the fast-growing high yield, high quality purpose of Young Forests canopy, pruning and tending Tending Thinning should be carried out.
The 2 2.1 reasonable pruning reasonable pruning to improve Masson pine stem form no section Wuliangcai, improve the quality of the wood, but also to promote tree growth .5-6 years old Masson Pine Pruning the most appropriate starting age, this time the lower part of the canopy branches due to poor ventilation and light, start, dead, dead off slow, if not timely repair to the future, it will form a large section of the dead in order to promote growth and reduce knots, the deadwood and growth and recession branches all repair to the longest and thickest branches of the canopy, as appropriate, should repair to avoid partial crown, crown symmetry. horizontal branches above branches, by adequate, vigorous growth, can not repair in addition to, or affect the growth .
Pruning should have a "light repair,-xiu" the principle of the canopy and tree pruning sure to make the high proportion of moderate, born in 10 years ago, two-thirds of the crown height; 10-15 years after the crown for tree high-half to one-third; nutrition to keep the branches of the tree trunk upper area
Pruning the appropriate period from late autumn to early spring, then pruning wound stream fat less easily closed, trimming wound to the growing season there is still a period of time, can accelerate healing and shorten the period of wound healing. Growing season and winter should not be pruned, otherwise it will affect the growth. machetes, saws for pruning must be sharp pruning to avoid splitting or tearing bark trunk, so as not to affect the wound healing fester impact material pine pruning to pile without leaving effect is good, even if the stubble to less than 1cm appropriate.
If the main tip pine shoot borer damage and not the normal growth or break destination to cultivate a collateral, to promote its vigorous growth, instead of the main tip pruning should be.
2 2.2 Effects of Thinning Mawei Song Linlin points canopy into the population growth stages, the original saplings and environmental contradictions into conflicts between individuals. Constantly with increasing forest age, the nutritional requirements of each timber space increases, squeezing each other, cause strong differentiation and natural sparse start felling Age: tending thinning the beginning period should be planting density, site conditions, canopy density, the annual increment of DBH and volume as well as between logging use value regard to considering different planting density, site conditions, canopy density time differences, the general canopy in 4-6 years, 2-3 years, after canopy closure stands differentiation became clear, there is pressure wood smallwood more canopy density of 0. 8-0. 9 Tending to start the first thinning is generally 8-10 years. afforestation density, good site conditions or operating level high stands, fast growth, canopy early, Effects of Thinning should be sufficiently in advance; afforestation a density little or poor site conditions, may be deferred for 1-3 years.
Intensity of thinning: thinning intensity relationship to the growth of the remaining trees and stand yield strength is too small canopy restoration canopy fast, did not play due role of the Effects of Thinning, but shortened the thinning repeat period increased thinning times, thinnings over small, the use of high-value, also increased tending investment intensity is too large, resulting in forest clearings, woodland miscellaneous irrigation breeding, dry woodland, trunk taper destruction canopy density affect tree growth. suitable thinning intensity should be based on afforestation density, stand growth characteristics determine .8-10 a weak degree of Tending and Thinning intensity of 10-15% of the stand volume, and can be combined with pruning .10-20 year degree can be used to strength Effects of Thinning intensity of 20-30% of the stand volume, while topped trees. Removal poor stem form the upper canopy of trees .20 years later, can be 30% strength tending thinning.
The thinning repeat period: usually 3-5 years is appropriate. Thinning canopy density should be kept at 0. 6-0. 7 between the number of repetitions should be based on the cultivation of wood species may be, in the diameter of timber forests generally by 2 -3 repetitions to Harvest cutting.
Thinning way: stand structure, upper Effects of Thinning and lower Tending two artificially aged pure stands, should adopt the lower Tending Thinning, mainly cutting the lower to the canopy suppressed tree, dying wood, while topped trees. Removal dry shaped bad the upper canopy of the forest. tending thinning when in accordance with the "cut small to stay big, cut secret stay thin, cut inferior to remain excellent." that three cut three remain the principle carried. within a forest off shoot wooden, double-tip wood as of retained wood a supporting role, or topped trees. Removal skylights should be preserved, not cut. mainly the upper Effects of Thinning in Masson pine-dominated mixed forest, that topped trees. Removal of the canopy upper repression of non-target species Masson, and can lower Tending Thinning combined according to the actual situation.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com