Papers Category:Public Management Papers
- Public Security Papers
Post Time:2008-9-2 8:39:00
Summary: Britain the Blair government's public service reform model has its own characteristics, and at the international level have a certain impact. In the past 10 years in power, period, the Blair government to reform the formation of self-propelled system, mainly includes four aspects, namely, top-down government management of public services; the introduction of market competition
mechanism; users of bottom-up feedback effect; implement the reform measures, capacity-building. This paper argues that the UK public service reform these practices and experiences in China are enlightening.
Keywords:: the Blair government, public service, reform model
Public service reform is a global problem, many modern countries, in different ways the government is committed to public service reform, but the remarkable achievements in all aspects and able to give very little recognition of the pattern. Began in the late 1980s, public service reform in the United Kingdom Governments around the world of public service reform has played an exemplary role, and led the international community after years of public service reform trend.
1, the British Blair government's public service reform and the effectiveness of the
From practical experience, the British Blair government's public service reform in principle there are two values, one set of 'Serving the People' is the ruling idea; 2 is to establish a 'people-oriented' guiding ideology. Details are as follows:
1. To amend the Conservative Government to reform the line, to determine the new direction for the reform of the Labor government. From the Conservative Thatcher government started, the British Government, including public service reform, including reform of public administration, mainly through the implementation of pure market mechanisms
and contractual form of outsourcing to improve public sector service quality. In 1994, Blair took over the British Labor Party, for public services, less investment, low efficiency, the public's dissatisfaction with the quality of service as the status of the public and put forward a new political platform, promising voters will step up the reform of public services, in order to safeguard social justice and improve civic life quality. In 1997 Labor won the election, took office and introduces a 'better policies to better respond to the needs of citizens, provide better public services' governing philosophy, the implementation of public service reform, primarily through the management of the transformation to public service to achieve 'best value'.
According to the British Cabinet Office in an analysis, when compared with the Labor Party came to power, the United Kingdom of Basic Education
levels were significantly increased in 2005 British 16-year-olds examination of national unity outstanding rate of 56% in 1997 to 45%. Public health care
services more convenient, citizens have many options for medical care, treatment, surgery waiting time by two thirds; England 75 years of age heart disease, stroke and other diseases, mortality rates by 40%, cancer mortality rates reduced 25%. Improved social security, theft, crime rate than in 1997 reduced 35%. The capacity of local government provision of public services has been improved, assessment showed that more than 70% of the outstanding performance of local authorities.
Because of continuing to promote public service reform, the Labor government achieved some political success. Under the banner of reform, the Labor Party won the general election three times to keep the past 10 years unbeaten record. Public service reform for the United Kingdom a long time laid the foundation for maintaining economic prosperity, and even in Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and several wars to create a favorable political environment and to some extent eased the Blair government to participate in the war in Iraq because of unfavorable produced by political pressure.
2. Determine the 'people-oriented' reforms in the guiding ideology, efforts to achieve the goal of maintaining social fairness and justice. Blair's government planned the direction of reform, citizen-centered, positive response to the popular demand. Proposed a series of operational objectives: public health and education services to achieve universal, and to ensure all citizens have equal opportunity to enjoy these services, particularly concerned about minorities, the elderly, young people on social discontent and the mentally disabled, etc. the needs of special groups; public service to be efficient and user wait time as short as possible, so that the taxpayer's money to play a greater effectiveness; public service of high quality, so that user satisfaction; to public services for citizens to participate in the opportunities and choices scope of public service products'.
Second, the British model of public service reform
British social structure, change requires public service diversification, the resulting 'difficult to reach' universal. Compared with 30 years ago, and now the British social classes, groups, and increasing difficulty in reconciling competing interests, public services, increased differentiation of target groups, structure, a single type of service is no longer valid. A general increase in people's incomes, consumption significantly increased the ability of public services, variety and a corresponding increase in quality requirements, personalized demands become increasingly evident. Advances of modern scientific and technological means, in order to provide people with a variety of high-quality services possible. Of modern information and convenient, so that the demand for public services that people have more understanding and more, with the attendant expectations of public services also soared. Pressure not only from clients, but also from private services, private services, occupy a larger share of the market the flexibility to control their resources and can rapidly improve service quality
and service efficiency, compared to the public services caused by the competitive pressures that In order to provide direct or indirect support measures, public services, private services only as much as possible to keep up with the progress.
In order to increase government investment
in public service as a driving force to re-build the public service reform progression. In response to the challenges facing the public service, in summing up the government and John Major, Thatcher's government work, based on the Blair government's first address the shortage of inputs, a substantial increase in government funding as a public service reform to start the power. From 1997 to 2004, public health care funds from the national GDP
of 5.4% to 6.7%, education funding from 4.5% to 5.3%; 2004 to 2008, health care and education also increased by 23 billion and 76 billion pounds. This stage will focus on promotion of the central government to conduct top-down approach, the local governments and various public service agencies required to implement passive. Practice shows that simply relying on increased government investment and mandatory instruction did not fully achieve the goal of reform, inefficient, poor-quality, high-cost phenomenon still exists. Labor government in 1999 released the 'Modernizing Government White Paper' that the Government reform policy, involving public services there are three, namely, policy-makers not only focus on short-term problem, but also more long-term 'co-operation and strategy'; should be more concerned about the public services, customers needs, rather than the provider's facilities; continuously improve the quality and efficiency. Take this as policy, began to design a new mechanism for operation of public services to address the continuing momentum of reform, inefficient high-cost and other issues. After nearly five years of practice, and basically complete the reform from the traditional command-conscious reform in various sectors to shift responsibility to replace the past with the mandatory requirements, and established a dynamic of reform within the system of self-propelled, mainly includes four elements: the Government's top-down management of public services, the introduction of market competition mechanism, the user feedback on the role of bottom-up the implementation of reform measures for capacity-building (as shown on page).
Blair's government, public service, reform model - [Flying Snow Network FENO.CN]
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1. The Government's public services, top-down management. The specific content including the identification of objectives, to determine the direction of action and achieve the final result; to develop regulations and standards, such as national unified textbooks, professors and cultural studies, mathematics lesson time requirements, per unit area pick the number of students in school buses, etc.; Biopsy assessment results to determine the implementation of a good or non-standard units (such as local government, hospitals and other institutions providing public services); direct intervention of a good unit recognize, encourage, do not meet the standards of conduct given to correct or help.
2. The introduction of market competition mechanism. Depending on the public as 'customers', the cancellation of the government (or non-government-funded) provider barriers to access to public services; in between public service providers compete to give customers a choice; to determine bid providers, to achieve the government purchase and the separation between the products.
3. Users of bottom-up feedback. Of public services for customers to select and make personalized request opportunities; users have the right to speak, policy-makers to hear the user's voice and incorporate their views, according to feedback and timely adjustments to action; government funds to flow to users to choose the subject , according to the number of the user's decision to choose the amount of invested capital, encouraging providers to use quality services to attract more users, to gain more government investment.
4. To implement reform measures, capacity-building. Including leadership, organization, or instigating a public servant; practical work skills development and innovation; disposal capacity, how to make the financial expenditure of the most effective, how to organize the work force and skills development inputs; organizational development and cooperation, and improve public services and public service individual staff members the ability to effectively undertake the task. Such as providing the conditions for the use of IT equipment and the environment, improve the institutional and individual use of IT skill levels, and use the network with other organizations to study their ability to communicate; learning skills of procurement, global thinking, and consider the ability to communicate with customers the ability to .
In real life, this model is not static, and different public service areas, a large element of demand remained relatively stable, specific measures can be adjusted accordingly, such as health and education in the introduction of market competition mechanism, we can design an appropriate model in order to Users have more choice. Of social order, let the police on the public choice is not feasible, can only be compared between different regions in order to compete in these areas, public services, choice is more limited, ways have to be adjusted accordingly.
Third, the UK public service reform to the Enlightenment
Blair on public service reform the government's self-introduction system on governments around the world of public service reform has played a certain role model, his experience there is no lack of scientific validity, we can learn from.
1. The reform objectives and methods depend on the measures taken by
First, the content of public service reform, the British Blair government is not exhaustive, but rather with the scope to focus on voter engagement, involving every individual, every family interests, and easily give rise to social conflicts in areas such as education, health care , employment, pensions and old-age pension, housing and social law and order. This choice would not exclude for the election of the short-term utilitarian considerations, but it does easy access to public support and understanding.
Second, the British public service reform objectives set at a relatively low profile, there is no fixed number of ambitious goals, achieve the measures generally operate within a smaller range. Under normal circumstances, the goals set by the Government, the public can be visible or can be foreseen. Targeting of more 'timely help' and less 'icing on the cake'. Such as basic education to achieve equality of opportunity, the Government has invested not only be considered when the normal students, but also be able to take care of special groups, increasing the number of schools and teachers must take into account the special schools, such as the deaf-mute schools. Increase in student transportation vehicles to take into account people living in poor communities, remote towns and villages the number of vehicles and routes. Setting goals generally used to express the exact number, but less conceptual description; multi-purpose end result, rather than utilizing the middle of the process. Such as medical services and security objectives are the number of users waiting time, reducing the number of crime, rather than to doctors, hospitals or the police number of metrics.
Third, pay attention to the people directly involved in the reform to start the initiative. Government-led public service reform, but the government does not decide everything. The specific approach in three aspects: First, to individuals, private organizations or groups to enter public service opportunities. The second is the establishment and unimpeded Government, including decision-making level of communication with the public feedback channels. The importance of non-governmental organizations as public service providers and act as channels for the role of information or feedback. Even Blair himself is also using the media to 'show', directly with the public on the reform of exchange of views. Third, attach importance to the public's feedback from the public service, pay attention to adopt their view and proposed a 'customer first' slogan. The Government established the objectives of public service reform, policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation and other important links to hear directly from the public voice, the adoption of the reform program of public opinion. For example, Manchester City, the establishment of a 'Best Value Action Team', with the local citizens to work together to develop and implement services, they even have the right to decide what kind of service action. Managers interact with the public effectively solve the issue of reform momentum gained the active support of the people.
2. The new measures and traditional practices should be closely linked to balance the various factors to consider
The first is to avoid big ups and downs. British public service reform experience of the most fundamental is that it is evolutionary rather than revolutionary. Compared with 1997, you can see the changes that have taken place, it can be said that a revolution took place, but this revolution is carried out step by step. They solve a problem, another problem will appear the same, but the new problem is not history repeat, do not fall into to solve a problem, but also creating a larger conflict situation. England did not let the reform of public service reform as emergency response activities, but to make it into a certain sequence of events constitutes a continuous process, the steps to advance the various issues are designed and continuously adjusted according to development of the situation.
Second, the government should increase input to define the boundaries of public services can not be the public's appetite for hanging too high. Most basic driving force for the reform of the UK Government continues to increase its input. By 2008, the government body in each primary school to spend the money than they are now double the health budget would triple the police into an increase of 33%. Despite a huge investment capital, the Government engaged in a number of pilot projects, has taken supervisory measures, but in a recent British government organized a major international seminar, experts, civil servants
and representatives from various sectors of the government's reform achievements, or divergent views, we no the achievements of the dispute is only two points: First, the Government has increased investment in public services enjoyed by more representatives of the people said that before the doctor, go to school there can be only one, and now have a choice; second faster service speeds, such as pensions on time issuance, reservation operation time was much shorter. Therefore, reform must be to spend money, but the amount spent is not necessarily a result, it is necessary to meet the distinct personality of each one with the needs of citizens is difficult, the government is concerned is a serious challenge. Tony Blair and even the tone with a mean complain Everyone says that to be 'people-oriented', the greatest difficulty may be a politician, he faced are specific people, have distinctive characteristics and needs.
Third, market competition and government complement each other. Blair's government reform, stressed the need to introduce a competition mechanism, mainly in the government monopoly or private social groups to allow outside access to public services, so that the public have a choice. At the operational level, the Government continue to invest in and support the public service, but are allowed to enter the field of public services, social groups or private, the same access to government investment and support. The United Kingdom practice is not entirely of public services to market, but a destination for the introduction of market elements. The Government has always believed that its mandate to provide public services are still retains a strong capacity for intervention, if found in a failure of government oversight of services, it can take a lot of measures, including re-implemented or shut down malfunctioning services.
Fourth, giving full play to the public service and service personnel on the basis of a positive nature to meet the public demand. Conservatives praised the streamlining of the number of employees, cut wages and reduce working conditions, to purchase new equipment to reduce the number of policies which have been completely changed. In conclusion, on the basis of the former Labor government in order to provide the best service for the purpose of encouraging attention to the use of public service initiative and dynamic approach of the civil service as an integral part of public service. British Cabinet Secretary and Chief Bailiff Gan Siaotangna made 'public servants is to ensure that public service quality, increase efficiency of key public services, public servants should be enthusiastic, to cause a sense of pride, work skills, problem-solving practical action '. This is also the British Government to the direction of selection and training of civil servants. In conclusion, analysis of the reform process and reform of public services, gains and losses, the British did not simply blame the problems of public service civil servants, but rather focus on public service policies, systems, methods and inputs to adjust. To develop measures, special attention to front-line public service staff effective summing up experience, and rose to general management. Front-line staff, particularly front-line staff is a tough industry, reward, it is relatively higher. Public service personnel have to face a change of government, personalized distinctive individual needs of the public caused by work pressure. Such as the nursing home nurses, probably because nursing task has become increasingly heavy and little change in salaries is difficult to reject the temptation to force a variety of other industries and job-hopping. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com