Papers Category:Political Papers
- Taiwan Issue Papers
Post Time:2012-1-19 11:31:00
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Editor's note: the first in the Ministry of Education launched the "great ideological and political theory class a lesson in" selected activities, Hu Yuan teachers still teach the "idea of the complete reunification of the motherland," a chapter named "<<Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and" Three Represents 'Important Thought>> wonderful lesson. "A total of four of this chapter, Section II of the lesson plans is one view of the teacher's colleges and universities Cipian instructional design, different from the middle school, so do not do reviews.
[Keywords] Taiwan, the liberation of force, peaceful liberation, one country
Import (Item 1 of this section is "the origin and essence of the Taiwan issue," the design of the leaders to address the substantive issues as well. In addition, in order to mobilize the interest of students, also need to pay attention to the timeliness of the design):
May 1 this year, Japan's Interchange Association Representative to Taiwan Masaki Saito, held a symposium in Taiwan speech, publicly declared that "Taiwan's status is undetermined" and said it was "on behalf of the Japanese government's position." Broadcast-related video (Shenzhen Satellite TV <<Live Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan>> 2009-05-11: recent cross-strait situation calm, but the wish, but the wind was more than the Japanese in Taiwan on behalf of the Japanese Interchange Association Taipei Office director Masaki Saito, has openly advocated "Taiwan status is undetermined ", was condemned across the Taiwan Strait, Taiwan legislature to recall today, on behalf of Von send in Taiwan, and foreign affairs officials asking them to explain the situation together, while a Pan-elected representatives, but the absurd remarks praising Saito , causing the blue camp's discontent).
In the Strait of protest and condemnation, the Masaki Saito quickly apologized and said that an immediate withdrawal of the relevant speech, but we need to know to right-wing forces in Japan as the representative of "Taiwan's status is undetermined" market place with this linked to the Taiwan independence forces advocated "an independent sovereign state" theory, even late in the Chen Shui-bian administration to seek "the name of Taiwan joining the United Nations" (played slide into the joint advertising of Taiwan: This should be a whale in the sea and the sea was a fish tank isolated from the sea is the United Nations, the whale was in Taiwan, is a United Nations tank provisions, and that the terms and tanks as fragile, but it can be a huge whale and sea isolation!) are from a legal point of view to challenge the ownership of Taiwan. So, the origin and essence of the Taiwan issue in the end what is it?
Writing on the blackboard one, the origin and essence of the Taiwan issue is China's territory since ancient times in Taiwan, high school history of the relevant facts have a more detailed description, will not repeat.
Since 1895, Japan signed <<Treaty of Shimonoseki>> Japan's surrender in 1945, Taiwan became a colony of Japan a full half-century! November 1943, the United States and Britain held three meetings in Cairo, published December 1, << Declaration of the Cairo Declaration >>.<<>> statement: "Three of the purpose to deprive Japan since 1914 after the start of the First World War in the Pacific on the won or occupation of all the islands, in that Japan has stolen from the territory of China , such as Manchuria, Taiwan and the Penghu Islands returned to China. "clarified the ownership of Taiwan.
In July 1945, published in the U.S. and British <<Potsdam Proclamation, "and reaffirmed in the World War II, Taiwan returned to China after the end of the principle.
August 15, 1945, Japan announced its unconditional surrender .9 January, the KMT government to Taiwan governor Chen Yi appointment. October 25, Chen Yi Chung Shan Hall in Taipei at the surrender ceremony presided over his impromptu speech at the announcement: "From today onwards, Taiwan and the Penghu Islands officially re-enter the territory of China." from the Chinese government's resumption of sovereignty over Taiwan.
Question: The above facts show?
Summary: It is clear that Taiwan belongs to China is already recognized by international treaties, so-called "Taiwan's status is undetermined" complete nonsense.
So, the Taiwan issue is how to generate it? Taiwan issue is China's problem left over from civil war (war of liberation hit the slide images). October 1, 1949, the Central People's Government to set up.
Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek retreated to Taiwan, to resist reunification, and attempt to retake the mainland, in support of the United States, forming a split with long-term confrontation mainland, the Taiwan issue so had. In essence, the so-called question of Taiwan is entirely China's internal affairs.
Why? Because, October 1, 1949 the People's Republic was proclaimed, replacing the government of the Republic, become the sole legal government of China and the international the only legitimate representative, which is the subject of international law in the same situation does not change under the new regime to replace the old regime, does not involve national sovereignty and territorial boundaries change issues.'s Republic of China government naturally should fully enjoy and exercise the full national sovereignty, which naturally includes Taiwan's sovereignty.
This point was recognized by the international community generally, even if there is no objection to the United States, for example, January 5, 1950, U.S. President Truman had officially issued a statement reiterating <<Cairo>> and <<Potsdam>> returned to China on Taiwan in terms of explicitly "recognize China's sovereignty over the island." Therefore, the Taiwan independence forces to advocate what is an "independent sovereign state" theory, is simply untenable.
Blackboard Second, the policy of the liberation of Taiwan by force as early as late in the war of liberation, the Communist Party of China on the Taiwan issue has been listed on the agenda when the main form of consideration, as elsewhere, be resolved by force.
1, the proposed approach to the liberation of Taiwan by force in March 1949, Xinhua News Agency published an article entitled <<Chinese people must liberate Taiwan>> the commentary, explicitly declared: "The Chinese people's liberation struggle of the task is to liberate the whole of China, until the liberation of Taiwan, Hainan Island and part of China until the last inch of land. "This is the first time the Chinese Communist Party put forward the" liberation of Taiwan "slogan.
In December, the CPC Central Committee issued "front-line soldiers and compatriots in the country>>, 1950, clearly stated mission is to liberate Hainan, Taiwan and Tibet, to wipe out the last remnants of Chiang Kai-shek. (Play slide content)
1950 "People's Daily>> New Year's Day editorial, the New Year there are four tasks, the first of which is to liberate Taiwan," complete with all the power people's liberation war, eliminate all remnants of the enemy in China, the liberation of Taiwan, Tibet, Hainan Island to complete the great cause of reunification of the whole of China. "
Question: Through these editorials and commentary, we can see?
Summary: These editorials and commentary are clearly put forward the "liberation of Taiwan" slogan, that early in the founding of the Communist Party of China's Taiwan policy of "force to liberate Taiwan."
Students may not know, was not only the CPC Central Committee put forward the policy of the liberation of Taiwan by force, and proposed a timetable for the liberation of Taiwan, and made arrangements accordingly.
July 4, 1949, Liu Shaoqi's visit in secret during the written Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) Central Committee and Stalin's report that stated: "People's Liberation Army in the summer and fall of this year ... ... basically be the end of the war against the Kuomintang. The rest There Taiwan, Hainan, Xinjiang and Tibet which the Tibet issue can only be political rather than using fishing methods to resolve the war in Taiwan, Hainan and Xinjiang, and to wait until next year occupation of Taiwan as a result of some within the Kuomintang troops should be, may early occupation. " Can be seen, the CPC Central Committee has prepared the liberation of Taiwan in 1950, and is ready to "early occupation.
July 10, sent a letter to Zhou Enlai, Mao Zedong said: According to Zhu De proposal, consider the Soviet Union to send three or four hundred people to learn the Air Force, purchase of aircraft, crossing cover, ready to seize Taiwan in summer next year, together with the existing Air Force formed an attack force, please Comrade Zhou Enlai called for deliberate .7 31, Mao Zedong, Liu Yalou in Zhongnanhai heard such reports on the situation to build the Air Force.
These materials are described, then not only have decided the policy of the liberation of Taiwan by force, but also has embarked on the preparation of the liberation force. 2, the force to liberate Taiwan's plans on hold, however, this schedule was due to a sudden outbreak of the Korean War and had to shelve .
1950 June, the Korean War broke out, the U.S. quickly sent naval blockade of the Seventh Fleet into the Taiwan and Strait of CPC Central Committee to "Korean War, defending the homeland," the strategic decision-making. Video "Song of the Chinese People's Volunteers": valiantly, Links to free download http://eng.
hi138.comhigh spirits, crossed the Yalu River.
Ensuring peace, health and the motherland, is to protect the home of Chinese good children, united unity tight, the Korean War, defeated the United States Yexin Lang!
After entry into the Chinese People's Volunteers, the CPC Central Committee's strategic focus will shift to North Korea and Northeast, the liberation of Taiwan's plan to hold this down. July 1953, the Korean War truce Taiwan authorities to intensify the U.
S. signed a "Mutual Defense Treaty." July the following year, the CPC Central Committee once again to liberate Taiwan issue on the agenda. September, in order to oppose U.S. military intervention and occupation of Taiwan, the PLA started shelling Kinmen. December of that year, the United States and Taiwan signed <<Mutual Defense Treaty>> trying to Taiwan and the Penghu Islands under U.
S. "umbrella" under. For such blatant interference in China's internal affairs, Premier Zhou Enlai issued a statement that the so-called "Mutual Defense Treaty" is illegal, invalid, "all the so-called Taiwan 'independent state' Taiwan 'neutral' and 'managed' the idea of actually split Taiwan Chinese territory, violated China's sovereignty and interference in China's internal affairs, all the Chinese people absolutely can not agree. " He solemnly declared: "Taiwan is Chinese territory, the Chinese people must liberate Taiwan."
January 24, 1955, Zhou Enlai issued a statement on behalf of the Chinese government: "To protect China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, in order to protect China's security and peace in the Far East, the Chinese people must liberate Taiwan." February 1, 1955, the PLA launched a campaign across the sea, islands and the liberation of a country Dachen Island.
Question: The above material shows what? Summary: The above material shows that, until early 1955, the CPC Central Committee still insist on the principle of force to liberate Taiwan. However, this approach in the mid-1955 began to change.
Blackboard Third, the policy of peaceful liberation of Taiwan
1, the principle of the peaceful liberation of Taiwan, made April 18, 1955 to 24, Asian-African Conference held in Bandung in Indonesia, which is developing the discussion on nationalism, colonialism and friendly relations with Asian and African countries on issues such as a important meeting. The Chinese government attaches great importance to this meeting, sent a delegation led by Zhou Enlai.
Before departure of the delegation, Mao instructed Zhou Enlai: "camera made in the United States can withdraw the armed forces of Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait under the premise of the possibility of peaceful liberation of Taiwan."
May 1955, Premier Zhou in the 15th session of the Standing Committee meeting for the first time made public the liberation of Taiwan are two possible ways: the way of war and peace the way. That where possible, to achieve a peaceful way the liberation of Taiwan.
In January 1956, Zhou Enlai in the second of the CPPCC Standing Committee work report, not only issued a "peaceful liberation of Taiwan to strive to realize the complete reunification of the motherland and fight," the call, also on behalf of the Chinese government announced that: "Those who are willing to return to the mainland were allowed to membership, and can come back to the mainland. all are willing to return to the mainland to visit and learn, but also can come to the mainland. all willing to go the road of peaceful liberation, regardless of any person, regardless of how they committed the crime of the past, China People are generous treatment, not research past. all the action in the peaceful liberation of Taiwan, a neutral power, the Chinese people will give according to the size of merit deserved reward. Those who invest in the motherland by peaceful means, the Chinese people will work on the appropriate placement. "This was actually made by" one with four eyes, "the prototype of Taiwan policy. Mao also proposed on many public occasions, for the third KMT cooperation, he also mentions that "precious" and "patriotic one," and other claims. At the same time, the Chinese government to promote the peaceful liberation of Taiwan and from other work that is actively urging the U.
S. government to negotiate with the Chinese government from 1955 to 1970, Sino-US ambassadorial talks in Geneva and Warsaw has conducted 136 talks The Taiwan issue has always been the core of the talks, the Chinese government urged the United States: to withdraw troops from Taiwan.
Question: Students, through the above description, what do we see?
Summary: In the mid-1950s, the Chinese Communist Party's policies toward Taiwan has undergone major changes, from the liberation of Taiwan by force into the peaceful liberation of Taiwan.
2, changes in Taiwan policy of the factors
Question: Why did the Chinese Communist Party's Taiwan policy in the mid-1950s changed it?
According to the students a brief contents of the textbooks to be answered, the main factors to analyze changes in the following areas:
First, domestic factors point of view ,1953 - 1956 of socialist transformation, first introduced in 1953 a five-year plan, all indicate that China will enter a period of socialist construction, which not only need to mobilize all positive factors, everything possible to unite the power of unity, but needs a peaceful international and domestic environment. Second, international factors, the mid-1950s to ease the international situation, the voice of peace in the Asia-Pacific region rising.
Tensions in the Taiwan Strait more practice the more attention by the international community to ease tensions in the region a loud voice. Third, in Taiwan, Chiang become increasingly prominent.
<<Mutual Defense Treaty>> after the signing of the United States "indefinitely effective occupation of Taiwan," the ambition to gradually expose the United States, the conflict between Chiang and the friction at the same time, anti-US struggle of the people of Taiwan sentiment .1957 on May 24, the U.S. military on the natural Liu Shi Leinuo was shot for no reason the U.S. military tribunal found not guilty, angry people of Taiwan, the U.S. embassy siege and fire, the United States in Taiwan news Department and the U.S. military defense command, causing the famous "five hundred twenty-four incident." In addition to these three reasons, there is also an important factor, has not been brought to our attention.
In fact, as early as the beginning of the founding of the CPC Central Committee and Mao Zedong have been considered and tried to use peaceful means to resolve the Taiwan issue, then peaceful means is disintegrating from within the Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek, for example, in his seventh report of the Second Session of that: after the end of the three major battles, solve the "distributed in the vast Xinjiang region of Taiwan and the long front" of the Kuomintang remnants of more than a million ways, nothing more than Tianjin, Beijing, Suiyuan three. He also stressed: "The way to solve the problem according to Beijing is to increase the possibility." founding of the first, Zhang Zhizhong approved by the CPC Central Committee and Mao Zedong, began To work for the peaceful liberation of Taiwan .1950 March 11, Mao Zedong had telephoned Zhang Zhizhong, said: "Sir is extremely important in the work, Sang Hee deliberately, by the close results."
Of course, when only the peaceful settlement as an adjunct to a trial, but such an attempt, no doubt for the subsequent policy of peaceful liberation of Taiwan proposed the idea to lay a certain foundation. Links to free download http:// eng.hi138.com 3, the second shelling of Kinmen and the "United Chiang arrived in the United States' strategy 1958 年 23 August to 6 October, PLA Wan guns together and fired artillery shells hundreds of thousands of hair, full blockade of Kinmen Island beachhead and airfield, which was the second bombardment of Kinmen.
Why at this time and launched artillery to Taiwan was to force to liberate Taiwan? At the time, even the Soviet Union, Khrushchev, Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam are very tight, that the CPC Central Committee really want to force to liberate Taiwan.
In fact, the shelling of Kinmen for two main reasons: First, July 1958, the U.
S. troops invaded Lebanon, Middle East tensions suddenly become the focus of world public opinion. In order to divert attention, the U.S. threatened the Middle East crisis, must be strengthened "to defend Taiwan" deployment. Since then, Air Force continuously mainland coastal reconnaissance over the provocative activities, openly clamoring for the Navy Chief of Staff, U.S. Navy is closely monitoring the situation in the Taiwan region, as ready as in Lebanon, landed at the same time, the United States is also actively planning to "draw the Strait and governance" conspiracy.
Second, in support of the United States, Chiang Kai-shek a lot to Kinmen, Ma Zu Yunbing, constantly on the mainland armed harassment, and attempted to "recovering the mainland."
Can be seen, the shelling of Kinmen is not intended to liberate Taiwan, but in order to counter the KMT on the mainland of harassment and threats of U.S. military.
May not even Mao Zedong and the CPC Central Committee did not expect to advance, the shelling of Kinmen soon make the inherent contradictions of the United States and Chiang Kai-shek has been intensified. Artillery began, a large number of U.S. troops immediately withdraw from the Middle East, assembled in Taiwan. In order to create legalization of the U.S. occupation of Taiwan and the "two China" and "de facto existence", but also in order to avoid direct conflict with the People's Liberation Army, the United States to persuade the Taiwan authorities from Kinmen and Matsu withdrawal. This time, the nationalist Chiang Kai-shek show side he see through the U.
S. attempt to separate Taiwan sinister, and thus refused to withdraw troops, determined to stick to the Kinmen and Matsu. Mao Zedong and the CPC Central Committee was keenly aware that in maintaining a position of China, Chiang Kai-shek and the mainland there is actually a common language in order to safeguard the fundamental interests of the country and the nation, the Chinese Communists to adjust the strategy, that "Chiang Kai-shek against the United States together" idea.
October 6, 1958, in Mao Zedong drafted to Secretary of Defense released the name of Peng <<to Compatriots in Taiwan>>, the proposed "joint Chiang against the United States' strategy thinking. <<Compatriots in Taiwan" that "we are Chinese, Thirty-Six, and for the count, "the two parties stand in common is the" one China ", civil war for 30 years," not over yet, this is bad, the proposed negotiations, the implementation of peaceful settlement, "while warning the Kuomintang authorities" Americans certainly have to abandon your day, "" U.S. imperialism is our common enemy. "
Since then, both sides to adjust the policy, by the intense military confrontation to confrontation with the main political and military confrontation against the state, supplemented by the two sides of the artillery playing the stop, has been extended to the end of 1978.
October 1958, Mao Zedong and Singapore <<Nanyang Siang Pau>> writer Cao Juren conversation, made it clear that "if Taiwan returned to China, according to their way of life, when the United States not to Jiang, Jiang can come to the mainland, to the is a major contribution to the failure of the United States. Chiang with the dissolution of the United States, with branches, to link with the mainland, or to his roots, you can live, can engage in his or her own. "He added: Chiang Kai-shek could save the army, I do not He Caibing pressure, do not he streamline administration, let him engage in "Three People's Principles." Ask someone to be Mao's statement analyzed to see whether this passage contains the "one country," the basic idea. 4, "one with four eyes.
Time into the 1960s, the Chinese Communist Party's policy of peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question more and more definite and clear principles.
In May 1960, Mao Zedong at a Politburo meeting on: Chiang Kai-shek and his son placed in the hands of Taiwan would rather not fall into the hands of the United States, we can wait for the Chiang Kai-shek, the task of the liberation of Taiwan do not have to complete our generation, Jiang has now come the difficulties, step by step to create these conditions, when the time comes easier to handle.
Since then, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai had commissioned an intermediary to convey the Chinese Communists to Chiang Kai-shek's policy on peace talks and conditions after induction Zhou Enlai, Mao Zedong agreed to these policies summarized as "one with four eyes." "One with" means: Taiwan and mainland China must be unified.
Question: Students, what is the key link? The "must be unified" as a "key link" mean?
Summary Students must clear answer: "Gang" is intended to refer to the above net total rope, "Gangjumuzhang", extended is the most critical things, the most fundamental and most important part of the "must be unified" as a "key link", were made in the peaceful liberation of Taiwan is the fundamental starting point.
"Four eyes" means: In addition to diplomacy must be integrated in the central, all military and political power and personnel arrangements determined by the Chiang Kai-shek, military and construction funding shortfall by the central allocation, Taiwan's social reform can be slow, negotiated settlement, both sides about not sent to destroy the unity of the other things.
In January 1963, Zhou Enlai, Zhang Zhizhong to by Chen Cheng (when he was "ROC Vice Premier") wrote, the CPC Central Committee 'one four head "approach informed the Taiwan authorities.
As demonstrated by the peaceful reunification of the mainland's sincerity, coupled with the United States intensified conflict with the Taiwan authorities, the United States reveal the ambition to annex Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek in his later years have also considered the issue of peaceful reunification. Between the two parties by the KMT "legislator" Song, Yishan, <<Nanyang Siang Pau>> writer Cao Juren secret contacts, etc., made a lot of fruitful liaison work, and even to discuss reunification of Taiwan with the conditions. However, the "Cultural Revolution" occurred after the "one with four eyes" principle, the implementation of the interrupted .
1966 June 27, <<Daily>> published <<must take the flag into the Taiwan>> editorial and re-submit "must liberate Taiwan" slogan.
In this case, the link between the two parties work was interrupted, the peaceful liberation of Taiwan is not so, it was said it was "the history of regret." Zhang said even: either the "Cultural Revolution", the Taiwan early was to take back the mainland.
We agree with Zhang's argument may be difficult, but it's a "sorry history": We need to recognize, with Mao Zedong as the core of the CPC established the first generation of collective leadership, the international community recognized one China, for the final essential to resolve the Taiwan issue has laid a foundation for their policies on Taiwan continue to explore, but also for later Deng Xiaoping put forward the "peaceful reunification and one country two systems" concept provides the scientific thinking of the conditions. Links to free download http: / / eng.hi138.com