Awareness about the evolution of Taiwan's national identity of Taiwan youth development

Summary in mutual trust and consensus to make new achievements, over the years between the two sides lie in the cultural differences between generations, especially the history of confrontation or hostile education, political education, national education, there may be two sides of multi-channel, large the scale of communication, exchange and interaction in the process stand out. mainland authorities should be aware of changes in Taiwan's mainstream public opinion, concerns Taiwan's "people" and "public opinion" of the smooth accessibility; while promoting education and cultural exchanges, enhancing information and communication media, enhance youth work, and to enhance young people in Taiwan to the motherland's sense of identity and belonging.

Keywords awareness of young people in Taiwan Taiwan identity belonging

Chiang Kai-shek retreated to Taiwan from 1949 to 2008, the KMT-CPC standoff reached a mutual goodwill "three links" results, the two sides have gone through 60 years of ups and downs in the history of reincarnation in a cycle of sixty years, the gap with each other, confrontation, conflict and hostility did not for "three links" agreement is the wind journeyman, in mutual trust and consensus to make new achievements, over the years between the two sides lie in the cultural differences between generations, especially in opposing or hostile to the history of education, political education , the national education is still possible in cross multi-channel, large-scale communication, exchange and interaction process prominent. In particular vigilance is the normal development of cross-strait relations are not smooth, simmering when the international community, Japan is gradually increasing in recent years, efforts to interfere in the Taiwan issue recently, the Japanese Representative to Taiwan Masaki Saito, publicly advocated the so-called "Taiwan status is undetermined ", where their heart, just as Mr. Zhang Qi said it" is an attempt to undermine cross-strait peace and development of the situation, to contain the purpose of splitting China. "[1] Thus, in cross-strait" three links "to achieve the objective, the most need to focus on the people of Taiwan "popular" and "public opinion" of the smooth accessibility.

Today, the people in the community recognize the cross-strait "cross-strait belong to the Chinese nation," the historical moment, we make the height of the viewpoint of safeguarding the interests of the Chinese nation, understand Taiwan's mainstream public opinion changes, re-examine the cross-strait political, economic and social history with the status quo, which will help us better understand the development trend of cross-strait relations, but also conducive to promoting cross-strait people (especially young) national feelings, national identity and national integration.

Taiwan's development and evolution of consciousness

Huang Chun-chieh that the well-known scholar in Taiwan, "Taiwan consciousness" is the core of "identity" problem. "Recognition" issue both the history of the subsequent Cold War world of universal significance, but also the unique special significance in Taiwan. "Taiwan consciousness" content complex, including at least two components: cultural identity and political identity. interdependence between the two, inseparable.

Taiwan consciousness was formed in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the beginning feeling closely connected with the motherland. Sino defeat the Qing government, ceded Taiwan to Japan to resist colonial rule, to maintain cultural traditions and way of life inherent in the Taiwan compatriots in protest, local consciousness spontaneously. initial awareness of Taiwan's Chinese language education is through the fight to save the form and tend to come out. It is the Taiwan compatriots for the fight against Japanese aggressors and cultural repression of the weapon, also Taiwanese people demanded their masters in theoretical basis, but since the February 28 Incident, the KMT government moved to Taiwan after 38 years of martial law rule, and the United States , Japan and other countries on Taiwan's political, economic and long-term decisive influence during the Cold War East-West confrontation and other subjective and objective conditions, "Taiwan consciousness" by a group of exiled dissidents and the KMT strong departure from the operation and evolution of the motherland. " Taiwan independence consciousness ", so that the original anti-imperialist, anti-colonial nostalgia for the motherland and maintain the lifeline of the Chinese culture degenerated into a multi-cultural content" anti-Chinese hegemony "and" anti-Chinese annexation "of political claims.

Understanding of "Taiwan consciousness" the evolution of historical background, helps us to deepen the understanding of the Taiwan compatriots, and to realize themselves in their thinking and thought process in view of Taiwan compatriots, "Taiwan consciousness" form, and the Taiwan independence 400 years blood and tears of bitterness and self-history of struggle are inseparable. Boycott policy from the early Qing dynasties, the Qing Dynasty ceded Taiwan to Japan, 400 years apart, cut off 100 years, 50 years of opposition, culminating in a high degree of self-protection of the public, "Taiwan consciousness." Huang Chun-chieh in his 2007 book < <Taiwanese consciousness and Taiwanese culture>> in his book: from the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Japanese after the war to the last 10 years, "Taiwan consciousness" after changes, but are in the political history of the concrete and particular in the context of development early Taiwan exists only as a local sense of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou consciousness, to the Japanese occupation era, the colonists living in Union WWW.LWLM.COM finishing position paper of Japanese imperialism and oppression, "Taiwan consciousness" shape. the Japanese occupation "of Taiwan consciousness "is both against the Japanese national consciousness of the Han nationality, is against the colonialists of class consciousness. retrocession, and especially since 1947, two hundred twenty-eight Incident, the KMT authorities at that time under the rule of" Taiwan consciousness "and sense of integration and provincial penetration by the provincial consciousness, in opposition to the KMT's mainland nationals based in the main content of .1987 after the abolition of martial law in July, "Taiwan consciousness" has the meaning enlarged, including Taiwan's Minnan, Hakka mainlanders and aborigines, as opposed to mainland China in terms of a new political consciousness in this new political consciousness, the "anti-communist," "anti-authoritarian" is an important content, while facing the issue of reunification, Taiwan most worried about social justice and the lack of equal status.

Since the DPP came to power, the use of history to create "tragic" gradual Taiwan independence, long-term implementation of the policy, tried to implement the so-called public education, local culture, they are tampering with history, the origin of Taiwan and the mainland split, intensify the people of Taiwan and the mainland of exclusion hostility. In 1994, Lee Teng-hui issued the "revised junior high school curriculum standards," a substantial reduction in time for students to learn Chinese while the use of language is also showing a political tendency, Minnan dialect became synonymous with the local community and an important carrier of consciousness. Southern Taiwan part of the school, Hokkien has reached a higher level subjects as an official language, although for the purpose of this policy to localization, but a new generation of Taiwanese national consciousness of the culture, far-reaching, negative effects can not be underestimated. It is understood that 20 years of age in Taiwan young people know very little about the historical evolution of the Chinese nation, once a source of Taiwan and the mainland without a complete understanding of the system, its national identity and belonging more irrelevant.

Forbidden City Chinese civilization and culture has symbolic significance of traditional Chinese culture. Forbidden City cultural integrity, richness and symbolic, to the National Palace as inexhaustible treasures. Palace rich cultural resources and heritage of the descendants of the fine traditional Chinese culture, carry forward and cultivate the national spirit has a unique and important role in . in the past relics on display in Taipei Palace Museum will be a time display boards, display boards on the cultural map out a clear migration to Taiwan topography. Such as the works of Wang Xizhi introduced, will be born when and where it, where the work has created a detailed description, but Chen Shui-bian came to power, the Museum exhibits only required where the writer's name, no other background information introduced, so that many visitors mistake the works of Wang Xizhi's heritage as foreign artists or works of art in other parts of Asia.

Chen Shui-bian implementation of the "de-China" and the education reform, education and practice Guoxue weaken, causing a lot of people's dissatisfaction .2005 May, the people of Taiwan to awaken the attention of the Chinese traditional culture, the poet Yu Kuang-chung, "Academia Sinica" Xu Zhuoyun etc. who initiated the establishment of a "rescue Chinese Education Alliance." They issued a "Declaration of Action", denouncing Chen Shui-bian authorities to weaken the behavior of high school language classes is the "de-China", looking forward to restore the previous "Learning a strong competitive edge", and to ask the education sector in 2006 to suspend the implementation of the "high school curriculum Interim Outline. "educators have also reflects the decline in the quality of students, the community through various forms of self-adhere to tradition Sinology.

Value-oriented young people to deepen awareness of Taiwan

Huang Chun-chieh believes that cross-strait official and the people will "agree" to simplify the problem of political identity. For example, when the KMT was in power, "National Unification Council" on August 1, 1992, adopted (on the "One China" meaning) file, said: "Chinese authorities that the 'one China' is the 'Republic of China', in the future after reunification, Taiwan will become under a 'Special Administrative Region' our side is that the 'one China' should be 1912 So far the Republic of China was founded, its sovereignty and in the whole of China, but the right to rule, and in Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu only. Taiwan is part of China, the mainland is also part of China. "
May 5, 1995 the Democratic Progressive Party "in the Executive Council" adopted by <<Resolution on Taiwan's Future>> in the "political identity" in the context of positioning Taiwan: Taiwan does not belong to the People's Republic of China one-sided proposition the "one China principle" and "one country two systems" simply does not apply to Taiwan. [2]
Young people in Taiwan identity is widespread concern based on the above background, combined with long-term in the closed state and misled by the media today at the high school stage following a significant number of young people in Taiwan, including college students, on the mainland 60 years of development and change understanding of the basic state in a blank or distorted, sense of national identity increasingly weak.

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A short visit to the mainland for Taiwan's National Chengchi University in graduate school, Ms. L told the author, field visits to the mainland, that the former is very superficial understanding of Shanghai, Shanghai has developed rapidly in fact, she said, before mainland Taiwan information about closed badly, even if there have been reports also seriously inaccurate. School education in the "de-China" political orientation, the weakened and fragmented history of Taiwan and the mainland, compared with her younger Benedictine College Shanghai Campus know almost nothing about the situation on the mainland. Part of Taiwan's young people get the wrong long-term information on individual students, although parents are quite concerned about the continent's development prospects, but still stay in the minds of ancient China, so introduce yourself to the identity of foreign nationals, the vast majority of students described they are "Taiwanese" rather than "Chinese" or "China Taiwan people."
In 2005 I had made in Shanghai and Taiwan students questionnaires and case interviews, when we asked them to "introduce themselves to the identity of expatriates, you usually say you are what capacity," select "Chinese" the ratio of 15.6%, select the "China Taiwan" and the proportion is only 12.3% (the ratio of two of the total 27.9%), with 74.6% of the students chose the "Taiwanese."
Independence or unification, is related to the fundamental interests of Taiwan people and future prospects, is also troubled by a sensitive issue in Taiwan. Surveys show that despite differences of opinion at Taiwan, but there is still a consensus within Taiwan's society, the vast majority of Taiwan aspiration of the people to maintain the status quo no unification, no independence.

The author of the 2005 survey of Taiwanese college students in Shanghai showed that, for "Do you think the two sides in the future regardless of the state", followed by Taiwan students to answer "tell" 40.6%, "maintaining the status quo, in the future reunification" and 30.5% "unified" 10.9% (41.4% of this sum of two), "always maintain the status quo," 8.6% "Taiwan independence" and "maintaining the status quo, the future independence," each 1.6% (3.2% of this sum of two) . Overall, students not only in favor of the reunification of the motherland Taiwan, oppose Taiwan independence and war, and the central government's "one country two systems" doubts in "your prospects for the development of attitudes towards cross-strait relations," I asked, the "optimistic" by More than half the proportion accounted for 55.5%, "pessimistic" the proportion was 15.6%, that "does not matter," accounted for 14.8%, choose "Other" the proportion was 13.3% shows that young people in Taiwan orientation consistent with Taiwan's mainstream public opinion, that peace stability and development, so the proportion of people want to maintain the status quo more than 60% but a substantial part of them still adhere to the "Chinese and Taiwanese are not a concept." in Taiwan native of "seventh grade" and college students, due to the "Understanding Taiwan" and other materials affect not only the provincial youth do not regard themselves as Chinese, and even the descendants of persons from other provinces, the "Greater China" is also becoming weak, there is "ethnic identity crisis." [3]
Shanghai Taiwanese students studying national identity, although stronger than other age groups, but there are still some young people, "Republic of China" concept is stronger than the "Chinese nation" concept, adhere to the "Republic of China" is a "sovereign state." With Taiwan The evolution of political ecology, the separation of Taiwan's youth awareness and sense of alienation may be enhanced still further. There are some young people believe that the fundamental problem of cross-strait relations and China's national strength depends on the Sino-US relations, Taiwan issue involves China's sovereignty and territorial integrity is also related to the future direction of Sino-US relations, Taiwan issue is well handled, there is the development of Sino-US relations more room, of course, the state is growing stronger, improved international reputation, the strength of the stronger suppression of Taiwan independence.

Reunification of Taiwan young people's understanding both delicate and complex, while they are on the "China" sense of identity, on the other hand the "Republic of China" cherish attachment complex from their identity from time to look at, Taiwan authorities have long-term policy of "de-China" policy and "local policy", in the youth group has been branded a deep impression, which is the realization of peaceful reunification will surely have some negative effects, although they also see China's rapid economic development and the international community's recognition of China and see the sincerity of the mainland and Taiwan cooperation, but a considerable portion of them still adhere to the "Chinese and Taiwanese are not a concept." due to "Understanding Taiwan" and other materials impact, not only the provincial youth do not regard themselves as Chinese, and even the descendants of persons from other provinces, the "Greater China" has become increasingly weak, there is "ethnic identity crisis."
Of course, Taiwan's young people also see that China's rapid economic development of the situation, let the world have discovered a huge opportunity, and race into this huge market, while Taiwan and the mainland the same language, cross-strait interactions has been formed, mainland to Taiwan's economic development will have a positive impact, so the Taiwan authorities should size up the situation, the normal communication and promote cross-strait exchanges, so most of them prospects for the development of cross-strait relations are optimistic.
Trust each other to enhance young people's sense of national identity of Taiwan Comrade Hu Jintao pointed out: "peaceful development is the subject of cross-strait relations and peaceful development is the only way the Chinese renaissance." In his report 17, he further reiterated: "to strive for peaceful reunification never give up efforts. "stressed the need to" firmly grasp the theme of peaceful development of cross-strait relations, in good faith for the well-being of compatriots on both sides, to seek peace across the Taiwan Straits. "celebrate the 60th anniversary celebration of his speech, Hu again expressed to "promote the peaceful development of cross-strait relations," "continue to achieve the complete reunification of the motherland and the common aspiration of the Chinese nation to fight." Mr. Song Chuyu speech at Qinghua University, also twice referred to "Taiwan independence is a dead end road." He that the two sides belong to the origins of Chinese civilization, no one will agree to fight for any side, and give up the other side. Currently, both the mainland government or the people, the future direction of cross-strait relations are beyond the attitude of the value of the tools, support the concept of peaceful development . people sincerely hope the two sides to grasp the valuable historic opportunity to reduce friction, hand in hand. To this end, we make the following recommendations:
1 to promote civil access rainy day can only take preventive measures based on the cognitive status of people in Taiwan to strengthen cross-strait civilian exchanges and visits, especially to enhance communication between young people and access (such as recreational activities, etc.) to enhance the Strait public on both sides of the mutual trust and understanding, is to promote "peaceful reunification" and "one country two systems" one of the important channels. As Taiwanese students studying in Shanghai said, by way of mutual communication and exchange, can enhance friendship, build trust, understanding each other's real information, this policy of publicity than the much better.

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(2) carry forward the traditional culture, promoting education and cultural exchanges and profound traditional Chinese culture, from thought to action to influence generation after generation of young people in China who focus on history, respected reverence for his ancestors. Linking the two sides shared the spirit of the core culture of the nation complex, is the foundation of common interests and national identity. president Lee Si-chen of Taiwan University, recently told <<China Review>> magazine interview, said that Taiwan and the mainland in the past, after all, polar opposites in politics, hoping that the situation of confrontation in the international community economic status of the continent's political future of a new awareness gradually fade and slowly calm down, he said: Taiwan Electrical and Mechanical University research in medicine and is a world leader, National Taiwan University will actively promote cross-strait academic exchanges and educational cooperation, to share experiences and results. Another example is the development of the mainland's early career and technical education, professional and meticulous reasonable classification, vocational schools to promote cross-strait interaction, complementary advantages is conducive to cooperation and win-win. Lien Chan visited the mainland, also said that to Let the people of both sides together, the best way is through cultural exchange, to achieve cultural identity in Taiwan has historically focused on national cultural heritage, Confucianism strong atmosphere. To this end, expand the education and cultural exchanges between the two sides is imperative. promote cultural and educational exchanges help train young people of Taiwan to the motherland's identity and sense of belonging, more conducive to unity and affect Taiwan's young generation.

(3) Strengthen the communication of information and media. The survey found that a considerable part of Taiwan's young people get the wrong long-term information, the parents of some young people from other provinces, although confident of the reunification of the motherland, but they stay in the understanding of the mainland before 1949 traditional and backward impression. and Lien Chan and James Soong visited the mainland such as Taiwan have reported far less detailed the mainland, while Taiwan's young people understand the mainland is relatively limited, as on the mainland or to the land is full of hostility, or Taiwan as a prosperous and peaceful paradise blessed everywhere, so opening up the media, information and media to enhance communication between the two sides will benefit both young people truly understand each other's development status, and thus make the right judgments and choices.

4 youth work to enhance the intensity of the past 10 years, cross-strait economic and trade exchanges, personnel exchanges continued development of the mainland part of the work for young people is still relatively weak, the young generation of Taiwanese way of thinking and values ​​are not thoroughly understood, its impact will be limited now, young people in Taiwan in the "Republic of China" a strong idea, "Chinese nation" concept is relatively weak, which is the realization of peaceful reunification will surely have some negative effects. Therefore, to achieve peaceful reunification, Taiwan must strengthen efforts to youth work, youth exchange activities of the organization's institutions to give more preferential policies and financial assistance.

5 Respect for facts, common repair history, history of science to carry out education in Taiwan has the best Chinese Qing experts who have a strong national tradition. Expert on Taiwan's Qing Chuang Chi-fa particularly like to contribute to this cross Meditation Qing He destroyed so many years that the Qing Dynasty, Qing not repair it is very it should be! Indeed, the two sides to their long-term political needs to be modeled, respectively, a different history "adaptation." To this end, the history of education has been with the current cross-strait relations incompatible with the new pattern, which requires both sides of the politicians, historians, educators, the overall interests of the Chinese nation stand point of view, from the peaceful development of cross-strait relations perspective, to re-examine the international environment, China from 1840 to 2008 between the two sides of the historical development process, let the history books dating, common repair history. if they can do this, it would be a remarkable historical significance thing.

6 full play to Hong Kong and Macao "promoting unification" effect due to social philosophy, values, interests, etc. exist many differences in orientation, to achieve peaceful reunification in a short time is unrealistic in "promoting unification" process in Hong Kong and Macao can play a very active role and we should make use of Hong Kong, Macao and political stability, social harmony, values ​​and characteristics of Taiwan's relatively close, positive, practical and low-key development of Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and economic cooperation, to build cross an important bridge of cultural exchange and intermediary platform, in a rational way to strengthen Taiwan people, especially young people, communication between the enhanced four places of mutual trust and understanding, enhance their sense of national identity, so as to promote " peaceful reunification, "the great cause of further development.

Lien Chan has always stood for both sides to peace, to win, he said: "The world should work together to enhance the tranquil Chinese soft power, from confrontation to peace, from closed to open, from discrimination to equality, tolerance from the arrogance to believe that 20 years later truly to succeed will be the moment of the Chinese nation! "60 years, both sides paid a high price only to win today's stability, but they are still very weak foundation of trust, so we should seize the opportunity to eliminate suspicion and exclusion, to inclusive and sincere feelings to change Taiwan's national identity, especially young people, the two sides work together to write a new chapter of history.

References:

[1] Qi its chapter a pseudo-proposition: "Taiwan's status is undetermined." 探索与争鸣, 2009 (9).

[2] Huang Chun-chieh, Taiwan consciousness and Taiwanese culture. Taipei: Taiwan University Press, 2007:147.

[3] Hsiao-Ping Dong, Weili Li in Shanghai and Taiwan students social awareness survey. Social Sciences, 2006 (8).

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