Perspective on the political philosophy of the aesthetics of everyday life.

For always like too literally the Chinese scholars who, for the "aesthetics of everyday life" to the study, people assume it as an aesthetic and aesthetic (including cultural issues. The "aesthetics of everyday life" and the aesthetic dilemma Contact up, which of course would be a keen observation, but presented in such "aesthetic" staring eyes, the only "aesthetic" expansion of a plane and "incremental." on the "aesthetics of everyday life" success to capture its praise, so that they no longer see the vision of empiricism and positivism anything beyond this point, it really is a problem, or, in a larger context, it is " aesthetics of everyday life 'own ideology effects and symptoms of the problem lies. according to Strauss's view, political philosophy involved is about the "perfect political" issue, which in turn refers to a purposeful social life as a whole rather than the latter partial derivatives [1], so, since the "aesthetics of everyday life" inevitably related to the integrity of the "daily life" and "how people should live," the core of political philosophy such care , then it is greater and more fundamental level, is involved in political philosophy, at least have significant problems with the intersection of fact, the history of China's current conditions, the "aesthetics of everyday life." It is a philosophical and political issues of a political philosophy symptoms appear, therefore, proceed from the perspective of political philosophy, not the contemplation of "aesthetics of everyday life," many "sights" and "paradigm" one, but its the absolute opposite, which makes this contemplation with the ultimate and inclusive.

A symptom of the problem as a political philosophy of "aesthetics of everyday life."
In the absence of any provision of ethical, cultural ideals and political goals of the case, a community of countries and civilizations will only purely economic contracts, economic relations and economic networks, as well as their self-sufficiency and self-discipline of the inner loop - from a side point of view, this God-like omniscience of the economic world has enough of it through the "market" and the economic means to solve all the problems of human life in this sense, the "aesthetics of everyday life" is not For Kant, since the end of the classic aesthetic and subversion, but Kant's aesthetics and its logical extreme one-sided stretch performance. Kant's transcendental philosophy is characterized by the logic of economic liberalism as a substantial amount of expansion, but also for the ultimate nature of the liberal argument, it will not stop at people's private lives and the emotional field, but also fully occupied some of the supposed "public domain", which is for the whole of life ethics and organization of life and blurred the expression of vague praise and some years past, the memory of Kudachoushen for people who see this "aesthetics of everyday life" has brought deconstructive power of digestion and is very excited understandable, but this should not overwhelm us the excitement of the intellectual and cultural realities of the contemporary realism. "aesthetics of everyday life" does not like the people as optimistic estimate, is a comprehensive emotional liberation, at least, It is liberation and release in one hand while the other hand, also for the emotional depth of the depression and institutionalized - institutionalized again and re-organization which it is not just an artistic and aesthetic issues, as It also makes the artistic and aesthetic has become a problem, faced with fundamental difficulties and crises:

From a sociological point of view, the general process of this aesthetic, the aesthetic is the only means to other areas of the spiritual life of the privatization when the spiritual hierarchy of the field when the collapse of everything into the center of spiritual life, however, When aesthetics are absolute and are promoted to the vertex, including the arts, including all spiritual things, their nature has changed, become a false thing. [2]

Schmidt in the 1920s discussion of the issue in today's China seems so to the point, which in turn is precisely the historical context for our current and historical conditions of a precise positioning. Aesthetic look like it has never been up, particularly in the "aesthetic" type of vision looks like, but a detached, pure form of relationship, the United States itself is never just a formal thing, even a "form of forms" (Schiller, It has always been in a specific cultural meaning and value of the substantive provisions of which the content if the underlying aesthetic value of the specific nature of this culture was expanded to an unprecedented level of abstract universality, then, that the abstract either in itself is a universal crisis of representation, or behind this there is still an abstract universal values ​​of the specific content and value-referential - in specific historical contexts, both of which can certainly co-exist in fact. " aesthetics of everyday life, "praise and legitimize it, and it is this value to get rid of the weight and value of any concerned in the abstract universal and the empty weight loss by itself, is the aesthetic relationship between the abstract theory of value and empty of their purely intuitive and praise, so it reached the daily life of such a judge: "daily life" itself has no on the "good" and "bad" value judgments, not on human nature and value of their departure from "good" and "bad" judge here so only the pure standard materials, the relationship between objects and objects of the law, but it was wiped out in the industrial era, the era of the machine gloomy, cold, coated with a layer called "aesthetic" of the thin and light color of the light in here, the so-called "principle of the United States" is the "material principle." as a "necessary system" ethics of life and living tissue, now a purely economic oriented and materialistic, and it as an economic theory of "self" of the system, has now become a "self-needs" of the system: "need" need "need", "material" consumer "material", needs and consumption itself lose its source of life and survival and basic, into an empty form and ceremony of the things here first does have a wealth of material production and a social life changes and other factors, but by no means merely "aesthetic "So innocent and worthy of optimism. Here, you can see in some difficult than the living environment and economic relations between the naked greater value under the conditions of void and nothingness, one closer to the end of the world the vulnerability of madness and hysterical and dangerous.

Husserl in the early 20th century that "life-world" concept, in the context of the phenomenon under study, one of its intention to oppose scientism, positivism, on the other against historicism, relativism. Scientism, positivism denied the value of the problem, historicism, relativism advocates question the value is only relative and temporary problems, the former to make life a machine, which make life a debris Husserl's ideas, in fact affirmed the life-world itself substantial value, and about life, the truth value of the problem itself (ie, denial of historicism and relativism, at least for this kind of thinking leaves room for the path as a disciple of Husserl, Strauss issues of fact relevant to this internally. For Strauss-style vision of political philosophy, any political activity can not actually leave on the "better" or "worse" in consideration of the situation, and in the balance. " better "and" worse "situation, it is impossible not to consider" good "or" bad "itself. Therefore, since Socrates, the fundamental problem of political philosophy is best for the best form of government or social quest, or on the best form of government or social theory to explore the best: "They point to the knowledge of good or bad, or more precisely, they are a perfect political point about the 'good' (the essence of a good society characteristics of knowledge. "[3] That is to say, political philosophy, not only can not leave the value of the problem, but is itself a theory of value (as well as the premise of social science meta-issue if we can for the social life and political and social theory with the purpose of a rational way of understanding and awareness, then the political philosophy will always be a prerequisite and fundamental things, political philosophy for thinkers, would be "an eternal temptation . "
Therefore, "What is the best form of government or the best society?" This Socrates - Strauss-ended questions of itself even if no answer, it is still structure our lives substantive institutional and political reality of power. Because after all, politics is not what theory, which answer the question, but how to live the question. political philosophy in theory and practice, between ideas and the critical surface of life, this relationship between the two an enhanced expression, it is this association between the two levels of relationship and conflict prominently displayed. to maximize the political philosophy of "practical philosophy" and "philosophical practice" of these two aspects of the problem hinges on the one in tension in such a problem, Strauss attributed the crisis of modern political philosophy of the crisis, has given this problem in a grand historical critical dimensions of modernity in the Shite Lao Sri Lanka appears that the fundamental crisis of modernity is that it has been found that human reason is no longer able to distinguish the "facts" and "value", no longer able to distinguish between good values ​​and bad values ​​[4], no longer according to their sure to understand the political and social goals, then positivism of political philosophy and political science was born, according to this political thinking and political philosophy, political organizing principle of social life and no longer can rely on some kind of value for planning and setting goals , and completely abstract specification into a form of self-referential, the positivism of the "legitimacy" of the system. such a situation, no doubt, where the modern liberal politics have been fully achieved, according to Schmitt's view, In view of liberalism, including the concept of liberal political thought and political and economic rationality itself is a manifestation of economic thinking, which ultimately became the economic center of human life and the most important things, economic principles, economic principles and economic logic, and finally become the world's political and social life, or were hidden in the fundamental law or as positivist "social science" of political philosophy and political science, all this is just the problem itself characterization and representation, can not place any hope in Under this premise, Strauss so to an extreme way, the crisis of modernity attributed to "the crisis of political philosophy," which actually gives a political philosophy to the status of the law of Moses - if not the certainty, positive law, but also a negative reverse the law as to constitute any ideas for lifting and load values, Nietzsche described the "last man" type of lifestyle fundamental confrontation special facilities Rolls-political, not because of his political philosophy is the concept of political content, and ultimately that he gives of political philosophy and philosophical and ethical nature of this power law, or that Strauss's "significant White taught "is the philosophy of" esoteric teachings "is the nature of the discipline, or that he" was white teachings "is a question type - type of philosophy," esoteric teachings "is affirmative - political style. This is not, or between different parts of the relationship between part and whole, but different levels of problems. Strauss, and the aforementioned Schmitt at least made us realize that not only the concept of meaning, and ideas and concepts in the form of order , in the same or even greater impact on the life of the organization and composition of the living world. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
from starting such a political philosophy perspective, we can "everyday life aesthetic "as a symptom of the problem, that is, as the organizing principle of daily life, the ethical and political rules, economic doctrine into a completely neutral," the ultra-utilitarian 'aesthetic issues, values ​​issues and political ideals and political goals and completely into economic self-discipline and inner loop of the "aimless purposiveness." Strauss appears as a fundamental dilemma of modern civilization and question things, is now the "aesthetic" approach, elegant way to rationalize, idealistic, and also received a static contemplation of "aesthetic distance": "In a purely aesthetic field, regardless of religious, moral, political decision, or a scientific concept, can not have a foothold. But does the existence of such a situation: all the major opposition and differences, good and evil, enemy and friend, Christ and Antichrist, can become the aesthetic contrast, became the means of the novel complex, from the aesthetic point of view to be integrated into Art the overall effect works. "[5] But, this distance is as for the" noble "object - organization and daily life of the living world - can not grasp the negative patterns and negative consequences arise when people experience" aesthetics of everyday life "of the time, like Kant's philosophy of reason and understanding" thing-in "relationship, just that" everyday life "has been entirely in the" aesthetic relationship, "but, in our theoretical understanding and practical ability of possession outside. Thus, there should do is to look at our cognitive and practical ability itself a problem, rather than rushing to praise the "aesthetic" of how the world how this and related cognitive styles and ways of thinking, but more and substantive changes in the living world, not just stay in the theory for the description of the facts, but rather to be to make the appropriate changes and adjustments of the moment, however, this theory of double weightlessness and survival, but was some people describe as a "living" world's exaltation.

Second, the "aesthetics of everyday life," Past and Present For some people, the "aesthetics of everyday life," if not a complete proposition, but in which each word is like building blocks, like the game and play free to play with, and always stimulate their imagination and inspiration, and then discovered the aesthetics of "life on the move" and "modern life", in turn, according to their logic, criticized the "aesthetics of everyday life" is in the criticism of "daily life", and thus is critical "life" itself - and then only allow critics to utter shame. while some people might say, like "value" or even "political philosophy" of such a concept, are some old concept in a "deconstruction" and "post-modern" era, is too outdated to explore this issue so to say, not to distinguish between the nature and level: This is not to explore on the "value" of their own concepts and theories, but to explore in real life and the value of political and social arrangements from the concept of sense, not to mention the "value" is "deconstruction" and "post-modern" is it not the old concept (so that their talents as a fashionable thing shows its outdated, but whether because they are old "concept" is no longer considering the realities of the value of the arrangements and other issues? This is like, whether because the "army" is the old concept, no longer need the army, no longer and organizations need to deploy military defense? even the most basic of thought and theoretical knowledge are confused, but blindly importune, people think it is not worth a debate.

"Aesthetics of everyday life" with a theoretical of course, traditional and cultural tradition, this is the epistemological empiricism, pragmatism, political philosophy and political culture of liberalism. Liberalism - Ethical consumerism life itself, is a kind of "aesthetic" doctrine attitude: abstract, atom of the economy - consumer "individual" and "human nature", middle-class aesthetic style "super-utility", "value neutral", trying all the ideas and ideology, as the removal of the domain " aesthetic distance "... Kant's heyday in the direction of capitalism on the eve of the abstract with his transcendental philosophy to grasp the political economy of the content, as the full development of the European economic liberalism of the German theory, is much lower than those of pure Anglo-American philosophy of experience in the world more powerful and full, but also the provisions of the latter have a lasting impact and theory of excitation power, so that no matter how the latter guise, or escape the barriers of Kant, which is that Kant's aesthetics but for all of the systematic and theoretical fully expressed, in turn, all this does not subvert the basic framework of Kant's aesthetics, but at best only its extreme performance, or it can be said, in a liberal - ethical consumerism and living life in the law, already has "aesthetic" doctrine, including the "aesthetics of everyday life" of all the principles and conditions for the same time, the big ideological and cultural roots point of view, that is, trace the ideological and cultural origins of the proposition itself, rather than stick to the time of this proposition appears, then, like aesthetics with pragmatism from the same ideological and cultural traditions, so between them, it is difficult to say what exactly why the fruit.

Therefore, the "aesthetics of everyday life," how it all like the classic aesthetics of ambiguity within the framework of a localized problem or a superficial problem, or is suffering from amnesia thinking, incomplete knowledge of the classical aesthetic. " aesthetics of everyday life "and for some of its defense, just continued the emotional and rational a way to sharp opposition to the Enlightenment of the 1980s-style thinking, which has always believed that emotional stuff is more open and free, this logic , "aesthetic" is far less than the "animal" of the animal world and the "open" and "freedom." sensibility of an animal is not worthy of praise, when people say that the aesthetic sensibility and freedom, provided that such aesthetic is not just emotional, and above all human things, from some very old academic tradition and academic concepts, we know, human territory, and not just a simple animal-oriented sensibility, which is precisely trapped and arrested prisoners in various low-level limitations were. emotional things to cultural, rational thing to provide for the organization and intermediaries, these things aside, there is only a matter of sensibility and animal , such a "sensitive" is probably the reason than the field of cultural values ​​and not something more free, more poor prison and it actually does not matter "emotional" is just a matter of ease and objectivity of the present, the most typical the presence of animal: one can not be an intermediary, to be reflective, to be the contemplation of the "sensitive", but in free fall in the emotional immediacy, in fact, they did not does not matter rich or poor, it is entirely in the value of such evaluation and value On the horizon outside, but when they are in some kind of intermediary, the case of reflection and contemplation, that they no longer are free of animal identity and objectivity, and is no longer a passive material that a while intermediate and reflective media and media, more comfortable material that is not only emotional in itself, so animals of the "sensitive" areas of the world has no value and the value on space, not the aesthetic and artistic. When such a situation the is said to be extended to all areas of daily life, or that the "daily life" field has been so to be "aesthetic" and the sensibility of the transformation, we can imagine what it was a stifling situation. all human things, which are lost in weight, can not afford the life of this "light", has long been some of the modern, post-modern writers and artists made the reproduction of artistic and critical, and now they are the "aesthetics of everyday life of "positive affirmation of the name down, and said also, following Weber called" rational ", the social organization to become universal law.

As a domestic "aesthetics of everyday life," one of the sources of the concept of the German philosopher Wolfgang Welsch's work, was mentioned four "aesthetic": superficial aesthetic, physical and social reality of the aesthetic , life attitude and practice of moral and aesthetic direction of the aesthetic theory of knowledge. First, the European languages ​​in both "emotional" and "aesthetic" double meaning and understanding of the concept of fully translated into Chinese in the "aesthetic" and "aesthetic" meaning, which in itself is not very appropriate. In fact, Welsch tells is not a new issue: "Whether people like it or not it thoughtful of all objections will be under its own control. If you go back to the controversy basic point, then usually you will run into aesthetic choices. This is because in modernity, the truth has shown itself an aesthetic category, the excuse being rooted in truth, no longer able to counter the aesthetic. "[6] As a post-modern aestheticians, such a statement is not a purely positive argument, we can not understand Kant, Hegel's philosophy of language, a way to understand it. The reason why "all have their own ideas will be subject to objections at its disposal ", the reason for" the truth has shown itself an aesthetic category, "it is because a pre-set on truth, goodness and beauty of classical concepts such as armed, but Welsch one walk in the" emotional "and "aesthetic" meaning the concept of the tension between, on the other hand deal with the "truth" and "aesthetics" of the classical concept of this arsenal, one of them was a post-modern deconstruction, irony and word games mean, its intention to manufacture rich or ambiguous, to indicate the conditions of our modern thinking and cognitive situation. In fact, Welsch for four "aesthetic" in the "superficial aesthetic" (touch the nerve of contemporary Chinese scholars called "everyday life aesthetic "is mainly concerned with this level is entirely critical of, and Welsch's most important so-called" epistemology of aesthetics ", refers to nothing but the reality is constructed out of objects, understand the reality of the" production "category like so some of the cognitive style on perceptual / aesthetic changes, referred to himself as Welsch, in Nietzsche's statements on the already full, but only from the epistemological and aesthetic point of view to understand or follow Nietzsche's critique of modernity, this is a very narrow field of vision, or even a distortion and misunderstanding of the vision, although he considers that "neither the current aesthetic without trial should be affirmed on the degree, should not be without degree on the denial of the trial, "[7], but to maintain the aesthetic issue" super utility "neutral and objective, which is precisely the" aesthetic "attitude itself, show that the" aesthetic "ideological and practical utility of stretching. WEI Seoul Shi impact by Adorno, who, after all, gives too much for the aesthetic utopian [8], although a "post-modern" type of utopia. Links to free download http://www. hi138.com

When we get to the bottom "aesthetics of everyday life" proposition at the right time, you will find it is actually difficult to be specific, you will find it is really just a "principle", a very hollow and suspicious content "principle" and the ideology of pure the narrative. "Who's aesthetic?" is only for a critical approach and its dimensions, in addition to the possibility of criticism and it's specifically referring to what is, in fact, difficult to study scold, which is itself For the reality of the kind of aesthetic and cultural value content requirement of the hole and the life of the world, unable to grasp the life form of the characterization of this double hollow, and the "noble" object (life-world, everyday life) of the shock, trance portrayal of the effect itself. "aesthetics of everyday life" as a "shock" effect, is probably such a situation: like headless flies like a "cultural studies", I do not know Which high-rise buildings in the smooth glass curtain wall on a careless slip tumble, and then get up and shocked the world "aesthetic." When the United States or out of any real aesthetic and cultural value content requirement, which itself becomes a purely formal and the hollowing out of things. on the "daily life aesthetics "is concerned, in what ways it reflects human value and meaning? it is what allows people to feel the physical and mental comfort and pleasure? When we examine the fine plus the time, you will find just the actual situation On the contrary, it is closer to "The five colors cause blindness, deafness pentameter is" aesthetic out of control for just this more and more bright, more "beautiful" world in which all believe that every person has personal experience, that is, it is not people getting cozy and comfortable, but to make more and more people anxiety and mania, so-called "aesthetic" was in fact full of aesthetic pollution, garbage and aesthetic world, which all Of course not all be attributed to the aesthetic "incremental" their results, but also shows that simply praise the "incremental" results are still premature.

Aesthetic concept itself with a strong tradition of Western philosophy and disciplinarity means that color, as mentioned above, whatever the kind of intention, such radical theorists Welsch also had attached to it shadow over the traditional internal work within the philosophical tradition in the West to carry out the concept of moving over and over, I am afraid it is difficult to say clearly what is to subvert the traditional stability, or demonstrate its powerful presence. "epistemology of aesthetic "In fact brings the question: that is our philosophy and theory of cognitive and reflect on the object, we live in the meantime the world, into a whole" aesthetic thing-in ", hovering gracefully in our theory and cognitive abilities, complete digestion of the theoretical thinking and understanding of program effectiveness. If we also recognize human life is inseparable from philosophy and theoretical understanding of the activities, and such awareness activities in any case much more fundamental and important than some of the aesthetic, we must "epistemological aesthetic" read as a strong irony and satire, but to face this problem, we need neither epistemological perspective, more than aesthetics and aesthetic vision, but to life itself for the philosophy and theory to defend the legitimacy of the problem. This defense itself Basically not a philosophical and theoretical, but political - this defense for the political philosophy of life is the sense of Strauss 'political philosophy' inherent requirements and prerequisites. [9] for such philosophical and theoretical justification of life requirements, the need for reconstruction of the metaphysical system of course not, but not for the "aesthetic theory of knowledge" to continue super-utilitarian "aesthetic", will do nothing to interest the absurdity of the scene into a "novel circumstances ", but need to face the philosophical and theoretical values ​​of life behind the political conflicts and cultural battleground.

Third, how should people live?

One can not load without any concept, values ​​to live? People can not take many kinds of values ​​to live? At least under present historical conditions, "the end" and way of life is just like another "concept" - "everyday aesthetics" as a rehearsal for its dim and partial, can illustrate this point. that cancel any values ​​itself is still a concept, from a purely conceptual level, this is a conceptual silly reductionist and abstract see-saw, but the sense of life and survival is not the case, and indeed for the cruel reality of situation and difficult to identify expression at this point, Strauss not only the same as Schmitt, a substantial value proposition, and he will give the value of such a substantial and specific carrier "flesh" - "political philosophy" that directly face the idea of ​​modernity and theoretical enemy. Shite Lao Sri Lanka into the political thought and political philosophy itself, into the flesh of the values ​​of the battle itself and hostile:

They each claim to know or hold the truth, the decisive truth about the truth of the correct way of life, but only one truth. Conflict between these requirements must also be thinking of the conflict between existence, which means the inevitable controversy. [10]

This is the problem of highly acute, and also the concept of the nature of the challenge to understand the concept, but as the metaphorical sense, can not understand <<The Bible>> the same, must not be understood from the metaphorical sense of this, about the philosophy and the theory of "political" and "enemies" as the actual political projection in Strauss, where the law of Moses and political philosophy with Plato's philosophy of "concept" status, "should be like Plato understand his own ideas as to understand Plato's thought "[11], so reversed back closer to the real understanding: the political reality is more like the level of political philosophy is" political "and the concept of hostile projection. Because of modern thinking is always used from the "metaphor" for the level of understanding, so the very beginning to understand the philosophy became the "philosophy" rather than a way of life, so simply do not understand the intrinsic value of the position of substantive and , did not understand something sacred and ancient philosophy. So, here it started, "struggle between ancient and modern," the grand battlefield.

Like "the end" and without any type of values ​​to live, with a value concept to life, even with many kinds of values ​​to life, the same is just a way of life of human life fundamentally, only energy is based on a value basis of self-affirmation of identity and unity of life in here, philosophy and theory is not the most important thing, if it is not a way of life characterized by a complete sense, then, therefore, important thing is not to choose what kind of concepts in life, but the choice of the concept as a way of life, the choice of living under the concept, just like the Jewish problem is not resolved, like the Jewish way of life, with "What is the best the best form of government or society? "this problem to live, is not brought us many kinds of life, but a way of life. the essence of this way of life, is a recognition that the limited nature of their own, with people priori from the non-self-sufficiency and non-perfection to life: if we do not know what the best form of government or the best society, at least we should maintain awareness of the problem such questions, at least we should know what it is not the best form of government and most good of society, so the lifestyle actually contains a "negative" or the negative of the value of the decision. After all, who in fact can only choose a way of life, "diversity" and "diversity" the phantom of life in most cases just a way of life with the specific content and appearance. "for a living law," to talk about easy, in practice Qinan, holy, and the results are not necessarily true for a living law, but only the same species within the different levels of lifestyle changes on so, "pluralism" is not brought us many kinds of lifestyle, not a "diverse," "colorful" way of life, fundamentally speaking, it bring the same just a way of life.

With a concept to life, this life is not necessarily a course of theoretical and philosophical way of life, not necessarily through intellectual recognition and verification go "live", but must have some kind of ethical norms the weight of the lifestyle and spirit of the modern life is the fundamental nature of self-deception refused to recognize such a basic fact: most people only have to live in the branding of the concept of the system in which the majority of people can and must rely on a particular kinds of values ​​to live. does not recognize such a fact, but must imagine themselves to some kind of "concept", to realize their own kind of "value": like a piece of candy for each man to the same people will also think that the spiritual world There are as many ideas of sugar, you can staff a fact, the world can there be so many ideas and values? fact, then why are so many ideas and values? so people to "own" the pursuit of ideas and values ​​system the "self-realization" is not empty, that is attached to the existing system more ambitious concepts and values ​​above. So the concept of modern life can not become a pure form and ritual, or as a pure self-deception: A formal and ritualized self-deception, self-deception in the form and ceremony. Thus we can not understand the material means to understand the concept of the world and way of life under the guidance of this concept of "one" and "many", monotonous and abundant, the latter to follow the material world is completely different order and rules.

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like broken mirror is no longer a mirror, a broken field of ideas, not just to bring a wide range of ideas, "diversity" the concept of field, but also changed the concept of the relationship between areas and the living world. concept of the world is not getting the spirit of the disintegration, but more and more materialistic, in particular, it has been unable Analysis grand, beyond the conceptual content, but only to the attitude towards the concept of materialism we see today is the concept of the world more and more materialistic, more and more material to obtain a certain weight, so to say both figurative sense, but also non-metaphor meaning: That is to say, today a world full of materialism, anytime, anywhere and erosion down the secretion of some low-IQ concepts in life, values, only slightly more vague with material like robustness, Moreover, the concept of more and more full of meaning indeed the standard of material and material temptations, the concept of the field is increasingly being dominated by the logic of materialism. They can easily capture those disgusting but especially good at self-deception of the mind, they seem to for-itself to only exist for their own existence over the last people to directly grasp the concept of content, meaning the value of the concept of identity, and now people know the concept is first a "concept," know that they need a "concept." the concept of materiality, however, heavier weight, it is the spirit of the lighter weight. people from the material possessions of logic, incomprehensible infatuated with "more" and disdain, "a" , that "more" must be better than "one" better, "incremental" must be better than no "incremental" is better. countless "values", "values", so off the ground in a 15 cm height , and the blues roll them in the ocean of materialism of human life follows the logic of materialism, for this substance as the concept of dependence is precisely the so-called modern life "concept" of features. between people of different ideas not a quiet life in the concept of pure light, but instead to the attitude of attachment to material like obsessed with himself talking, words do not convey the "values." causality has been confused here, has not theory explains why the case, but the result is true. that the great spiritual world of the sun, is a step by step so ground down to a similar extent artificial plastic light sticks. Hegel's historicist stance has been to reveal the modern life the concept of nature itself - but it only reveals the historic and not to further explore the causes and nature of the crisis behind, Nietzsche for the "theory" and the criticism can also be seen from another direction points to this fact.

随着观念世界的解体,因为人们已经分不清何为"观念",人们终于达到这样一种地步,即人们根本上已经无法辨识到生活本身的肯定性和同一性、统一性.这种肯定性和同一性、统一性,本来是人们借助于观念化的东西来意识和实践的.这种观念化的东西,完全可以是前理性和前理论化的、直觉理解的东西,对于生活来说,这已经足够,只有当我们将这种观念的形式(从而也将其内容本身置于认知和反思程序之下时,才有了理性和哲学.这种在古代哲学中曾经以本体论诘问和神圣性观念方式体现出来的实践感和存在意识,在近代哲学中或许勉强获得它的认识论和认知理性层面上的抽象对应物.在黑格尔那里,这种基础性的同一性、统一性是由意志的理性性质决定的,或不如说是由意志与理性的关系决定的.[12]但在黑格尔之后的政治哲学,根本没有能力去确证这种人类生活根基处的、肯定的同一性——也许最多是批判的同一性(如西方马克思主义和抽象的同一性(英美式的自由主义,以及由于这种同一性的变动所带来的人类生活的质变.施米特告诉我们,后者才是政治性的根源.施米特本人不得不以一种区分性和否定性的方式,重新凝聚起这种同一性和同质性,以确保政治性之为政治性.施米特的政治的概念是一个建立区分与否定基础上的概念,但它却在一个更大的范围内,强化和确立起一种更深层次上的基础性的人类生存的肯定性和同一性、同质性.因此将施米特的政治理论称之为"政治存在主义"也有一定的道理.

与施米特不同,表明温和的施特劳斯的意义实际就在于以一种更为极端、更为根本也更为坚定的问题方式,重新揭示出这种同一性:人要从根本上肯定自身,才能坚持这种基础性的同一性,才能生活,因此,这种同一性既不是源于理性也不是源于意志,它本身才是理性之源.这样的一些说法,我们看出其中的"理论"意味已经很稀薄和朴素,这恰好说明它到了理论的边缘处和开始处,或者说,正如上面的论述所显示的,这是靠近理论的开端、起源处的论证.所以施特劳斯关于文明的定义是正好说反了:文明不是有意识的理性文化[13],而是理性源于生活与生存基础上的文明和文化意识.而施特劳斯的政治性也要从这里去寻找,而不是去"隐微教诲"与"显白教诲"之间的关系中去寻找:人有没有理性都要生活,但只有肯定性的生活,才可能是好的生活,而只有好的生活,才有延续的可能性和必要性,即坚持自身的同一性和统一性.带着苏格拉底式的问题和疑问去生活,也仍然是一种肯定性的生活方式,或者不如说,更加是一种肯定性的生活方式.说到底,并没有否定性的生活方式:反抗式的生活方式,隐居遁世的生活方式,在其更深层的根基处,也都是一种生活方式,都是作为一种价值上自我肯定生活方式,来延续自身.

政治哲学视野的内在要求,实际也包括我们不能仅仅停留在"审美"情境的内在性当中自我陶醉,而是需要一种内在与外在、"内部"和"外部"贯通的整体性视野.从"外部"视野来说,一个没有政治理念和政治远见的国家和共同体,只是一个纯粹的经济符号和经济组织的存在,只是一个他者眼中与其利害无关的或正面、或反面意义上的"审美客体".对于某些"他者"来说,其实正是以这样的超功利的"审美"的眼光,来打量那些对于他们的生存构不成利害关系的客体、对象的,而别的国家成为这样意义上的"审美客体",正是他们不胜欢迎的.所以,我们不能只在日常生活的内部搜寻无处不在的微观政治和文化政治,而应该有勇气为整个民族和文明共同体设立一个外部的政治理想、政治抱负和政治目标,并进而从内部重新组织我们的生活伦理和生存情调.到那时,人们才不至于把"日常生活审美化"这样不堪的历史拐角处的回光和蜃影,当成是某种生存的庆典.
注 释:
[1][3] 施特劳斯:<<苏格拉底问题六讲>>,<<经典与解释>>(刘小枫、陈少明主编第8辑,华夏出版社2005年版.
[2][5] 施米特:<<政治的浪漫派>>,冯克利、刘锋译,上海人民出版社2004年版,第14页.
[4] 施特劳斯:<<我们时代的危机>>,见<<苏格拉底问题与现代性>>,刘小枫编,彭磊、丁耘等译,华夏出版社2008年版,第11页.
[6][7][8] 韦尔施:<<重构美学>>,陆扬、张岩冰译,上海译文出版社2002年版,第40、45、97页.
[9] 参见迈尔:<<为什么是政治哲学?>>,见迈尔<<隐匿的对话——施米特与施特劳斯>>,朱雁冰、汪庆华等译,华夏出版社2002年版.
[10] 施特劳斯:<<哲学与神学的相互关系>>,林国荣译,见迈尔<<古今之争中的核心问题>>一书附录,华夏出版社2004年版.
[11] 施特劳斯:<<评科林伍德的历史哲学>>,见<<苏格拉底问题与现代性>>,刘小枫编,彭磊、丁耘等译,华夏出版社2008年版,第155页.
[12] 参见拙文:<<"后文化批评":经济理性时代的"文化"实践>>,<<山花>>,2010年第1期.
[13] 施特劳斯:<<德意志虚无主义>>,见<<苏格拉底问题与现代性>>,刘小枫编,彭磊、丁耘等译,华夏出版社2008年版,第117页.转贴于 免费论文下载中心 http://eng.hi138.com

Political Philosophy Papers