Abstract: As the core issues of political power in ancient China can be the "people" to discuss political philosophy.
Papers Category:Political Papers
- Political Philosophy Papers
Post Time:2012-1-18 11:24:00
Around the political power, Xunzi's "people" idea of political philosophy to expand from three dimensions, namely, the "people" "monarch" and "minister rule". "people" dimension of the explanation on the form of political power sources, "the monarch" dimension to explain the reality of political power were in charge, "minister rule" dimension to explain the operation of political power. "people The "dimension is the core of the idea. Xunzi intended by this architecture to maximize the protection of public interests and the balance the king's tyranny. Historically, this idea had a certain positive impact occurred, had also been greatly hampered We should examine the premise of going in a reasonable use of the intellectual resources of one's political philosophy.
Keywords: Xunzi, the people of this, the monarch; minister rule "people" is the ancient Chinese political philosophy, the concept of a basic tradition than scholars have discussed this topic, while the core issues of political power to discuss this issue is currently more with a record made of the angle from the core issues out of political power, the Confucian master Xun Zi's "people" political philosophy has a very strong character, when the attention.
Thinking in the Xunzi, the political power of the political community in a certain potential place to get orders: One thousand officers to ancient emperor, princes Baiguan.
Yishi one thousand officers also make the line in the country Zhu Xia, that the king. Yishi Baiguan also, the command line in the territory of the country, although uneasy, and will not waste Yi Sui Wang, that of the king (<<Xunzi is on>>). in the "world" line that is the "king" in "one country" line that is the "king." mastered the role of these two potential bits belong to political power. around this political power, Xunzi's "people" political philosophy to expand from three dimensions, namely "people", "sovereign" and "minister rule". "people" dimension mainly explained on the form of political power sources, "the monarch" dimension to explain the reality of political power in charge of the problem, "Chen governance" dimension to explain the operation of political power. First, the People - "day, Li-jun, the people also.
The reality of political community in order to dictate the political power rests in the "king" in the hands, but those in power are not the core of political power, because those in power at the helm of power is legitimate, there are still problems, the problem from the political source of power to answer. Xunzi willing to recognize in the "Monarch" political power, but also from the metaphysical level, traces the source of political power, since it reflects Xunzi Bing inherit from the Duke of Zhou, Confucius, Mencius, the Confucian developed in the "people" tradition.
<<Xunzi, "the sources of political power many explained, the more typical interpretation of these words:" Heaven, Sheng-min, non-King, day, Li-jun, the people also "(<<Xunzi Western Ontario> >), he believes that "days" to create a number of "people" not to "sovereign" interests. On the contrary, "days" to create and establish a monarchy - that is, the sovereign political power - the purpose is to protect him many "people" of interest.
The resolution of this discussion we can get two important messages: First, Xunzi's "people" consciousness, he stood firm here, "the people" stand on, given the "people" in the political community in a more fundamental position, the second is placed "people" status when he is not only to start from a realistic level, but also staff from the metaphysical level, the introduction of a "day" concept. "'day' in the hearts of Chinese people and not just refers to the natural world, but will have an important impact on the lives of the people the source of existence. "Xunzi's" days "that have such meaning. Xunzi talking about the" ceremony "of the three, clearly stated that," Heaven and Earth, the Health of the also "," no world, bad health ?"(<< Xun Zi On Rites>>), human activities should follow the ceremony and "the things day", "King Taejo days, princes not bad" (<<Xunzi · ceremony on>>). people due to the "days" as "life of the" and must be serious about Respect, a matter days, demonstrating the Xunzi thought of "Heaven there is a layer between the metaphysical link." Therefore, , Xunzi said, "day, Li-jun, the people also", it is not just from the "people" to protect the interests of the practical level, to explain the origin of political power, but the "people" of interest and "Heaven" communication to with the sanctity of the mean. This meaning can be expressed as "Sky People" structure is the structure of the Confucian classic "Book of>> the" days of listening to people themselves to listen, as the people themselves, as the day " The "people" thought transmission. These are through the "days of the Li-jun," the purpose to explain the source of political power is "Sky people.
" In addition, for those in power generation means, but also that "the people" in the political decision on the status of the source of power. Tu Yu who can.
He - that also? Said: Any reason for the Yu Yu who is also its law for the virtue. What, then virtue is a known method may be the reason, however, painted the people, there are to know the virtue and France is the quality, there are can be a virtue and the law is, What, then it can Yuming Yi (<<Xunzi evil human nature>>). or that, "the person for Yu Tu" is the interpretation of Xunzi "resistance from pseudo- "possibility of the proposition, which is what Xunzi an intent, but here is not just talk about the moral Xunzi's" resistance from pseudo "problem," Yu "and not just as moral example only, he or history, there had monarch, is in charge of political power. So, here Xunzi is talking about a specific "king" is the problem of how to create from this understanding of sense, "the person for Yu Tu", he stressed the "Yu" this "king" is not specifically heaven born, but from ordinary people to grow up. "Tu" and is to the individual form of "people", each of them has grown as the "king" of the material, the so-called "Jie can know the law is the quality of justice and humanity, there are can be a virtue and the law is."
V so that the person painted this technique to study, concentrate on a blog, think about what the police, the county plus a long day, charitable and endless, then pass on the gods, men participating in the world. Therefore the sage, who caused the men of the plot (< <Xunzi evil nature >>)." painted the people "have grown in power, the system propriety of the" saints "of the possibilities, the key to whether the individual can" to learn. "In turn, the" saints "The reason why can be in power, to make "system propriety," so ordinary people can not be done beyond the cause, but also by the "people's product" comes from. "Monarch and the people whose nature is the same, each has become an ordinary person of the monarch as the possibility of Yu, the monarch is the accumulation of human righteousness by the law is to achieve." Connection "Jun" itself from the "people" grow up, which from another perspective, highlighting the "people" versus "king" of the fundamental position of the source of political power and the decisive role.
Well, since ordinary people have become "king" of the possibility, for the time being that the prevalence of "hereditary" and a how to treat it? "Hereditary" is the death of the king's son and heir to succeed him in charge of political power, this practice is an opportunity for the exclusion of ordinary people outside, seems to contradict the idea of Xunzi this regard, Xunzi is explained:
San prince also, even after a world, where also the potential membership of, the world of the royal clan also, however Bucai not, the illness of the people within it and outside of the rebel princes, recently, within the mixed away princes who do not listen so not in the territory, cut worse invasion of princes, Gongfa (<<Xunzi - is on the>>). Xunzi treatment of "hereditary" attitude has two levels, first, he did not oppose the "hereditary.
" He agreed to serve as deities of the future generations can inherit the deities of the "Monarch", became the new political power of those in charge, followed by "hereditary" get "Jun" bit also to accept the "Sky People" review of this sacred source, the de facto legitimacy can only be established by this source. "Saint prince" in power does not mean that things would completely determined not changed once he violated "the people's livelihood" requirement, then he will be punished, ranging from being weakened, was off the weight, "Jun" bit or even be killed, he incurs "revolution."
Or killing their leader and comfort is a minister, or to kill the next, and porridge the city, times their section, while being to those who die without him so Yan, to take charge of self-created "(<<Xunzi rich >>)." take charge of the "lost their political power and even his life are all" self-created the "is it contrary to" the people "requirements caused by the inevitable result.
Therefore, the "hereditary" kings established ways of course, the "people" are excluded, but because of "the sovereign is not sacrosanct" ①, "the people" for the "hereditary" king to gain political power, can exercise the "people's the right of revolution. "Xunzi" Jun water boat people "theory is precisely this sense of. However, some scholars believe that "He (Xunzi) of the ruler 'boat water' relationship that is essentially weakened Kong Mengmin the spirit, strengthen the monarchy's efforts to build the fundamental doctrine of the ancient Confucian monarch of the basic framework. "enshrined in this theory is not really about political power and Xunzi" Jun "relationship all meaning, be biased. Second, the monarch - "king who identified the main rule is also" Links to free download http://eng.
hi138.com"Jun" as a political power at the helm, was the "day" to "people" of the "Health" and set up.
So "Heaven" the legislation of the "king" can not achieve such practical effect? Further, "day" Why not treat people as things other than direct people " students, but had to establish a "gentleman" as the middle part of it? This is mainly related to the person's "life" and included a special meaning "king" of the post of sub-functionality.
One of the "students", not like other things as instinct and directly with the "days" linked him to Through a special way - the person "group."
Power is not as cattle, walking is not horses, and oxen and horses for use, why? Day: one can group, he also can not base (<<Xunzi kingship>>) compared with other living things, people have the natural conditions are relatively poor, but allow other living things as I used to become the "world's most expensive living things'', the key reason is that such groups of people have a way of life, but this way of life has its special required, otherwise not only can not survive, but will cause "chaos" endangering survival. People's health can no group, no sub-group fight, war is chaos, chaos is poor and carry on.
So no points were, but also great harm people, those who took part, also the world's principal and interest, while the ruler, so there tube is also pivotal points (<<Xunzi rich>>). person "group" must meet the requirements is to have "points", that "order distinction." and to grasp the "sub" who is "king." King who, why? Can group also.
Can group also, why? On good people who also gave birth (<<Xunzi Jun Road >>)." Monarch "of their job is to" group ", through the of the "group" organization and management to complete the public harmony "raising" of the target.
"Monarch" play "group" means a lot of ability, the most fundamental is reflected in the "ritual" on:
To ancient deities with evil human nature, that partial insurance is not, counter to chaos rather than cure, is that the play Ritual, system seems unclear as to which is the pretense Ren Zhiqing to interference of nature and guided also touched the ( <<Xunzi evil human nature>>). Xunzi's "gift constitution" called the "King of the extreme outside," the entire political community is to maintain the order of factors in the system, while the "deities" appearance as the "king" is this is the framers of institutional factors, which makes the "king" of the order of the political community highlighted the role of management is no doubt. consequent, in the political community in the political power to give orders to be "king" to charge. "King" status must also be prominent.
This is Xunzi's "Long Jun" ideas. Jun who is also the country of the lung, the parent who is also home of the lung.
Ryuichi and rule, the second and chaos, since ancient times and today, not two-long struggle by weight and can be long (<<Xunzi cause disability >>)." Jun "must be used as the sole focus of a country, which is national security elements of governance, because if two focus established, the State must be chaos. The ruler who, so management is also pivotal points.
Therefore, those who the United States, the United States and the world of this also, security of persons, is the tranquility of this also, your's who of the world is also expensive (<<Xunzi rich >>)." Monarch "alive, to make The happy life, stability and dignity, "Jun" bereavement, the "people" want to "three years" of the funeral to be treated.
The king of the funeral, so take three years, why? Said: Jun who identified the main rule also, the original Arts and also, do also love the appearance, Takayuki Fraction walls, almost can not? Poem reads: 'Kai Ti gentleman, the people of the parents. 'he gentleman who said Yan inherent in the people's parents. health of the parent can not raise it, the mother can eat, not the teachings of the king who has been able to eat men, but also the teachings of good those who are. three complete men zai! wet nurse, who is also the diet, and in March, mother, clothing, and also those who, in September, the king of the song were also prepared, completed three years Talking! was of the rule, loss of the chaos, the text matter to have. was of the security, the loss of the crisis, the situation matter to have. two to all those who plot Yan, something of a three-year, still time enough also, straight into the ear without the ( <<Xun Zi On Rites>>). The reason why "the people" for the death of the "gentleman" in mourning for three years, and treat their parents are treated the same, owing to the "king" status is too important, he is the governance of Lord, is the propriety of the fundamental, is the feeling of respectful people faithful to give the object to be extreme, he can not only make the "people" to obtain these basic clothing, food material information, but also on the "people" to the teachings, people can get rituals and a harmonious social order influence from this sense, the "king" can be regarded as "people of the parents" to his parents the courtesy to treat "king" absolute right even, strictly speaking, as the "king" mourning for three years also not enough. Xunzi, "Long-jun" to the idea of "king" is scheduled for one, all the "people" take it as a "parent", the "Monarch" is very big possibility of tyranny.
For this problem, Xunzi is not without consideration, he said: Jun by instrument but also, people are also in a slump, while the instrument is now King.
King who set also, the people who have water, water dish round and round. Jun Yu who also, glenoid side and water side (<<Xunzi Jun Road> >). Monarch who is also the people of the original.
The original definition is clear stream, then stream the original turbidity cloud (<<Xunzi Jun Road>>). Jun as the "original people", not only as representatives of political power, and he was with duty and responsibility of the whole community, especially the majority of "people" and "positive" or not, their behavior is "round" or "side", the behavior is "clear" or "cloud" are associated with the king's conduct. Therefore, the "king" of the words and actions even if not careful you will like the entire political community in particular "the people" bring great scourge.
King Zhuang of Chu good waist, so there are hungry people toward (<<Xunzi Jun Road>>) from the practice of the time, a king is not a great power on the "waist" actually lead to a lot of personal preferences the palace of the people so hungry starved to death tragedy, "King" tyranny of the victims apparently daylight. Xunzi tried two approaches to the tyranny of the possible drawbacks of the rescue.
The first method is to target the "king" himself, that the monarch's tireless personal cultivation improved, which is Confucianism a fundamental requirement for everyone.
I ask for the country? Said Wen self, something that is also heard for the country (<<Xunzi Jun Road>>) for the king in power, the most important thing is not how to govern the country, but most important is the self, this is not to ignore those in power the ability to govern the country, but that for those in power, it must always adhere to self first, so he can keep "holiness" of the ideal, as an instrument of identity to the whole of society worthy of the name, which is king in his post since the beginning of most should be completed career. The second method is to run on the power to introduce the "minister" to complete, in a sense to the "king" special right checks and balances. For robust well-being the main enemy, the anti-Morrow has.
For the people with the next, the Morrow contrary policy. Yuxiu government and American customs, its people are seeking Morrow. ... He the man who, almost a world of health, and chi classics of Road (<<Xunzi Jun Road >>)." take charge of the "want to keep the regime stable peace, we must" seek the man, "" Peter the man "is able to run the power play a decisive role on" Hill . " So that its main anxious people, and their dark master anxious enforcement.
Anxious the person, the governing body of Yi and the country, large and name of U.S. power, can be the king, next to Pa, not anxious the people, and anxious its implementation, the body of labor and the country chaos, power waste and name disgrace, the boat will risk (<<Xunzi Jun Road>>).
In the exercise of power, and get "their people" (ie minister) of the aid, the king can from personal to national security rule, on the contrary, the peril. To "anxious of its people" attitude came to power, and finally to achieve "body Yi The state rule "state. Xunzi hope" Jun "" Lost Body "instead of" body workers ", reflects Xunzi against the" gentleman "in charge of the power to go after his run. Third, the Chen administration - "Daru effect.
" As mentioned earlier, "Chen" The main task is responsible for the operation of political power.
To achieve this goal, "Robinson" must maintain the power to order "in the king" and "next of the people" of harmony, so " Robinson Road "will have to be discussed in detail. "Minister" primary duty is to grasp the "Jun Ming" and "Jun Lee" between the reasonable degree.
Lijun from life and that of the cis, Lijun from life rather than that of the flatter, Ni Ming and Lijun that of loyalty, Niming Lijun that's not usurp (<<Xunzi Chen Road>>).
'"Jun Lee" is actually "national interest", "minli", which is consistent source of political power, while "Junming" In some cases self-interest on behalf of the monarch, so "Jun Lee" above "Junming" in some time, "Chen" may "Niming and Lijun." Robinson's "loyalty" is not the orders of the monarch, but to the "national interest", "minli" as the standard of the "gentleman" to constrain.
So in actual political practice, how can Lijun it?
Minister father and brother, there can be progress made in the king, with the can, do not you go, that's the bridge, and there can be progress made in the king, with the can, not the dead, that the dispute has the same power than the known, the rate of one hundred ministers Cambridge officials and the phase and intensity Jun Jun, Jun, although uneasy, can not listen, then submitted the solution of the scourge of the country, in addition to country great harm, as in the Zunjun Yasukuni, that the secondary, there can be resistance to the king of life, stealing the king of weight, against the king of the matter, in order to calm country risk, in addition to the king of shame, power cutting enough into the country of the Italian, that the brush. so admonish war auxiliary brush of the people, the boat of the minister also, the duke's treasure (<<Xunzi, Robinson Road >>).
Bridge, fight, fu, fu is the minister in dealing with the relationship between the king can achieve "Lijun''required four forms, each play a role in different situations. Really can" minister "to complete the mission the best quality example is the <<Xunzi>> advocated by the "Holy Hill":
Zunjun on the can, the next you can be loving, decree enlightenment, such as criminal under the shadow, death case should be changed, such as Qi to ring, then push class reputation, to be no party, like a song into the system, who also is the Holy Hill ( <<Xunzi Chen Road ") to San Chen Jun harmonious co-ordinated public relations, the proper implementation decree enlightenment, more" Death event should change ", the camera director. He is not a rigid execution, but the strategist of the statesman. Achieve this level of "Saint Hill''one of the few real role models, such as" Yin Yi Yin, Zhou's great-grandfather, "the highest level is" Duke, "his achievements as the" Confucianist effect. "Links to free download http://eng.hi138.comKing Wu collapse, as WANG You, the Duke of Zhou Ping Cheng Wang and Wu Wang to belong to the world and the evil Zhou is also the world's times.
fulfill the emperor's membership, listen to the world of off, Yan Ran as inherent, and the world do not call greedy Yan, kill Guan Shu, Yin imaginary country, but the world does not do violence, said Yan, and system of the world, up seven 11 States, surnamed living alone 53, while the world is not biased Yan said. teachings enlighten as king, so that encyclical in the Road, and to cover tracks in the text, Wu. Duke go weeks, anti-nationals in as king, and the world things stopped working week, but the north and towards the Duke. emperor also, not less as is, can not be taken as false also. to the return of the world, not the world on them. based on screen as the king and the Duke and King Wu to belong to the world, the evil from the world of the week also. into the crown, adult, owned by the Duke of Zhou Yan Zhou anti-nationals, that the eternal Lord of righteousness. Duke of the world without men, and township have the world, this is no world, not good at is, as Wang Township without the world, now has the world, non-wins are: change the order section of the potential also-ran. so as to branch on behalf of the master rather than the more also, brother to brother to punish rather than violence is also, rather than the monarch translocation is also not smooth. because the world of and, then civil and military industry, meaning that the main branch, suppression also changes men, then still a world tired also. Mo for non-saints, why it is that big cowardly effect (<<Xunzi, Ru-efficient>>) , Duke was the reason why this evaluation is that he ideally completed Xunzi political power in the framework of a tentative plan.
Jiabeng weekly King Wu, the young king into the country not reason, but he will not mess the country is not a tyrant, Therefore, there is Xunzi so-called "Lost''is characterized by the body, so that a monarch reign, that is, the functions of the minister the opportunity to play one hand, power can all run by the" minister "Duke processing, not autocratic monarchy, on the other , as the king is in the need to educate their own self-cultivation stage, the Duke can use their special status and good conduct led to the king constantly improve its cultivation, to grow into the future you will not be arbitrary violence, while more rare is the Duke of Zhou also did not take the opportunity to usurp the throne exercise of power, but in the process of improving political affairs, education, and later go into the king of political maturity in him from beginning to end, "Jun", "people" and the social order at all under the Duke of maintaining a harmonious situation exists, which is what Xunzi want to see a good run of political power.
Fourth, the Xunzi "people" as a political philosophy of the meaning of a "dead" meaning the idea of Xunzi's "people" include political philosophy can not be ignored in the theoretical values and political philosophy and wisdom we can from the two large aspects to examine its significance.
The first aspect is the significance of historical significance as the birth of the idea in the 3rd century BC, Xunzi's "people, the political philosophy of ancient China with a long history, especially political history closely linked to the development of ancient Chinese political system had a profound impact.
From a political theory, as a Confucian master of political philosophy, Xunzi "people" called the Confucian political philosophy, political philosophy, a milestone in the development of his right "people, the traditional ways to further highlight the theme of political power in the actual system how to implement balanced, on the political system in China, Jun, Chen Deng political status of the subject and others have placed a more detailed discussion of its theory, showing the ideal and reality combine good characteristics. Mr. Jin Yaoji which have precise and appropriate comment: "Xunzi's central idea, then still keep the Confucian political philosophy has always been the meaning of - thought of the people whose 'day, Sheng-min, non-King, day, Li-jun, the people also' a phrase, pass on Mencius 'China Gui-Jun light' meaning, then under the pear Island 'Jun-off democracy' of the theory, these are my words, can detract from the Confucian Xunzi has one seat in the high position. "Xunzi in this position in the Chinese Tang respected scholar in the popular Western Han Dong is very much appreciated the Confucianist Xun Zi, adhering to the philosophy of Xunzi's achievements in politics, had "made the U.S. the book Sun Qing." Liu Xiang said, "If the prince can use Sun Qing at the end for the king." . Tang Yang shock for <<Xunzi>> for note, the evaluation Xunzi "root very reasonable ... ... name to people in the world, king of the division." It was not until the Tang Dynasty, Confucianism internal "self" theory of the rise of political philosophy is gradually neglected, Xunzi's position also decreases. until modern times, the family began a renewed emphasis on Confucian political philosophy, Xunzi side to regain respect.
From a political point of view of practice, is to make the biggest impact on the ancient Chinese Confucianism became the official ideology constant. Confucian ideas from Han Dynasty 'ouster 100 Confucianism "as imperial thinking," Specification 2000 Chinese society. "This is the middle play a direct role in Tung Chung-shu, and if traced to its source, the Xunzi and Yan, is the so-called" two thousand years of science, Xun learn it. "In addition, a built Xunzi series with the operational methods of the ancient Confucian political philosophy to establish changes in the political system also had a corresponding impact is the first imperial power limitations and constraints, although the basic political system of ancient China is autocratic monarchy, but the sovereign power of the master no restrictions are not absolute. "Even as the Emperor in a supreme imperial power when not, as some books say: Dragon in a not, unlimited power to". "destiny, and, of authority," the people "of the force , "he eventually" the duties and requirements of virtue and morality played in varying degrees over the constraints of imperial power, which is what Xunzi "people" mentioned in the political philosophy of measures than the facts in the typical representative of Emperor relationship with the minister. Taizong Xunzi explicitly advocated "water boat, can also overturn" concept as the ruling motto, great attention to take advice and correction. Therefore, the longer the country, followed by setting the right phase development Xunzi "people" in political philosophy, "Robinson rule" this dimension, he hopes to restrict the possible dimensions of the "monarchical" tyranny. the ancient political system in the "phase" of the set to a certain extent reflects the Xunzi requirements since the Qin unification, the Chinese history, there have been single-phase system have been, group-phase system, and phase-phase system, three kinds of power system. This change is reflected in the struggle against monarchical power and relative power. constant change in power of the emperor phase power system in order to achieve the purpose of weakening the relative power, which from the reflection of a "phase" does create the existence of a threat to the throne and constraints, but also reflects how changes in both the emperor can not eliminate the "phase" of existence again, Xunzi "people" in political philosophy emphasized the importance of people's livelihood, such as attention to the cultivation of those in power and moral philosophy to varying degrees, the ruling monarch in ancient politics to be realized. While these measures can not fundamentally solve the problem, but at least "In fact, slow down the traditional system of social authoritarian rule by the brutality of exploitation of the people."
Of course, as in ancient China after the Qin unification is always autocratic society in which social, Xunzi's ideal has not been implemented at more. But monarchs intercept part of his thought that the autocratic services, which led to criticism of Xunzi's thought to be descendants as "monarchist" advocates. I think this criticism is not a fair evaluation.
We should rationally look at Xunzi's "people" political philosophy, and its ideological essence of the transformation and reasonable utilization, as Xunzi thinking with this second aspect of the meaning - real meaning in China since the modern suffered since the invasion that the Western powers to embark on a pursuit of modernization (modernization) of the road. This pursuit is reflected in the establishment of political democracy efforts for the realization of democracy, many people do not indiscriminately Confucianism as a critical objects, this approach will undoubtedly be too biased. more rational approach is to Confucianism and Western culture to communicate. "China of course need to refer to, learn from Western civilization and values of the system, and to some of the system and the value of the real root in China, help China to become a modern edge, however, the modernization of China has its own way ... ... and models, their specificity, ... left the nationalization of the success of the modernization is difficult. "Confucian" people "No doubt the political philosophy belongs to the essence of Chinese culture, one can rely on excellent theoretical resource. First, from a macro point of view, "people" and "democracy" has the attributes to communication and integration accordance with the views of Mr.
Jin Yaoji, "democracy" with "People", "civic" and "the people" three levels ( that Lincoln said of the people, by the people, for the people) the meaning of which, "civic" Confucian meaning "people" are not, and "People", "people" are both the same as "people "All which means" people "and" democracy "comes from two people in power, the power for the people of these two levels with the basis for integration, but in power by the people in charge of running it with a level of" people "There are shortcomings. specific to Xunzi's" people "philosophy," People, "" the people "is the focus of its contents, even in the" civic "level, nor is it does not involve. I believe that Xunzi" people "philosophy" minister rule "dimension or the exercise of power issues some thought. The "minister" is also the purpose of operating authority to serve "the people", so with the "civic" is not entirely non-communication between the addition, Xunzi's "Ming per Road," "division, to determine each level, boundaries of the interests of every member of society, the ultimate point is that the way through this offer and guarantee that everyone should get the benefit. "inherent in them" deserve "concept and the basis of Western democratic political road" right "concept great similarities.
Second, from the microscopic point of view, Xunzi "people" in many of the specific concept of political philosophy as we have today can be directly adopted by political practice in the history of authoritarian society, due to objective conditions, Xunzi on "people "Many valuable ideas can not be implemented, but today we have the conditions of these ideas include the following three. First, the source of power with the people as sacred.
Xunzi's phrase "day, Li-jun, the people also" concept reminds us, the people as the source of power is of a sacred nature. Those in power not only people's interests as tools and means to consolidate power, but must fundamentally at the will of the people have respect for individual, truly "people-oriented." Second, the ruler's personal morality can not be ignored.
Xunzi that "self" is the ruler "for the government" is to be for those in power and corruption that may occur autocratic, regime of course, is the necessary means, but does not therefore give up their own morality for those in power requirements in the other conditions being equal, the "gentleman" in office is certainly better than the "villain" in place.
The third is at the helm of state power should be separated and run in Xunzi's thought, "sovereign" and "minister rule" is a tension between the two dimensions responsible for running the power of the "minister" can follow the "road not from from Jun "principle and the" king "to compete, which is different from the" separation of powers "of a power balance model. This mode can also learn from the current building of political civilization.
In short, the political philosophy of Xunzi structure of the "people" with students of all interests and characteristics of the "day" with hanging ride, take it as a fundamental source of political power, and good "group" and "king" because to achieve the "Heaven" given by the public, "the people" students need to be "up" for the real political power at the helm, who, then, "Hill" to the specific operation of power with a view to possible sovereign individual tyranny and checks and balances to protect the minli implementation of this kinds of "people" in the history of political philosophy on the idea of a role played, for we also stand to benefit the building of political civilization, we should take a succession of national cultural traditions of the rational attitude of the review and discussion, from identifying the value of intellectual resources. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com