On the building of a harmonious society must straighten out the vertical relationship between the government

Abstract This paper points out the inherent contradictions of local government powers and financial authority, and then study the negative effects of the vertical relationship between the government will not ring true to explore ways to rationalize the vertical relationship between the government.

Paper Keywords local government fiscal relations powers and financial

Since the implementation of the tax in 1994, management at different levels of power and financial power constitutes the basic framework of the intergovernmental vertical relationships. However, the current property rights and powers between levels of government partition there are many inherent contradictions, and the law of equal rights and responsibilities large distances, the effective functioning of governments at all levels, the inter-governmental level administrative and socio-economic development has caused many negative impacts and building a harmonious society put forward new demands on the government to improve public policy to improve the level of public services, the building of a harmonious society is an urgent requirements between government vertical relationship.

Local government power and financial power inherent contradictions

(Regarding the responsibilities and powers of contradictions
Local governments at all levels of the so-called "powers" is essentially a fuzzy boundaries of the scope of responsibility of public affairs, government administration concentration of power., Higher levels of government and "All roads department regulations, policies, chain of command, check appraisal form, the public affairs division of responsibilities to lower levels of government are often full responsibility standards and requirements, local governments co-ordinate local public affairs independently regulate the space is very limited, it is difficult to provide public goods according to the actual needs of the local social, completion of the ways and means of public affairs, the autonomy of the procedures and time is also inadequate local government "powers" in essence, is the responsibility of the range of lower levels of government has never officially Public Affairs conducted a clear division of labor , but all levels of government convention delineated the basic range of public affairs and financial expenditure. higher levels of government administrative enforcement, evaluation of reward and punishment personnel appointment and removal means, various powers to lower levels of government to implement the mandatory the responsibility of constraints, local governments at all levels "powers" is actually only a delineation of the scope of responsibility of significance from an overall point of view, the lack of autonomy of local governments at all levels and be bound by the duty, constitute the memory contradiction of Power and Responsibility .

(Property rights and the thing responsible for the contradiction

Currently, the local government's so-called "property rights" not fulfill the duties required of financial control over, but the responsibilities of financial self-care on the one hand, local government revenue depends mainly on local sources of tax revenue, higher levels of government transfer payments only play a complementary role. the other hand, local governments bear the responsibility for the performance of government functions to ensure that the level of financial income, financial self-seeking balance, the fiscal overruns formed its own debt. many less developed areas of the government to the local tax sources formed revenue, and can not meet the funding needs to perform government functions, functions with the financial ability to pay the gap between the sharp contradictions and this contradiction is not a local government to resolve itself, revenue from the organization point of view, the local government property rights only local tax executive powers, very limited role to improve the local fiscal revenue from improve expenditure of view, the local government there is a double dilemma: the above-mentioned higher administrative constraints caused by difficulties. social expectations the formation of the woods, in the information society, the public formed the basic expectations of the supply of public goods, a serious shortage of supply of public goods when some of the local government and lead to a variety of social problems, often bear the condemnation of society as a whole and from all sides pressure, the basic social expectations of the governments of underdeveloped areas of the rigidity of the minimum financial requirements.

Second, intergovernmental negative effects of vertical relationships ring true

Local government powers "and" property rights "inherent contradictions, in essence, is an intergovernmental longitudinal irrational allocation of a typical expression of the responsibility, authority and financial resources, intergovernmental longitudinal responsibility, irrational allocation of powers and financial resources also There are many other aspects of the problem, often referred to as the vertical relationship between the government will not ring true, it is mainly the negative effects of the following three aspects.

(The negative effects of a supply of public goods

Each supply of public goods level difference is too large, exacerbating the social gap between the rich and the poor, a great disparity in levels of economic development among regions, local fiscal revenue system based on local sources of tax revenue between fiscal revenue in the region is not conducive to equalization of each supply of public goods level gap is too large, exacerbating the social gap between the rich and the poor.

2. Part of the supply of public goods improper body positioning, resulting in the supply of institutional barriers, exacerbating the social contradictions of public goods can be divided into three levels, national, regional and community-based by different levels of body responsible for providing financial federal set of local public goods supply of sub-regional institutional arrangements, this fragmentation of the supply of public goods system has many advantages, in line with the development trend of the public administration decentralization, but the the fragmented supply system must be based on scientific based on the division of powers, which the affairs of high-level positioning is too low there will be the institutional obstacles of public goods.

Local public expenditure is not very close to the place of public demand, exacerbating the public goods supply and demand of local government should be based on the actual situation of the local public needs and public goods, to arrange public spending, efforts to make the structure of supply and demand dynamic symmetry present in the higher comprehensive interference of the presence of the government to lower levels of government, can not refuse in order to meet some of the requirements of the higher levels of government, local government arranged a number of not very close to the local public demand for public spending, provides a significant advance public goods, social urgently needed public goods is even scarcer.

(The administrative aspects of the negative effects of

Powers and financial control over the corresponding proportion is unreasonable, increased public revenue and expenditure contradictions accumulated financial risks. Central, provincial, municipal, county and township levels of government bear what share of public functions, should be entitled to the corresponding share of financial control over their powers and financial control over the corresponding proportion of the lack of scientific evaluation by the closing on the property rights, decentralization, there has been planted bitter financial situation on the music from expenditure of view, the one hand, the higher the level of government discretionary financial space, on the other hand, the lower the level of government, the more can not guarantee the normal performance of the functions of the government, the country has 60% of the counties financial difficulties, exacerbated by public shortage extent.

Multiple levels of government isomorphic responsibility lead to confusion between the powers and responsibilities, exacerbated by the "rule of man" and institutional expansion. Except defense, foreign affairs, foreign trade regulation, banking currency and securities management and a few other functions, above the county level of government functions, responsibilities and institutional settings have a lot of consistency, the same public affairs often by multiple levels of government responsible for the management, known as the multiple levels of government isomorphic responsibility. "the isomorphic responsibility" caused a lot of drawbacks: confused about the powers and responsibilities of relations in the conditions of "isomorphic responsibility" between the upper and lower government major policy and implementation, according to the division of objects under the jurisdiction of both the division of labor, but are difficult to avoid confusion over the powers and responsibilities which led to "rule of man." pursuit of "isomorphic responsibility" on the lower level institutional counterparts to establish exacerbated by institutional expansion.

3 excessive concentration of power undermines the authority of the administrative, contributed to the fraud of the wind behavior of the implementation of the policy of the lower levels of government selective destruction of official administrative relations, destruction formal administrative authority in the case of selective implementation of, on the one hand , Executive Order of the higher levels of government in all its forms tend to evolve into a non-authoritative general call, orders and prohibitions increasingly common phenomenon lower levels of government, on the other hand, tend to on their favor policies to enlarge perform strength not conducive to their own half-heartedly, and has reduced the binding of the administrative system, due impact on the national political and economic unity. encourage fraud in the breeze. lower levels of government policy difficult to enforce and do not want to perform the command, often using false perfunctory corrupt administrative style and administrative culture, resulting in adverse social impacts.

(C the negative effects of the economic construction
Fueling local protectionism local finance mainly depends on the local economy of the financial system, making the promotion of economic development and increase our revenues to become the best interests of the local government, and breeding for economic development at the expense of the overall, long-term interests of local protectionism the one hand, local protectionism is detrimental to the country's political and economic due unity on the other hand, local protectionism make some external negative effects of the market economy, the lack of effective governance,
Impact economic development on the one hand, the differences in the levels of the supply of public goods around the differences in economic development environment, to further expand the differences in the level of regional economic development is not conducive to the national economic development on the other hand, there has been up and down rivalry between the financial and economic resources in the government of the interests of the game, many higher levels of government reverted to the larger enterprise of some relatively good regional economic development and tax sources straight pipe, accelerate the economic development of the city and the central region, and weaken the county and township the general area of ​​economic development activity, artificially expand the economic development of the sub-regional differences.

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Third, straighten out the way of the vertical relationship between the government

(An enhanced redistribution of financial resources of the central government, to promote intergovernmental fiscal equalization
Fiscal relations arrangements should be based on national circumstances, to have conducive to the best interests of the nation-state as the basic criteria, at this stage, the economy sustained, healthy and rapid development and social harmony is the best interests of our country help to mobilize the local government for the current financial system to promote economic positive development, but cause serious intergovernmental financial uneven impact of the government's social management functions and regional coordinated development is not conducive to building a harmonious society from the national conditions, local economic development gap is not a short-term can resolve the contradiction in still continue in the near future a tendency to expand, promote intergovernmental fiscal equalization irreplaceable strategic role for the promotion of balanced regional development. Judging from past experience to improve the central government in the fiscal revenue, central to all local governments to provide The level of financial assistance, give full play to the central transfer payments balance at all levels, local governments, the role of finance is a common practice of many in the Western world unitary state.

(Rational allocation of central authority, expansion of local autonomy, and enhance the rule of law and democratic constraints

The power of government at all levels is configured to meet three requirements: First, is conducive to maintaining the authority of the central government. Conducive to effective government provision of public goods. Facilitate the coordination of social relations.

At present, the government vertical power allocation and meet the three requirements is still far away, mainly to solve the three problems. First, the central government should be the focus of the concentration of power up, due to the concentration of power of the central government set has no concentrated up ring true vertical relationship between the government an important aspect of this is necessary to strengthen the legal constraints of the central government in the unified social and economic system and order, the macro-control, coordination of social relations, defined in local government social management and public service responsibilities, the central focus on legislation and establish the necessary accountability, hearing, prosecution and judicial supervision means the functions of the central government have selectively concentrated the powers of the central government through a certain functions to achieve the functions of centralized concentration of power is the most thorough way, and expand the autonomy of the local government to expand the role of local government autonomy is that local governments can arrange financial expenditure, independent adjustment of local taxes to meet local needs that enable local governments to accept the constraints of the local residents and to seek the support of local residents, and facilitate and coordinate all levels of social contradictions. expansion of local autonomy must safeguard the authority and constraints of local governments combined, to this end, a distinction should be made between the nature of local affairs, and set different power structure. enhanced democratic constraints, expand grassroots democracy one hand, in the expansion of the autonomy of local governments at all levels on the basis of, to give full play to the role of people's congress at all levels of democratic constraints, the higher Government to respect the right to vote and financial scrutiny of the local people's congresses, local government agencies and officials as to the legal constraints, not as acts to the people to restrain in order to make local autonomy and central authority combine. On the one hand, in order to constantly improve the grass-roots self-government system, the autonomy of the community public service to support local democracy, grassroots democracy.

(C duties heterogeneous "reasonable adjustments for longitudinal functions intergovernmental

Terms of heterogeneous is the basic pattern of the Western developed countries, the system of government, the direction of development of the modern system of government. "Duties heterogeneous" refers to different public responsibilities borne by the different levels of government, the division of labor relationship between levels of government by legal norms, and the establishment of specialized organizations and institutions to solve the government longitudinal cooperation, coordination and disputes. achieve the duties isomorphic to the terms of the heterogeneous transition from the current point of view, should focus on research to address the following issues, First, the central matter of exclusive, central and local co-management matters, local matters strictly separate, central and local co-management matters should be cited method clear the responsibilities of all levels of government and law to be clear. all levels of government public affairs should be basically handled by the level of government, the level of government can not handle specific tasks should be clearly superior commissioned Affairs, the cost paid by the commission. This allows the transformation of government at all levels to serve the community directly Lord, rather than based government leaders subordinate to a modern system of government, local social management and public services, transaction-level positioning accuracy and reasonableness of local public goods mainly refers to a certain area for the benefit of the scope of quasi-public products of local fiscal expenditure of the main range of benefits to try to be broken down into not subdivided, and to benefit from regional and governmental level corresponding way to achieve enhanced the autonomy of local governments and residents, responsibility, meet local sub- the right purposes. Fourth, try to avoid the division of labor in the same area by object identity, the same public affairs managed by a multi-layer government special needs of municipal government and municipal districts of government functions to the scientific division of labor, big, medium and small cities should be a different division. territorial management of the affairs in the big city, should be managed by the district government, small and medium-sized cities should be centrally managed, the district government by mainly co-ordinate community and public affairs.

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