Papers Category:Political Papers
- Nationalism Papers
Post Time:2011-11-3 16:37:00
Paper to write network: Abstract: In the Xiao Hong <<Life and Death>> interpretations, Liu He's <<text, literary criticism and the nation-state>> feminist eye contains the text found in the experience of the female body and its meaning, and for many years to subvert the anti-Japanese 'national allegory' the authority of the interpretation, but into the Liu He, however, nationalism and feminism two yuan against the blind, Mosque of view of pure literature 'text break' that is even more novel wanton cut and misreading their academic blind spot is that the novel complex connotations of nationalism masking.
Keywords: Xiao Hong <<Life and Death>> female body nationalism The novel <<Life and Death>> after the advent of seventy years, comment and debate on it can be described as bustling.
In the mainstream ideology of nation-state under the influence of literature, <<Life and Death>> the 'anti-Japanese literature' has become a consensus that, but it does detract from the novel seriously obscured and rich intrinsic and unique value of .1980 years Qian Liqun and American scholars on Howard Goldblatt awareness and enlightenment on the novel of pure literary sense of awareness of life, so a big step forward Xiao Hong study ① .20 1990 Liu He of <<text literary criticism and the nation-state>> a text in Meng Yue, Dai Jinhua, based on the feminist perspective from the novel to explore the unique experience of the female body and its significance to subvert <<Life and Death, 'a long time,' national allegory, 'saying that the critics aroused great response, but Liu He then entered another blind, she sided and exaggerated emphasis on the female body experience, but simply concluded that the nation-state discourse of a male space, the women and the nation-state, the complex relationship between nationalism hardly discussed, even nationalism and opposition to feminism, it seems that women's perception of the world body experience is the only criterion, and the nation rise and fall of little relevance, while Cat will go further, he was thinking along the Howard Goldblatt pure literature to < <Life and Death>> cut in two, it is a 'break' the text, strongly praised the novel's first two-thirds (Chapter 1-10 of the content life cycle, after that one-third of the novel (11-17 chapter of the anti-Japanese content 'There is nothing extraordinary character.' both of which are fairly representative of the view out of the mainstream ideology of nation-state reaction, obviously there is the content of the novel nationalist misreading to varying degrees, and contempt, The critics have rarely respond. How should we view the contents of the novel after the third? evaluation of Xiao Hong's how the anti-Japanese content writing? This is a more complete and comprehensive explanation <<Life and Death>> significant I that Xiao Hong's description of the national war is not redundant and superfluous pen, which precisely reflects the Xiao Hong war and of human life on the stalemate between the state, nationalism and the stalemate between the female body of the state of thinking, reflecting her for the national doctrine of the complex emotional and independent thinking, reflecting the deep thinking of her place, but also the unique value and enrich the novel lies implication if writes of the end of the tenth chapter, do not write after the seven chapters, just to show the people illness and death, human life cycle state, it is up to 1920's quite enlightening and humane care of the local color novel extension, but can not contain more extensive implication, that seventy years later, people still argue that bored novel, the theme of meaning, of course, if only for the Japanese and write Japanese, is the prevailing social and political service, after the historical events, I am afraid not many people then it would generate so much interest, and more studies have not Xiao Hong such strong vitality. It is because of Xiao Hong, especially for ethnic war and people's complex relationship with the female body 'alternative' writing and the complexity of nationalist feelings for her novels can cross time and space, and historical dialogue, and dialogue with today's reality , it has a more generous far-reaching implication.
First, the war not to 'female' and walked away with humanity as a female writer, Xiao Hong is the extreme aversion to war, whether it is just or unjust, between war and of death constitutes a very tense relationship War people's lives become more fragile, more difficult to expect people to the life and death, while the ordinary people who bear the trauma of war and the biggest victims, in the shadow of the shadow of death, their survival more difficult. <<Life and Death field>> wrote in Mrs. Wang's daughter was killed in the anti-Japanese front, to bring Mrs. Wang's response not only against her except 'Tears', there is the fear of death. 'She seemed to feel that their experience and daughter, like to like, '' she was slowly being intimidated trembled. 'those who lost loved ones to bring the war to the trauma is to be added, irreparable or even fatal. novel also wrote a northern village in the early widowed old lady son after the death of the anti-Japanese and Japanese organizers went crying Fengliaoyiban Li Qingshan, 'hard', and granddaughter home later hanged in the beam. Xiao Hong in the other text has such emotional expression in her prose recalls the age of fourteen with his uncle to learn <<Diaogu battlefield text>> 'Since then I deeply feel the pain of war and cruelty.' She on January 3rd, 1938 wrote <<<daughter of the earth> and <turmoil times>>> the article said: 'For I hate this bloody, and broken leg, arm, and because of excessive bleeding The risk of anemia were sallow face. 'In Xiao Hong seems that no matter what the nature of the war, have caused the deterioration of life, and life is permanently crippled and incomplete, can not make up, she also wrote a number of novel expression of the national war of 'alternative' thinking and feeling the war caused a lot of intact families wives and children, ruin and death, Old Men, nothing less support in the <<Fen full moon>> write a call Xiaoyu the girl's father died in the anti-Japanese forces, while her mother remarried so the other party, grandmother, mental disorders, and minor Xiaoyu is helpless. <<wilderness cry, 'and <<Northern China>> is the son of the war and wrote a killed his elderly father to bring the spirit of the devastating and life die in the <<dim expectations ', the do not know when to end the war makes Mrs. Li,' want to have a home, 'the desire to be in the foreseeable future.' hazy look forward to '... This kind of anti-Japanese war of' low key 'attitude and a lot of writers in the same subjects demonstrated positive in the war of impassioned, passion is very different. Xiao Hong's war and a unique understanding of the relationship between human thought-provoking.
Well, how she viewed women, the female body and the association between ethnic war, it? Liu He's valuable is reading out <<Life and Death>> embedded in the daily life experience of the female body and its significance, was also briefly between the female body and the nation-state has a fierce cross and conflict, but she did not further along this road to go on, but the unilateral emphasis on nation-state the main part of 'male' discourse space, women with this diametrically opposed, so as to come 'for Xiao Hong, life is not to enter the country, the great significance of national and human values ??circle was obtained in a woman's world, the body is perhaps the life the starting point and destination of significance 'conclusion, which is actually the female body experience absolute, single, enlarged, and the female body and nationalist opposition to the experience, did not see women, the female body and nationalist struggle between complex and ambiguous relationship is not understood Xiao Hong, Xiao Hong but misinterpreted their biases can not be ignored, because the novel is not simply the meaning of Narrations female body, but rather on the female body and the sense tensions in the nation-state to be presented in the national war, except by the aggression of female and male state subject to the same general threat, men often become the object of sexual violence the aggressors, they suffered the insult on the body abused and suffered severe mental trauma is unimaginable. And women by male sexual violence is often mixed there is a profound symbolism in the novel, Japanese women are stationed in the village and looted phase 'of time 'of the novel to describe the Japanese perspective of Mrs. Wang' pretending to catch a woman in search of the village 'process, and that the Japanese tied the woman will be raped away the bad luck has been all too clear.
In the years of peace, women not only suffer from a 'natural' exploitation, become the object of male sexual and reproductive slaves and masters of their own flesh and blood can not, must bear the supernatural during the war years of exploitation, as a tool of aggression. Quite means that the text of these harm of sexual violence by female alien has been in a kind of 'unknown' state, because 'I do not know' they are 'someone's woman', also 'Who can not tell this woman.' is said the one hand, these women not seriously humiliation Xiao Jun <<August the village>> as in the case of Li Qi Sao, on the other, 'they are silenced and can not sound the group,' To avoid increasing the nation's 'humiliation' had disappeared in the history of the 'blank of the page.' Meanwhile, the Japanese invaders rape of Chinese women has not only acts of violence between the sexes, or male sexual behavior to vent, but a 'political 'behavior, is a Japanese fascist militarism' plan 'is an integral part of those with feminist theory in the Wake of grams of words,' Rape is a national strategy for humiliation and filthy. '
Chinese nationalism in the cultural code, gender symbols have a special significance, such as in our description of the nation-state, often the 'motherland', 'Yellow River Mother,' 'home mother' was, in Guo Poetry <<furnace coal>> in, also the motherland as a 'young girl', etc. It can be said, 'This country is a woman's body, or that it is a woman' and 'woman' is not only a woman ', or the personification of national symbols in this case, women are not human, or not individuals in the discourse of men and women is represented as a group, filled with some of the (imaginary characteristics that countries with characteristics very similar. 'So in this sense, nationalist rhetoric is' feminine 'woman's body and the mother's identity / image in the process of nationalism, culture plays an important role in reproduction, or that the nationalities the traditional doctrine of the breeding female body function and meaning of life and survival of the nation symbolically linked to the rise and fall of national life thrive and inseparable, the nation's ethnic purity and the female body 'purity' of closely related while the 'rape him, the other woman, is through the ages, to declare the occupation of the male conqueror, must clear victory 'program', the difference is that in modern times, becoming complete in the nation-state system, similar to the old violence as a special kind of 'political' act, as to the strong nationalist rhetoric. 'rape him in the national war is not just a female family sexual abuse, and more inherently includes the national and women-owned ethnic 'purity' of the violation and abuse, as a feminist scholar said: 'These acts of sexual violence involving female victims and male perpetrators of violence between the power relations, not simply the sense of gender politics, or national (race, nation-state's political sense of these men perform acts of violence, in fact, the load in times of war or the nation as an emissary on behalf of their countries to protect their own interests or ethnic 'purity' in the name of other countries or other nations for violations of the time, along with the inevitable is a land grab 'other' ethnic 'purity' to interfere with or disrupt, the commonly used method is to rape and forced them to local pregnant women in public place or in front of his family for mass rape, its significance is open to the infringement of the nation's men (they are also representative of the nation show a strong nation in a vulnerable nation for violation of the 'place', to enhance their stigma. to force pregnant women, children more thoroughly mixed descent approach from the destruction of a nation's autonomy and purity can be seen, women's bodies in the national war is part of the battlefield, violation of national sovereignty or autonomy between female body with the rape, the occupation of land and 'occupation' woman's uterus, it appeared to draw an equal sign. In other words, the intruder forced on the 'other' territory 'into' can be understood as a 'penis' hegemonic behavior. 'Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
<<Life and Death>> not only wrote Qubi invasion of the Japanese invaders during the implementation of the Chinese women's sexual violence, but also to write they harm the body of pregnant women the novel by Mrs. Wang revealed the mouth of the monstrous evil Japanese fascists: 'Japanese village, more and more evil child, pregnant women who catch, broke open the stomach to break the 'Red Spears' (Volunteer a kind of living children was significant flow out from the belly. 'This act is meaningful referent, it is not only anti-Japanese demonstrations and bloody revenge Volunteer, it is inhuman genocidal tyranny, there is a sinister political act. It can be seen in terms of symbolic or actual effect on the aggressor in the national war of the most malicious manipulation of the most radical act is alien to a woman's sexual and reproductive destruction of their nation. ' pure, 'and life, and women as a national body and the image carrier is exposed is the double diversion and squeeze in the national war, while women with great reluctance, their bodies have been involved in a war, can not escape to become a war places part of the
Second, in the 'political man' in front of the northeast as a writer in exile, identity conquered Xiao Hong has a huge sense of identity and anxiety, she knew it was a result of Japanese aggression, displacement of people, led to her all the way south was removed, although the family has been abandoned due special experience, so she has a kind of strong 'no home' feeling, like Xiao Jun as the hometown of all recognition, but when people talk about home, she was 'flustered' and 'Insomnia', and in her bones, she is the love of his hometown, and 'home' is an important part of nation-states, is to express the major national cultural ethos Field in the <<to the remote northeast exile Compatriots>> in her infinite affectionate praise of his hometown: 'how okay home, the land is wide, the food is adequate, with the top yellow gold, with the top off of coal, pigeons flying in the gate, under a willow sings in chickens with. more horses from the wilderness, like soybeans, as the railway on the crest of the tide. 'Xiao Hong, especially because of frail health, she does have a stable' home 'for peace and the environment stronger than ever, and this desire is only in the Japanese devils out to China to achieve, so the performance of Xiao Hong's novels are mostly negative impact of war on the human, but nationalist identity is self-evident, the justice of the resistance is in the affirmative. not as Liu He said as, Xiao Hong in need and their country agree Shique 'made against', and Xiao Hong for fighting to defend the nation in support of the Sino-Japanese War, and the Northeast placed compatriots encouragement and hope: 'Northeast fellow exile, in order to lost land of sorghum, millet, good work, in order to lose the land, old mother, good work, on the ground to lose all the painful memories, good work! '' China has you, China is not death of. '
Although the nationalist identity of Xiao Hong, concerns life of the nation, but it does not offset the complexity of her emotions for the nationalistic and independent thinking as a woman writer, Xiaohong Min sharp to see from the essence of nationalism is still a patriarchal structure, on the one hand it hegemonic knowledge system with the status of the lower demand absolute obedience on the other hand, it is seeking 'the' deposit 'different' or to 'the same' and to suppress and cover up 'different.' nationalist politics requires people to gather in the 'defense of ethnic war 'banner, unanimously, from different backgrounds, men and women, as part of the main nation, are actively imported into the war, flood, however, nationalism' umbrella 'will be the nation's internal contradictions, such as class, gender differences and contradictions were all covered up, in the context of nation devastated the Chinese people, both men and women of wealth, its common identity is 'conquered', is a strong alien 'other', no exceptions. Nationalism is not only required to overcome internal differences and nationalist discourse is largely masculine space Zhao three because of the landlord, 'his conscience' in front of Mrs. Wang was bending beneath to the 'pile of mud', is a national He caught the revitalization of war, 'Treasures', reflecting the male self-worth and dignity of the opportunity, the nation-state of consciousness so that he found a 'man' feeling, though, 'he can not understand what he is standing on what people in China class ', but' Zhao three is very progressive, he can represent the progress of the whole village, that is, he does not know what country the past, the past may have forgotten that he is a national of that country! 'for participating in anti-Japanese propaganda, 'The old man seems to have been the Yamen officials do the same, swaying his speech, posture, swaying his own mind, his whole soul in stride!' From this, in a sense, War is 'a man of politics,' men make contributions, build self-important place, is a national war, Zhao three have found their own value of existence.
Nationalism requires individuals to obey not only the interests of the nation, sacrifice or give up personal interests and even their lives, but also with the noble words of contempt and cover up the person's right to life and the value of life when Mrs. Wang asked her daughter died from the Japanese, the that the anti-Japanese patriots 'Blackbeard' is 'generally get the trick': 'the old lady how do you not understand? not long ago to tell you what? die they die now! revolution is not afraid of death, it is dead to show his face ah ... ... slaves alive than when Japanese dogs do much better! 'nationalism so in their own unique' rhetoric 'of death by giving the' righteous 'and indifferent, and normal people have lost loved ones and family to ignore, however, Chinese women's greatness lies in her personal interests and not because of the loss and give up national interests. Mrs. Wang in pain resolutely fighting for the nation into the ranks.
Nationalist conflict between the sexes also temporarily ignored, the Japanese devils 'village', the face because of being more dangerous alien male rape, and the 'women are no longer hate her husband,' but the idea of ??escape Japan people but the oppression faced by women is pervasive, patriarchal society, such as a large network covering the overwhelming female, oppression and discrimination against women's status and the fate of persecution by the insult, and will not change because of ethnic war, will not burn itself out from this sense, between nationalism and feminism tangled contradictions and conflicts. Golden Bough, 'go to the city,' the writer of this chapter is a manifestation of profound thought.
Third, the 'enter', 'back' the confusion between Some commentators add to the description in the Anti-Japanese War, 'go to the city,' This episode was very awkward, much confusion.
Howard Goldblatt that 'although the book was mentioned in War and Japanese soldiers on the road almost the abuse (of course, the author is want to leave the subject of anti-Japanese, in fact, this chapter describes only a weak woman, but unaccompanied in a city struggling to survive after ',' but put it in the last third of the surface is indeed denied the author front a little aroused by the anti-Japanese sentiment. 'There are also scholars believe <<Life and Death>>' In the years after the seven chapters, Chapter XIV is clearly a less coordinated notes. This chapter write War and into the city to make a living , gone through many hardships, suffered humiliation, and forced to return to villages, apparently after seven chapters from the anti-Japanese themes free to go out. 'However, I think the novel is very deep place here, the writer strong sense of the tragedy of women is also reflected here in the <<Life and Death>> in both the Japanese before and during the Japanese occupation, the story of a woman can not make the existing patriarchal social ideal. before the Japanese occupation, women's bodies are subject to national / ethnic male social manipulation and control, during the Japanese occupation, the country's catastrophe and catastrophe accompanied by the female body, but also exacerbated the suffering of women's bodies and dangerous, but the suffering of the Japanese occupation before and can not therefore own demise. War to escape the Japanese rape and fled the city to go, but was the same class of men, and her rape. rape within the same nation is sometimes not only the performance of male sexual desire, also said that a kind of 'power relations' and 'penis' hegemony The most radical expression, is the implementation of the control of male to female extreme action, 'rape is the hostility, hatred and contempt, and damage to personal desires such as the outbreak of this form is an excellent example of sexual politics.' Xiao Hong seems to remind People: While the war of national liberation of women like Mrs. Wang from the family to the anti-Japanese public sphere, while women and we can not get rid of the patriarchal system of slavery and social liberation. So, when Mrs. Wang talking about Japanese atrocities 'War and nose to hum:' Men used to hate, hate the little Japanese children now. 'sad end to the road to her:' I hate the Chinese people do, except I did not hate. ''because, although the same as a woman , Mrs. Wang and the War of social oppression has a very different experience. Because Mrs. Wang, a strong consciousness, her resistance to patriarchal society is very effective, the principal contradiction in her there is not gender oppression, but the class and ethnic oppression, especially her daughter was killed by the Japanese, making her national consciousness, anti-Japanese activities, more active, while the Golden Bough from love, marriage, birth, and losing her daughter to the city work in the process, she suffered injuries are directly from Chinese men, so she is the deepest feelings of gender oppression, the Chinese men's 'penis' hegemony, so she hated 'Chinese.' Links to free download http://www.hi138. com
Finally, write the novel War and when the monk nun, and there is no long a nunnery. War and want to go? Novel does not explain, however, the outcome of this open a deeper meaning, inciting more thought. The author seems to to tell people, War and the negative for the patriarchal society is definitely avoid 'blind alley', but like Mrs. Wang added to nationalism as the 'Plan', is the better way? in feminist theorist Juliet Mitchell's view, the production, reproduction, and educate their children in the family of women within limits, can not enter the public domain, which is the root cause of oppression of women, only women from the shackles of the family to get out into the public domain, in order to obtain true liberation in the 20th century China, the improvement of women's social status and social revolution is accompanied by, and it is inseparable from their participation in public affairs. They emerge in the public sphere of society, to compete against the same man, play individual potential and prove its worth in the process, from the history of women and finally the 'blank of the page' emerge, attracted the attention, but profound thought Xiao Hong know the power of male-centered society is too strong, gender deep-rooted discrimination, male social logic will continue to replicate in various fields, so Mrs. Wang Xiaohong of the road to anti-Japanese public sphere there is confusion and doubts, which we can, 'Mrs. Wang, a little bit of knowledge as War and the' phrase words can be seen. Although women participated in the anti-Japanese public utilities, but women's subordinate position in the extension of the battlefield makes them more engaged in a number of support and auxiliary work, such as sentry, prepare clothing prepare meals, ambulance the wounded, etc. They are still in the edge of the anti-Japanese public sphere, rather than as a Japanese subject, as defenders of truth and justice there, so women and men can not be evenly divided, though, women and nationalism has interactive relationship between , but to get the true liberation of women, is still 'the longest revolution.'
Liu He's <<text, literary criticism and the nation-state>> For many years the mainstream of the nation-state ideology of literary criticism of the practice is a powerful corrective and backwash, the reconstruction of the history of modern Chinese literature has an important significance to develop her For <<Life and Death>> interpretation is feminist criticism discerning breakthrough research of Xiao Hong and other feminist literary studies are instructive, but the feminist literature and the nation-state dualism in turn makes her go into another criticism of the blind, thereby hindering the nationalist and feminist thinking about the complex relationship between the depth. Cat's pure literary perspective for restoring the richness of the text has a positive effect, but this text as an evaluation of the pros and cons compete with the only criterion was obscured his vision, and thus the novel's 'resistance' as a purely political discourse content to look at, but did not find 'anti-Japanese' hidden behind the complex and profound implication in fact, << Life and Death>> is not a purely female body experience of the show, nor 'break' the text, but the researcher's own aesthetic vision blind spot appeared, there had been 'broken', and this unitary or dualistic perspective caused by the biased, should be our warning in the future research.
① See Qian Liqun: <<'transformation of the national soul' of the literature>>, 'October>> 1982 (1), Howard Goldblatt, <<Biography of Xiao Hong>> Northern Arts Press, 1985.
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