Papers Category:Political Papers
- Nationalism Papers
Post Time:2010-11-11 10:12:00
Paper Keywords: Zhou Enlai, national equality theory, enrich and develop the
Abstract: Zhou Enlai advocated all nations are excellent, hard-working, intelligent, courageous, powerful, and as long as they develop opportunities for exercise ideas, enriched and developed Marxism-Leninism theory of national equality.
Comrade Zhou Enlai and the state of our party one of the main leaders, Comrade Mao Zedong at the core of the party's first generation of collective leadership of the main members. He in the new democratic revolution and socialist construction, the process of solving ethnic problems in China put forward a series of important theoretical and policy of national thought, enriched and developed Marxism-Leninism national theory. Enlai this far as national equality theory of Marxism-Leninism and the development of the rich. First, the nation no better or worse.
All ethnic groups should be equal
Marxism is the idea of national equality and equality of all ethnic groups, that "every nation, regardless of their size, nature has its own characteristics, there belong to the nation and other nations that are not unique. These features is Every nation on the world's cultural contribution to the common treasure, to add it to enrich it. In this sense, every nation, large or small, are in the same position, every nation is as important as any other nation's. " Comrade Zhou Enlai and the national question in the understanding of the world deal with ethnic relations in the succession of the Marxist theory of national equality, on February l6 in l947 on To Philip. B. Downing's letter stated: "The world trend is towards national and racial equality." "To differentiate North and South, people regardless of color, within the four seas are brothers." In l957 on August 4th National Forum on Work in Qingdao The speech that: "never say this nation is superior, that the nation is inferior. This idea is completely wrong idea of racism." "All the nations are good, hardworking, intelligent Just give them the opportunity to develop all of the nation are brave, powerful, just give them the opportunity to exercise. in the world so that some backward nation, it is the environment, is because there is no development and exercise them opportunities. "Zhou Enlai and complete these statements indicate that the national ideology of equality is equality of Marxist-Leninist ideology of national enrichment and development.
Second, we must uphold the principle of national equality to solve China's ethnic problems
To solve China's ethnic problems, we must understand the history and reality of the Chinese nation to develop the basic conditions for ethnic Chinese national policy in this respect, Comrade Zhou Enlai set an example for us.
Comrade Zhou Enlai said: "In the history of our country is a multi-ethnic country, but in ancient times is not completely uniform, and even nations fighting each other, not you violated me, that I violated you. Violations between the races, In the recorded history of our country are many. "" Han had long ruled the Central Plains region to the expansion of fraternal peoples, but also many other ethnic groups entered the mainland, ruled the Central Plains. This phenomenon of the formation of mixed nationalities, and live in a nation full less a place, or even rarely. "" the development of our history, so that the formation of our national family, the state of many nationalities live together. Since the era of the national cross a lot of impact on each other a lot, even assimilated to each other are also many. "assimilated other ethnic Han Chinese, Han assimilation of other peoples as well. Therefore, Comrade Zhou Enlai said:" The development history of China, most of all nationalities live together, and mutual assimilation, mutual influence. "China's ethnic In the long history of development formed a unified and indivisible relationship.
Comrade Zhou Enlai pointed out that the rule of the exploiting class in history, China is not the unity of all nationalities, and even hate each other. Republic was established, only that this relationship has been a fundamental change, "from the past oppression and the oppressed change the relationship of equality, mutual relationship. "
Comrade Zhou Enlai, the basic situation of our national observation and analysis is comprehensive and profound, he rightly pointed out not only the history of ethnic relations in our country characteristics, but also pointed out the changes in social systems impact on ethnic relations, not only the poor ethnic relations under the old system The fundamental reason is caused by the exploitation system, and pointed out that the establishment of new relations between the nationalities in China under the leadership of the Communist Party, people of all nationalities result of joint efforts.
Zhou ethnic equality is an important part of the national theory, but also in solving national problems persist in China, the fundamental principle. Both in the democratic revolution, or in the socialist revolution and construction, he always adhere to Marxism, and ethnic equality United nations and the unity of the proletarian ideology, combined with China's reality, solve China's ethnic problems. As early as during the Long March, Comrade Zhou Enlai educational cadres and soldiers, to equal and friendly attitude towards minorities .1943, he was in the "< On Fascism - New Despotism>> a text, condemned the reactionary Kuomintang government on the domestic minorities, "full of Han chauvinism ethnocentrism and traditional reasons clan policy thinking." After the founding of new China, Comrade Zhou Enlai, on further analysis of our national problems, given to the real content of national equality, and to solve China's ethnic problems in the practice of always adhere to this fundamental principle. reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://www.hi138. com Third, to eliminate the ethnic and cultural fact of economic inequality
Marxism holds that the legacy of history, ethnic minorities in the political, economic, cultural backwardness, is caused because the system of national oppression, to eliminate the existing socialist society de facto inequality between nations is a long-term historical mission. He called advanced nations of the proletariat "is not only formal compliance with national equality, and is the great nation of oppressed nations that should deal with their own form of inequality to the actual inequalities in life satisfaction." After the founding of New China Although the abolition of ethnic oppression and exploitation, to achieve the equality of all ethnic groups, the establishment of the socialist system, but between the minority and the Han are still a big gap. Comrade Zhou Enlai: China's "historical legacy of economic and cultural aspects inequalities still exist today, in fact, the history of reactionary rule, there are also consequences of oppression. "We need to eliminate the traces of history out, not short-term Q can do, we should all work together. make all ethnic groups in the economic and cultural inequality in fact gradually eliminated, to implement social reforms, which is to eliminate the fundamental inequalities between nations in fact measures. He believes in good faith advanced nation has the responsibility to help the backward people, the progressive realization of the national common development and prosperity.
Fourth, we must respect the autonomous rights, religion and customs Comrade Zhou Enlai spoke autonomous rights, said: "autonomous rights must be respected.
All the provisions of the autonomous constitutional rights, and autonomous under the Constitution, the rights to develop a variety of relevant regulations, decrees, all should be respected. "he asked from the central government to local governments should pay attention to this problem, ignore the rights of national autonomy to the tendency of a critical. Speaking of belief by Comrade Zhou Enlai pointed out: the problem is the religious belief of the people thought. l950 years Tibetan cadres study classes in his report pointed out: "on religious belief, be free, not to interfere, to respect other people's beliefs." No religious person should respect religious people, religious people should be respect for people who do not believe in religion.
Comrade Zhou Enlai said in talking about customs issues: national customs than religious believers, but also a wide range, too, should be respected. Otherwise, it is easy to stimulate the national feelings. In dealing with the issue of reform of national customs, Comrade Zhou Enlai: "customs reform, based on their own to rely on the development of national economy, do not make change." This means that customs reform must respect the will of the people of this nation, change and do not change, when change and how to change, are by their own decisions, others can not pre-empt, but can not force command. the development of national economic growth, vigorously develop the productive forces is a prerequisite for the reform of national customs.
Fifth, to uphold the equality of national languages
National language is an important feature of the nation, is an important national form, which both the formation and development of the nation, or the prosperity and progress of mankind, there is very important. Comrade Zhou Enlai, not only resolutely carry out the minority with the use and development of freedom in their own languages, research organizations, the use of minority languages, development and care of books, newspapers of national broadcasting distribution work, and strong proponent of people of all nationalities, especially the comrades working in minority areas to learn from each other national language, writing, and promote mutual exchange of feelings asked. He said: "To respect the minority language. For there is no text to help them to create minority language." l956 on, in his personal care. of organized investigation team of seven national languages, to the minority areas to investigate. Zhou Enlai in the "<current language reform task>> report on the creation and reform of ethnic minority languages and delivered an important opinion. He clearly stated:" Hanyu Pinyin program can create and reform of the ethnic minorities as the common basis of the text. "developed in his chair <<training of minority cadres pilot program>> in the states: in the national education, should be the national language of teaching in an important position. "In the autonomous areas, the main national language should be the first word."
Comrade Zhou Enlai when talking about ethnic equality is not about ethnic equality in general, but with the national prosperity it organically linked, he proposed: "We only want equality of all nationalities, but also so that we prosperity." Ethnic equality, prosperity is guaranteed only by the prosperity of the nation, national equality and have a solid foundation. Zhou Enlai that the building of a socialist industrialized country, any nation can not be an exception. can not imagine going to minority areas lagging behind, so that is not socialist countries. If you let go backward place behind forever, which is unequal, that is wrong. This is the theory of national equality and Zhou Enlai, one of the major features.
In short, the National Equality Thought of Zhou Enlai is a complete, comprehensive, enriched and developed Marxism-Leninism theory of ethnic equality, and solve the national problems has made important contributions. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://www. hi138.com