Papers Category:Political Papers
- Marxism Papers
Post Time:2012-12-29 9:45:00
<< German Ideology >> Select << Marx and Engels, Selected Works >> Volume 1, 1995 edition of the so-called the Deutsche mean morphology refers Hegelian of the old school and the Young Hegelian view.
About << German Ideology "basic principles: 1, productivity in three areas: producers, production object of production.
Production of material life: "The first premise of all human survival, that is, all the history of the first premise, this premise: people must be able to live in order to be able to make history, but to make a living, first you need to eat and drink to live wear as well as some other things first historical activity is production to meet these needs, the production of material life itself, and this historical activities, a fundamental condition of all history, people but it is necessary in order to be able to live a day each time to complete it "the spirit of the 79 production:" The second fact is that has been met a need in itself, to meet the needs of the activity, and has access to the tools used to meet the needs and rise to new needs history of production activities. "79 breeding: The third relationship is beginning to enter the process of historical development: every day people to re-produce their own life began production of some people, that breed. "80 dual relationship: on the one hand is a natural relationship --- productivity, on the other hand the social relations --- relations of production 80 tells Productivity: 1, forces determine the relations of production." productivity reached the sum of the decision the social situation "
The basis of the contradiction between the productive forces and relations of production: "Productivity and exchanges in the form of such a contradiction between --- As we have seen, so far this end of history has repeatedly occurred, however, did not threaten form of intercourse --- every time inevitably to the outbreak of revolution, also take a variety of forms of incidental, as the sum of the conflict, the conflict between the different classes, the contradiction of consciousness, ideological struggle and political struggle. "all the history of the conflict are the root causes in the form of productivity and exchanges between the contradictions. "115
2, the economic base and the superstructure principle of civil society: "In the past all the historical stage by productivity constraints while restricting the form of productive exchanges, is a civil society." 88 "civil society, including a certain stage in the development of the productive forces of each individual all material exchanges, "" but the name of the civil society has always been marked social organization developed directly from the production and exchanges, this kind of social organization at all times constitute a national basis as well as other ideas superstructure foundation. "130 page economic base: the sum of the relations of production, the superstructure: countries, France and countries with the same ownership relations: "the modern state with such a modern private ownership to adapt." In fact the country is nothing more than assets to each other at home and abroad to protect their respective property and interests are bound to take a form of organization. "countries only for private ownership exist 131 countries the ruling class of the individual in order to achieve their common interests in the form of access to the entire civil society of the era concentrated expression of the form. "132 concept superstructure: Part III, Section 98, 99 pages
"The ideology of the ruling class in every era are dominant ideology, which means that a class is the dominant material force in society, but also the dominant spiritual force in society. Dominant ideological But is the dominant material relationships in the concept, but the dominant material relations are manifested in the form of ideas. "
"The division of labor is by far one of the major forces in history, and now, the division of labor in the form of division of labor to mental labor and physical labor in the middle of the ruling class manifested, therefore, within the class, some people appear as the class of thinkers, they are of this class, the enthusiasm, the ability to generalize mysticism home. .. while others for these ideas and fantasies take a negative attitude, and are ready to accept these thoughts and fantasies. "
The universality of the ruling ideology (ideological universality, how to enable the people to accept the ideological: the "dominant will be more and more abstract thinking, that is the thinking of a universal form of increasingly January. Because every attempt to replace the old the ruling class of the new class, in order to reach their own purposes, have to put their own interests into the common interests of all members of society, to say, this concept expression is: universal form giving their own thoughts, they portrayed as only reasonable, the idea of universal significance. "100
3, the difference is that the discourse of communism, communism and all previous system:
(1 inevitability: "communism and the last movement of different places that it is to overthrow all the old production relations and contacts and relations between, and saw that it was first consciously all the spontaneous formation of the premise of the creation of their predecessors, so them together personal disposable. 122
(2 descriptive: "In communist society, anyone does not feature a range of activities, but can be in any sector development, social adjustment throughout the production, and thus so that I may follow their own interests, do this thing tomorrow to do that morning hunting, fishing in the afternoon, evening engaged in animal husbandry, engaged criticize after dinner, this will not make me always the hunter, fisherman, shepherd or critic. "how to achieve communism 85 :
Elimination of regional exchanges of any expansion of communism communism only as a dominant nation 'suddenly' at the same time any action, in terms of experience is possible, which is based on the universal development of the productive forces and this world exchanges linked. "86 communism is what? Communist reality sports.
"Communism is for us not deal with the status of established, should be adapted to the ideal than reality, what we call reality movement that abolishes the present situation of the kind of communism." Posted on the Free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
4, pages 81-85 of the division of labor theory
(1) What is the division of labor?
Caused by the development of productive forces and relations of production changes
The three historical division of labor: agriculture and industrial division of labor, the industrial division of labor, division of labor within the department.
Unequal division of labor under private ownership, beneficially own the division of labor: "as long as the division of labor is not in resources, but a natural formation, then the person's activities of the people become an alien, with his opposing forces, which kinds of forces oppressed people, rather than people harness this power. "
(2 development of the division: division of the unity of the logic of history methodology discusses the development of four stages: First stage: having sex division of labor "division initially only the division of sexuality.
" 81 second stage: simple natural division of labor "later due to talent (such as physical needs, contingencies, and so on until it was spontaneously = or 'natural the formation of 'division of labor. "truly become a division of 81 third stage: the social division of labor stage" division of labor is only separated from the physical labor and mental labor since this time onwards consciousness can realistically imagine: it is the awareness and the existing practice something, it does not need to imagine some kind of reality can realistically imagine something. "
Stage of the social division of labor, the real division of labor includes workers, the object of labor, labor data, the history of the three great division of labor: the division of labor in agriculture and animal husbandry, the emergence of private property, the class appear slaveholders and slaves, agriculture and handicrafts division of labor, the consequences of further differentiation of class ingredients, a new class differentiation for landowners, farmers, commercial and handicraft division of labor, consequences is social divide between rich and poor, the emergence of the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
Fourth stage: a higher level of division of labor, communist society: "No one has its own certain range of special events, this range is imposed upon him, he can not be outside of this range: he is a hunter, fisherman, or a shepherd, or a critique of the critics, as long as he did not want to lose the life information, he should always be such a person. "85 individuals to obtain a full and free development (negation of negation
(3 division of social conflicts triggered ① "division of labor not only make the mental activity and physical activities, enjoy it possible to share this situation by different individuals and labor, production and consumption, and to become a reality." 83 ② With the division of the development of the contradiction between the single person's interests or the interests of a single family with all individuals interacts common interests 84 ③ alienated labor "as long as the division of labor is not in resources, but a natural formation, then the activities of the people has become an alien, with his opposing forces, the power of the oppressed people, rather than ride this power. "85 how to solve the contradiction:" Only the eradication of the division of labor. "83 further division of labor, the development of the productive forces, and to create conditions for the division of labor.
(4 of the division of labor and productive relationship:
The ① productivity determine the development of the division of labor, productivity is more developed, more developed division of labor, ② division of labor is a result of the development of the productive forces, is a basic measure.
(5 of the division of labor and the relations of production relationship:
(1) division of labor constraints the ownership relations ② division restricting allocation (unequal distribution of unequal relations between people "as long as the division of labor is not in resources, but a natural formation, then the person's activities on the people who become an alien, with his opposing forces, this force oppressed people, rather than people harness this power. ③ division 85 restricts people relations in the production of disposable. "ownership is the labor of others disposable. fact, the sub-division of labor and private ownership equal expression, the same thing, one is on activities, is the product of the activities. "
(6 division of labor and class relationship
"Common interest before taking independent form of detachment of the country this with actual personal interests and all interests, at the same time take the form of fantasy Community, which is always really every family tribal groups of the flesh Contact Group, and This is always in every family groups were tribal groups. "84 (7 division of the significance of the division of labor led to the improvement of the efficiency, labor productivity.
5 Communication Theory
(1 implications exchanges: exchanges between individuals, the exchanges between the exchanges between others (physical, spiritual, ethnic, the world exchanges between (political, economic, military, direct contact, indirect exchanges, regional exchanges war itself is a form of regular exchanges
The ① exchanges exchanges (direct production process of material production process, such as the division of labor and coordination (2) production process other than the form of intercourse, including exchange, distribution, consumption, restricting exchange, distribution, consumption of political, ideological, cultural exchanges, and with the productivity of its increasingly developed. ③ Community between the contacts and exchanges between the peoples, between nations, the people get the comprehensive development.
(2 exchanges ① the terms of social development, personal development:
Ⅰ from longitudinal speaking, different ownership relationship between exchanges are different, the realization of communism is inseparable from exchanges, development is inseparable from human interaction, from landscape in terms of the history of the person to the National and Regional, World changes in history, which is achieved through the exchanges. The Ⅱ exchanges organic social system, if organic social system linked by exchanges to also interact. ② exchanges are an important mechanism for social progress, social mechanisms is done through exchanges.
The ③ exchanges shift to the history of the world to promote the nation's historical, geographical, historical,
④ exchanges can save both the existing productivity, direct impetus for the transformation of human society,
⑤ exchanges to promote the full and free development of essential ⑥ exchanges by the potential productivity translate into real productivity conditions.
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