Papers Category:Political Papers
- Democratic System Papers
Post Time:2011/11/4 9:35:00
Write papers network: Abstract: strengthening democracy, the process of building the socialist reform and major issues in one article from the three aspects of China's exploration of modern democracy and enlightenment: (1 budding democratic ideas in modern China, ( 2 exploration of democratic institutions, (3 development and improvement of democratic institutions.
Keywords: Modern China, democratic ideas, constitutional monarchy, democratic republic, the people's democratic centralism, democratic culture With the rapid economic development, building of democratic countries in the world more and more attention.
In China, strengthening democracy, the process of building the socialist reform and a major issue in one of China's modern democracy and strengthen the research on the current development of China's democratic construction and improvement of an important role.
First, the seeds of democratic ideas in modern China The term source of ancient Greek democracy, the first meaning is the people's rule.
Where democracy is direct democracy, emphasizing equality of direct participation. Democracy as a human embryo, which was later replaced by representative democracy, while democracy is used in China is exotic .1840 Opium War, China's involvement in closed-door policy was imperialist carve up the frenzy, China gradually became a semi-feudal country, democratic ideas is introduced to China at this time. by the traditional Chinese political thought and social structure in China and other factors, have been given the Chinese democratic ideas of the understanding and interpretation.
Chinese democratic ideas sprout generation and Qing Dynasty, the first Opium War, Wei Yuan and a number of knowledgeable people began to look to see the world, to seek salvation and strengthen the country road, began to introduce and introduce Western political system. Second Opium War , Wang Tao, more than the early reformers began to introduction of more democratic institutions and promotion of Western China's democratic ideas began to sprout .19 century, Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao bourgeois reform movement began to promote 'freedom, equality, fraternity', the the core of democratic ideas in China have been publicized. <<Boxer Protocol>> The signing of the national crisis of unprecedented magnitude, Sun Yat-sen as the representative of the bourgeois revolutionaries, proposed the 'Three People's Principles', launched the Revolution of 1911. democratic ideas bud emergence and development of modern Chinese national salvation of our times.
Second, the exploration of China's modern democratic institutions
The insight of modern China, China's political system continued to explore, at the time of the Chinese trial has a constitutional monarchy and democratic republic, but eventually become a bubble. (A constitutional monarchy idea.
Qing Dynasty, China's insight, combined with the political system of China's feudal autocratic monarchy that some Western countries' jun became the overlord 'system, then China can learn from, but how to introduce, but I do not know how to implement . In 1898, on behalf of China's advanced intellectuals Kang, Liang, Tan and others, get support Emperor Guangxu, the Hundred Days Reform.
Claim, Xing civil rights, set up the House, a constitutional monarchy .1908, the Qing government promulgated the <<Imperial Constitution Outline >> May 1911, the Qing Dynasty declared that 'responsibility of the Cabinet' was established, while a series of efforts and did not save the corrupt Qing Dynasty in 1911, short-lived constitutional monarchy, and ultimately bankruptcy. (B Democratic Republic of the idea.
Late 19th early 20th century, the outbreak of World War I, imperialism no time East Gu, temporarily relaxed pace of China's predatory <<Treaty of Shimonoseki>> signed, a large number of foreign capital inflows in the Qing government had to relax its private capital restrictions, China's national capitalism ushered in a short spring.'s growing ranks of the national bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie, represented by Sun Yat-sen advocated gradual democratic republic to be high.
In 1905, Sun Yat-sen founded Chinese Alliance, that 'expelling the Manchus, restore China and establish the Republic, the average land rights', which later became the 'national', 'civil rights', 'people' Three People's Principles. To Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing is on behalf of middle class in the revolutionary goals of a democratic republic, a series of struggles to establish a history of Chinese bourgeois democratic republic - the Republic of China Interim Government .1912, the establishment of the Legislature - Temporary Senate .1912, promulgated <<Provisional Constitution>> but the two sides of the bourgeoisie itself, and foreign reactionary forces of oppression, did not last long, Nanjing Provisional Government eventually die.
Two democratic system in China are not feasible, because in the West, democratic theory and political system premised on a number of historical European religious reform movement, for the West to create the preconditions for democracy, the bourgeoisie and the fold between the feudal class the compromise, the monarch to form a virtual monarch, while intrinsically Chinese cultural ideology, the Chinese sovereign can not alienate the right hand of China but not with the religious concept of democracy into the heart.
Third, the development and improvement of democratic institutions
Communist Party of China was established in 1921, led the Chinese over a long period of exploration and practice in China to find a suitable form of democracy, namely, 'Yixingheyi 'power structure in the country known as democratic centralism. Reflected in the fundamental system, ie China's people's congress system. people's congress system and the nature of our country to adapt to reflect our national character of the people's democratic dictatorship, it can ensure the people are the masters of the power to fundamentally reflect the people exercise their power. China's people's congress system is a strong complement to the democratic system is an advanced political system, but it lasted only a few years, not yet ripe. In the 1990s, the Soviet Union, China is more clear understanding of our The democratic system is not perfect, reform is imperative. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
Reform and opening up, China's economic reform, China from a planned economy into market economy, China worked out a road of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the economy developed rapidly. But not the same economic and social development, cultural and political development. Democracy is built on the basis of a certain social structure, in which ﹑ economic status and cultural level, Social structure of the building of democracy are Kai important role in the construction of today's prominent Chinese democracy The problem is that the rapid economic development and political democratization, development does not fit in the building of democracy in China is imperative that attention to cultural and institutional construction, cultural construction from start to develop people's sense of democracy, legal system, develop the habits of democracy, thus strengthening democracy psychology.
The introduction of democracy is the road toward a stable democratic system, a key step, but it is not enough to cultivate a strong support for a democratic political culture. Linda at <<like a comet across the night sky>> said: 'As a civilized democracy The results are in a class grow out of, because it is impossible to fight in the streets in the marketplace of birth. rules is small, but it is behind a long accumulation of civilization. 'Democracy is a gradual and difficult process, democracy in China relatively short time, China is not a strong national sense of democracy, modern democracy, the rule of law is not perfect, perfect way of democracy in China long way to go.
References:  <<On Democracy>> [U.
S.] ? Robert Dahl, Commercial Press, 1999.  <<comparative study of democracy and democratization>> [U.
S.] Howard ? Via Jorda, Peking University Press, 2004.  <<Selected Works of Mark Sien Coase, 'Volume II.  <<like a comet across the night sky, 'Linda, & Products Joint Publishing, 2006.  <<Western political system more>> Yangzu ﹑ Gu Junli with power, World Knowledge Publishing House, 1992.  <<China Elections: concepts and systems>>, Feng Li, Xue Lin Press, 2009.
Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com