Contemporary Chicano literature about postmodernism Perspective

[Abstract] Chicano literary narrative postmodernism practices more common applications, polyphonic narrative, fragmented narrative, fictional autobiography and epistolary means of language and narrative are widely used. Constructed based on these creative techniques ethnic literature constitute a written form outside the mainstream culture and literature, deconstruction of both macro-narrative narrative authority, also based reconstruction of New Mexico-US identity and cultural hybridity.

[Words] Chicano literature, postmodernism, deconstruction, reconstruction

Mexican American literature since the 1940s has experienced considerable development, emerging literature in the United States has become an important part of (1) with a distinctive hybridity features from the Mexican American literature since the date of both Latin American literature and American characteristics of ethnic minority literature reflects the hybridity of Spanish colonial culture and Native American culture, as well as a blend of American mainstream Anglo - Saxon Puritan culture and Hispanic culture, this is its unique origins of the "Three Cultures" and " times hybridity "experience.

Contemporary writers followed in the creation of some of the practices of Latin American literature, combined with the multicultural reality of the United States, the integrated use of a variety of non-traditional narrative means. Academia for the definition of the existence of the "post-modern" more controversial, but the author these practices essentially different from the traditional literary reproduction means, in view of its distinctive "to the center", "Irony" and "deconstruction" feature, its identity as the performance practices of postmodernism Through analyzing these after the modernist narrative text Chicano literature to interpret how the use of language and writing multiple narrative to the cultural identity of ethnic minorities based on cultural hybridity.

, Subversion and Reconstruction

Jameson (Fredric Jameson distortions of language and expression is an important manifestation of the cultural logic of postmodernism.

"Postmodernism and Consumer Society", he thinks that is a feature of postmodernism: "obliterate some important dividing line, especially the traditional boundaries between high culture and so-called mass culture" [1]. Contemporary odd Kano literature unique language and narrative deconstruction of the center and authoritative, Jameson said "fragmentation" the demise of the structural performance of the main narrative point of view and narrative characters interspersed together, and by the Spanish interspersed with the externalization small narrative function, achieve on the metanarrative its authority Digestion.

An important aspect of contemporary Chicano literature excluded from the mainstream narrative is to create "alternative discourse" and "self-history narrative. Cultural differences and political and economic conflicts have great Mexican groups with the mainstream culture. prejudice, Weber (Walter Webb << >> in the Texas Rangers use the "brutal" and "savage" and "greedy" and other words evaluation of Mexican Americans, epitomized the hegemony of the mainstream culture. Pago the Leidse (the Américo Paredes << gun hands >> on the Texas frontier of Corey folk << Cole Toz Song >> finishing, from the angle of the ink-American Restatement Coulter IS HEREBY Texas Mounted Police conflict shaping dare to resist the oppression of the Mexican-American image, strongly refuted the mainstream culture of the Mexican groups distort Cyrus Patel commented on such phenomena: history of the emerging literary works in the United States one of the goals is to create a multi-Rees called 'historical': the United States 'standard history' because of the stories of some special groups excluded from or be tampered writing within these groups ... in U.S. history contains a country's history, and self-history is the history of a particular nation, it usually extends to America for a very long time ago, and often originated outside the United States border territory "[2] 577. creating" history " subversion of authority and hegemony, but also contains a reconstruction of self-identity.

"Reconstruction" is also an important feature of contemporary Chicano literature.

Eagleton (Terry Eagleton Postmodernism is defined as the challenge of truth, reason and the grand narrative is an "esoteric, to the center of unfounded, introspective, banter of derivative fold in as well as a diversity of art "[3]. Hassan (Ihab Hassan also think that two important features of postmodernism is" deconstruction "and" reconstructed ". the the Qi Kana writer, theorist 安扎尔多瓦 ( Gloria Anzaldua << Borderland: mestizo daughter freshmen >> "frontier" image and a new hybrid of consciousness "this" autobiography "The basic intention is to follow the" deconstruction "and" reconstruction "process integration narrative structure. Although most scholars 安扎尔多瓦 Critical Theory classified to postcolonial criticism, but << frontier >> "fragmented", seemingly random English and Spanish cross-use, and by these means emphasized Center digestion with the performance characteristics of postmodernism. This confirms the West (Cornel West view of racial issues embedded in the post-modern theories, he stressed the French philosopher and critic emphasized The difference, edge and heterogeneity is the Postmodernism Debate the central issue. Judging inclusive differences the new Mixed consciousness "Indeed with obvious postmodernism color.

Although very Duoqikanuo writers and critics of postmodernism negative attitude that it affects the ink pursuit of the beauty of subjectivity, but in fact, Chicano writers in the creation and drawing on some post-modernist practices As mentioned above, postmodernist deconstruction of authoritative discourse because these techniques can provide for the "other" discourse space, in fact, ethnic literary subjectivity Hooks (Bell Hooks, also holds a similar view, criticism of postmodernism universality identity precisely to help reconstruct the different identities, the so-called ethnic identity, but the prejudices of mainstream cultural groups of ethnic groups, she said: "Postmodernism total is now in many other ethnic groups, even if not the same situation, but also, and blacks have a sense of isolation, despair and doubt, there is no sense of belonging. radical postmodernism awaken people to pay attention to these common emotions transcend class, gender and ethnicity these emotions can become build the fertile ground of mutual recognition and to promote awareness of the common obligations and ties of solidarity and alliances. "[4] the creation of the Mexico-US literature actually practice this" radical postmodernism " narrative structure and narrative language with obvious deconstruction and reconstruction, to more clearly reflect the relationship between Chicano culture and mainstream culture.

Theoretical support and application examples >> << frontier for this kind of subversion and reconstruction of this so-called "autobiography" in both poetry and prose style, language, mainly in English mixed with Spanish, Nande Aqsa the Slovak dialects and indigenous languages, this kind of "code switching" concentrated expression of the so-called "frontier language, text layout break with tradition, using a collage style, outside of the text of the" anti-traditional "subject to show the multiple and complex identity of the narrator / author as "Qi Kana," female "," writer "and" lesbian ". the many commentators 安扎尔多瓦 called" radical lesbian " However narrator clearly said: "homosexuality is a choice (for some people, but the genetic characteristics" [5]. Obviously, the narrator of gay identity "select" is a manifestation of its subjectivity, is Chica Connaught mainstream thinking of the declaration of war: as "he", "his", the lesbian identity can let her learn more about history outside of history, so she was able to understanding and balance Qi Kana duality identity, resistance mainstream culture and Chicano male consciousness injury. female of her life in a variety of edge cultural identity intersection --- neither identify with mainstream American cultural values, not completely identify with the Mexican cultural values, but rather different identities, to overcome the limitations of multi-edge identity, a new interpretation of different cultural identities. inclusive differences, "a new half-breed awareness, and she hoped the tension generated by the multiple identities integrated together in a more powerful force given their own subjectivity and the right to speak, in order to achieve the challenge and subvert male authority and cultural hegemony.

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Second, go to the center of the narrative

Closely related to the theme of "subversion" and "reconstruction" narrative deconstruction of the authority "to the center of narrative" multiple conversion narrative perspective, the more common form of narrative, fragmented narrative, polyphonic narrative and dream narrative, such as "fragmented" narrative is quite common narrative authority challenges and cultural hybridity based self-reconfigurable 希斯奈罗斯 (Sandra the Cisneros's << Mango Street house >> text performance through these forms.

<< Mango Street house >> 46 relatively independent of short stories, and the Mexican girl 雅斯贝兰莎 the as the narrator of these stories are strung together in a series, tells the story of the growth in the Mexican community. Novels have different from the traditional Bildungsroman in Europe, is also different from the Chicano literary classic Bildungsroman and family history of the novel, but rather reflects the hybridity of the indigenous culture, Spanish culture and mainstream American culture, from the female perspective on race and gender identity be defined a symbol of poverty on the one hand, "Mango Street house the shackles of its hero mental development and injury, on the other hand, the" house "is a sense of belonging, the fetters of traditional family values ​​on the Mexico-US women. novel begins Ya desire on behalf of the Spey Lansha house her own pursuit of material life, and the evaluation criteria of the mainstream society internalized her dilapidated house became her inferiority complex knot Even so, she has begun to realize that independent importance. In my name, she accepted his mother's name, but also determined to break through the limitations of the families of the women: "I have inherited her name, but I do not want to inherit her position in the window," [6]. Jaspers Bei Lansha also come to realize the hope house belongs not only to her own the writing freedom represents numerous silent brothers and sisters. "Bums in the Attic", she showed hope to provide shelter for the homeless , "house" has become a bridge for communication and Chicano people, is the spiritual home of the narrator with text to create Chicano people.

To the center of the narrative not only in the form of the deconstruction of authority, especially seen in Qi Kana literature on the reconstruction of the archetypal image of Mexican women, such as "the weeping woman", Marlene Qi and Our Lady of Guadalupe The. 安扎尔多瓦 be traced back to the Aztecs, the Mother Goddess Keya Donatelli library. << the borderland >> these female image

In charge of the goddess of life and death, good and evil is a complex contradictions, the realm of the Mother Goddess "安扎尔多瓦 advocated" three female prototype integrated, excluding the negative, passive factors, a celebration of the positive component, create a new image of women "snake woman" is not only the image of the "snake" Christian rewritten, subversion of the relationship between an eagle with a snake in the Aztec culture. the Qi Kana literature on the use of this comprehensive contradictions stand across borders, through the use of "fragmented narrative deconstruction of the center position of the grand narrative, to establish a variety of narrative voices and multiple identities.

Anaya in << bless me, Wuledima >> is another narrative style - to create the myth, dream narrative and narrative alternating novel use of indigenous beliefs, folk medicine and other suggestive approach has strong symbolic overtones and mythology, has traditionally been interpreted as "magic realism". Hicks (Emily Hicks that this term did not get rid of the shackles of dualism in Western thought, in fact, such tactics digestion just the past, the boundaries between the present and the future. In this "creation myth" , from digestion binary Center diversification perspective on reality and human survival "contradictory" the topic of exploration on the text, it stressed that the Chicano indigenous traditional culture, to promote only regain their historical memory to find the meeting point from the contradictions of reality in order to explore the reality of survival. the folk pharmacists Wuledima is the grandmother image apotheosis myth prototype "wise" and the Chicano culture, is connected to the real world and spirituality World, Christianity and indigenous beliefs, human and natural bridges, play hero Antonio Mares growth spiritual mentor, guide and role of the media. the novel interspersed ten dream narrative is Antonio unconscious manifestation exists in his understanding of their own ethnic identity and collective memories. "creation myth" approach makes the text beyond the experience of Chicano groups from the wider context dropping Sochi Carnot groups beyond contradiction, find a harmonious experience worthy of Spinoza (Theresa M.Kanoza also stressed the universality of the meaning of the text, that wisdom and experience allows people to transcend differences, seek harmony. certain extent, text interspersed with alternating narrative through dream narrative and reality to create another reality, to achieve a deconstruction of reality. seemingly mystical folk medicine is rooted in faith in the spiritual world of the Indian culture and spirituality of the things in the world and the human soul interlinked natural and human meshed into an inseparable whole, but also to subvert mainstream cultural in the "anthropocentric.

Third, the "irony" fictional autobiography Hassan "irony" is an important feature of postmodernism, Kazakhstan piano (Linda Hutcheon them as the same after the core of the modern performance practices.

<< Memories of hunger:, Richard Rodriguez education, is the first of three autobiography Rodriguez, has been a point of contention in Chicano literature due to the narrator in autobiography bilingual education and affirmative action, against the author and subject to severe criticism, which is regarded as traitors of the Chicano culture. 'autobiography "Declaration Chicano literary considered betrayal ethnic culture, while the mainstream cultural groups as the successful practice of the concept of equality and freedom. this work reflects part of Chicano writers from the cultural edge closer to the center of the facts, and the Chicano people the difficulties faced in the process of seeking social recognition. Luo Rodriguez called the "memory hungry >> autobiography, but this work spiral narrative structure and multiple narrative voices the narrator and the author shows a clear asymmetry implied narrative unreliability Similarly, Maikekanna also proposed a "paradox": "It is precisely because of Rodriguez's first autobiography, we do not know who he is in the end" [7] This proves Chicano Literature The more common fictional autobiography is a largely narrative strategy itself postmodernism color.

Apparently autobiographical description is the narrator from "disadvantaged social status of children" growing process of the rise of the American middle class. Fact, deep narrative structure is circular, which produced a text a contradiction of the most basic, largely denied the authenticity of the narrative itself. narrative content throughout the Chicano culture as the center, from education, self-struggle, religion, skin color and occupation six aspects Chicano identity argument, text Chicano cultural identity has therefore become a discourse representation. autobiography spiral narrative structure, multiple narrative voices, contradictions and gaps in the narrative are able to prove that the narrative has unreliability. apparently narrator accepted mainstream culture, betrayed the Chicano culture. academic success has brought a return of the hunger of memory and time and time again from this sense, the narrator accepts the education does not fundamentally change his situation: his betrayal of the culture of their parents, will be confined to the middle class subjective self being, the right to speak does not make him to be truly free, so he reproduction through the language of this alienation. narrative text to become the narrator build " edge medium of cultural identity, but also the negation of the "memory hungry", proved once again that the contradictions in the narrative structure can be seen through the narrative of these contradictions between the discourse, autobiographical narrative is unreliable narrator unreliable narrator. Narrator own image in high society for brown skin "monster", highlighting his out of tune "tribal" identity, but also his mockery of self-betrayal. Apart from the gap between the author and the narrator talk about only from inconsistencies in the narrative structure can prove the autobiographical text fact, Hasan said the "irony" of Eagleton's "banter" [8].

This irony and discussed earlier subversion and reconstruction. Essentially white mainstream culture of the United States to maintain a position of authority, is bound to affect efforts to eradicate ethnic culture, its authoritative position on the edge of cultural subjectivity planning and transformation. although this autobiography works appears from the language to the stylistic and thematic follow the tradition of Western literature, but the underlying narrative structure reflects the mainstream culture of the Mexican-American Cultural assimilation pressure. narrator must be in the parents' culture and mainstream culture to make a choice between these two cultures is not close, however, in the final analysis, led his life --- mainstream culture is a culture he can either accept the transformation of the mainstream culture, to be a part of, or be eliminated become invisible one, there is no sound of the Chicano people. fact, for the Chicano people have the opportunity to choose, this choice is almost without any suspense, but also helpless. compared under the white middle class do not need to make this choice. Cyrus Patel said: "It (his autobiography that describes the content (almost whether it admits it or not it is the mainstream American culture of the ethnic minorities caused damage "[2] 571.

Other fictional autobiography specific style and narrative technique of the same, but to the center of the narrative and irony are all relatively common. "Autobiography" tag also makes the narrative has a certain metanarratives text more prominent after The modernism colors.

Throughout the concrete application of the modernist practices in the development of contemporary Chicano literature for decades and text, cultural conflict and hybridity is always a core issue. Postmodernist writing to highlight the cultural integration, but also the performance of cultural hybridity new Chicano self, but also strengthen the subjectivity of the Mexico-US literature and creative space. Chicano literature is not self-isolated or abandoned Chicano self-issue in American literature, but these distinct characteristics unique sound.

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