Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Western Philosophy Papers
Post Time:2011-8-26 11:45:00
Paper Keywords: a priori transcendent experience before Abstract: Prior to Kant, has reached a dead end of Western metaphysics.
This is so because in the past people generally believe that everything we have seen the phenomenon, but understanding is the hidden nature of the phenomenon behind this requires the cognitive ability of people to be in line with the object. The problem lies here, this is our proof can not be completed. By Copernicus 'geocentric' inspired direction of Kant's epistemology into the object in line with understanding, in line with the main object. This shift has made significant achievements, It makes the invisible metaphysical crisis of extinction, but also pointed out the direction for the future metaphysics.
First, the background of Kant's philosophy
In Western philosophy the study of epistemology, empiricism and rationalism debate on the issue of truth, had reached a dead end, a crisis of human reason, noble metaphysics has lost its former "style". "There was a time , metaphysics of science known as the Queen of all, ... and now because of the time change, only the man she despised, she became a lonely, displaced woman. " ① (P3, Aviii
Kant's systematic analysis of the modern Western philosophy, he said: "Human reason has a special destiny, that is, it's some kind of knowledge in distress for a number of problems, and these problems since it is required by the nature of rational it can not be ignored, but these issues is beyond the scope of its capabilities, so it can not answer them. " ① (P3, Avii that is, on the one hand, it is in the understanding of human reason as set forth in the plagued by the problem, which must be resolved, however, on the other hand, these problems are beyond the ability of reason, rationality can not give solutions. The reason lies: the use of human reason in the experience, although for the full experience to prove its legitimacy, but along the experience, human reason must be traced back to "higher and more remote conditions". "Soon, it will feel this way never-ending problem, and his work is never done. "so," it can not use beyond all possible experience, beyond the scope of those principles. "This makes human reason into a dilemma situation: on the one hand, if the use of human reason in human experience, as would be formed an infinite trace, but on the other hand, if you go beyond experience, "human reason to fall into darkness, into all kinds of contradiction." Specifically, before the skepticism from the experience, regardless of reason, will form an infinite questioning, and dogmatism only from a rational starting point, without considering any experience, the results are often incompatible with the common sense of people, so for the human reason to find a reasonable way out is the problems faced by Kant.
Second, the Copernican revolution in philosophy
Before Copernicus, people generally believe that "the sun is rotating around the earth", and that this assumption is treated as a matter of course the truth, because it fully in line with people's common sense, while the Copernican era, this assumption limitations have been thoroughly exposed, astronomy, urgent new theory to solve the crisis. After a long thought and analysis, Copernicus proposed that three kinds of assumptions: movement of celestial objects, can be assumed for the observer does not move, and moving objects, can also be assumed to be moving observer, and objects do not move, both at the same time can also be assumed to be in motion, but at different speeds, and ultimately from the "object does not move, moving observer," this assumption, the draw of the famous 'geocentric theory. "to Kant's time, this assumption is the observation and experimental scientists were fully proved its correctness, while Kant's great is that he discovered its philosophical meaning: the theory is completely beyond the people's experience of the range, is a product of human reason, if by insisting on the subject must meet the objective understanding of things, will eventually be negative in human reason in the positive role of human knowledge, understanding and then completely deny the possibility by Copernicus "geocentric" inspired, Kant believes that if the direction of the epistemological shift, the object in line with understanding the subjective and objective in line with this new principle, by the person's cognitive ability to test people's understanding of, perhaps, we can give knowledge the possibility of a more full and eloquent description of where he was in the <<Critique of Pure Reason>> The second edition of the preface says: "People always assume that all our knowledge must be consistent with the object, however, the use of the concept, the pre-test to establish something about the object to expand our knowledge about the object, all attempts, in accordance with the above assumptions, are attributed to failure ... so we must try, if we determine that the object must conform to our knowledge, we just The original idea in the Copernicus (gendanken German this route forward. " ① (P17, Bxvi this line of thinking, since Kant has been hailed as a" Copernican revolution. "Moreover, Kant's view that Copernican revolution, the significance lies not only in understanding the object in line with the hypothesis that the development of natural science has been proven wrong, more importantly, the Copernican foundation of human knowledge indicates a brand-new foundation revealed rational understanding of the people in the central position, so turn to Kant's epistemology, the most important philosophical significance is that his philosophy of providing a new direction. Links to free download http://www.hi138. com Third, the Copernican revolution in philosophy, the significance of
The major philosophical revolution, the main object of the relationship with knowledge, and in essence the final analysis is the necessity of common sources. After the theoretical and empirical debate has indicated it does not come from experience, but only can a priori (transcendental. transcendental meaning is not derived from experience, but it applies to experience. Kant believes that the reason why the philosophy of the past can not solve this problem, because their idea of a problem. philosophy of the past that universal knowledge is an objective necessity, requiring knowledge of complex object objectivity generally, but this is not reflected in the objectivity of the subjective cognitive ability among our past, even if we recognize its potential, we can not a priori (apriori recognized. Kant reverses the traditional understanding of the principles, clear that the experience not only with the object, but also the ability to reason attached colleagues. knowledge really comes from experience, but experience only through a rational understanding of the form before may be of human knowledge can only be put into the things that we a priori in what Science is possible only in the experience of being so, the revolution not only eliminates the empiricist skepticism of knowledge, but also critical of the rationalism defects, and human understanding to draw the border. Thus, the philosophy will be divided into theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy in two parts. "Kant believed that all knowledge can only be experienced awareness about only within the scope of human experience, must not exceed this range in addition to experience, not understanding, but a practical problem. " ② (P23) theoretical philosophy is the philosophy of experience, and practical philosophy is transcendent (transcendent philosophy of knowledge and practice of this age-old question, first in philosophy, Kant was clearly divided into two completely different but interrelated areas.
More importantly, Kant this revolution will be the object of knowledge into the phenomenon (phanomen ︱ phenomenon and the "things of their own" (or translated as "thing in itself" "things in themselves", dinge an sich selbst two aspects. in recognition of the object can only be in line with the knowledge, so we get only about understanding things, "as they are" (wie sie erscheinen rather than "if it is" (wie sie sind). This means that We can only understand things subjective form, which is inevitable in the form of subjective experience with the combination of materials, in order to form knowledge, then we know things can only be a performance thing, not the "thing itself." Therefore, all knowledge can only be experienced in understanding, must not go beyond experience, however, because "the thing itself" is beyond the scope of experience, is unknown, it can not be as rational understanding of the pre-test conditions, but , "the thing itself" is based on the performance of things, is indispensable. This complete end to the traditional metaphysics because metaphysics has been the traditional understanding in the pursuit of the transcendent nature of the object, has been trying to understand the "thing itself" such Ultimate body or ultimate cause, but they did not recognize the type of body or cause the epistemological agnostic, forced to make human reason beyond its mandate and capabilities in this sense, we believe that Kant's brother Nepalese-style revolution in the philosophy of the white end of the traditional metaphysics of fate, for the establishment of a scientific metaphysics offers the possibility, and indicate the future direction of development of philosophy.
 Critique of Pure Reason [German] translation of Kant's book Vedzo Central China Normal University Press
 the moral reconstruction of the Kingdom of Shu Li of China Social Sciences Publishing House  Future Prolegomena Kant book Qiu zero translation in the Chinese People's University Press Share free download http://eng.