Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Western Philosophy Papers
Post Time:2011-8-1 11:16:00
Abstract: Lukacs in his later years of Marxist theoretical innovation, he insisted the character theory of Marxism re-interpretation of Marxism to explain the development and application in practice, the necessity of Marxist dialectics and the ways and means In the new historical conditions, review of Marxist theory in his later years Lukacs innovative ideas, building a moderately prosperous society for us, an important methodological guidance and practical significance, worthy of our careful study and learn.
Paper Keywords: Lukacs, in his later years, the Marxist theory of innovation, value of the times
乔治卢卡奇 (GeorgLukacs, 1885 ~ 1971), the Hungarian philosopher, Western Marxism main founder, in 1918 joined the Hungarian Communist Party, 1923, <<History and Class Consciousness>> book, is recognized as the "Western Marxism, "the first masterpiece in 1933, lived in the Soviet Union since 1945, returned to Hungary after World War II and the creation of" Budapest School. "Lukacs in his later years (1945 an 1971) book <<democratization process >>,<< on the ontology of social existence>> and talk to explain his innovative ideas in Marxist theory (also known as the Marxist theory of innovation), he pointed out that the genuine Marxists, the most important Ma Keen is to grasp the dialectical method, and in the specific practice of Marxism to the development and use, rather than rigidly adhere to certain conclusions in the interest of the intention of Marxism and the struggle for the proletariat to develop new strategies to provide the correct guidance.
First, the Marxist theory of innovative ways and means
Lukacs later years of the Marxist theory of innovation, one critical revisionism of the Second International Marxist classical writers of bias, and second, raised new questions of reality, not by classical writers, "no doubt" citation.
1. Back to Marx's method
Lukacs not only against the Soviet Union the "official Marxism", but also against Western bourgeois thought, but proposed to return to Marx's method, recovery of Marxist ontology, because the orthodox Marxism is not an argument for its faith, but rather materialist dialectics, which is the essence of totality. the totality of means "on all aspects of the overall superiority of the methodology." "Only the social life in this isolated part of the historical development of facts and put them down to a general case, knowledge of the facts in order to become knowledge of reality. "Kun do not deny the differences in various aspects. totality of the approach is a reproduction of reality in the minds of the method, It is inseparable from reality, but not reality itself, but the reality for processing, processing results.
So the overall method of Pi relative to both and idealism, but also with the vulgar materialism of the relative from the root in terms of overall health areas} from Hegel's dialectic Hegel critically inherited the ideas of Heraclitus, the overall upgrading of areas dominated by ontological category, and was incorporated into the framework of the logic of Marxism and the class which Marx criticized Hegel's objective idealism, the overall scope of the doctrine of the logical framework in the rescue, given It is the reality of the content. Lukacs said: "The only way to use Marx revealed to be an objective observation of reality and after finishing, in order to achieve both loyal to the reality and loyal to Marxism."
2. According to the needs of the times in practice, application and development of Marxism
Lukacs in his later years for the revisionists, with special emphasis on return to orthodox Marxism, "adhere to the teachings of Marx, not to deviate from it, improve or correct it." Marxism in practice is the most important and fundamental point of view, adhere to Marxism will focus on the use and development of Marxism. "Marxism has left us with a reliable way to correct a lot of truth, many continue to develop its productive tips, if we do not grasp the depth and use it In science you can not step forward first, the general principles of Marxism with the concrete practice.
"If you do not follow the Marxist point of view of Africa, Arabia, South America and other places owned by different development from the economic foundation of their reality, if you do not really buy based on their development path of their Marxist analysis, then, any theory solution to the 'third world' problems are bound to flow in an attempt to empty cliches. Secondly, according to the needs of practice, creative development of Marxism. "Marx I have not had time to study some problems and these problems are concrete and real The historical basis of contemporary revival of Marxism in which the most important issues to be resolved, one is to develop effective practice, the theoretical basis. "Marxism in practice is the most important and fundamental point of view, the development of Marxism in light of practical needs Marxism Marxist dialectical method is the proper meaning. Lukacs, "in the current historical conditions, the Marxist need to answer the true class nature of cooperation and economic integration of the relationship, for which we must examine Both in theory and practice have been unified socialist society. "ridicule." Third, adopt an open attitude, to learn the contemporary humanities and social sciences new results. Lukacs believes that the development of Marxism can not be isolated from the outside world and conservative, to pay attention to the development of contemporary philosophy and science. Lukacs later years of the Marxist theory of innovation has made two ideas: first, self-cleaning and self-criticism.
Lukacs believes that Marxism is a reconstruction of the resurrection of the problems the communist movement, however, if the communist movement to to its feet with a solid foundation, it must choose the path of self-correction, although this is a painful process, the Marxist revival will come from this self-cleaning and self-criticism. The second is against the premise of pluralism allows different The existence of schools and controversy. Lukacs believes that the road leading to the truth of polymorphism is a normal phenomenon, our opinions can be inconsistent, but each question can have only one truth. "However, if we accept the wrong assets class concept, as a good diversification, that the superiority of Marxism is that it can be idealistic and can be materialistic, either causal theory can also be teleological, both so they can be like that, it is very bad. " Lukacs later years of the Marxist theory of innovation, is actually adhere to Marxism and development of Marxist unity.
The revival of Marxism is the unity of continuity and discontinuity, is a positive renounce Marxism.
Second, the era of Marxist theory, the value of innovation
Lukacs later years of the Marxist theory of innovation and adhere to the basic principles of Marxism, the theoretical character of Marxism, is carrying forward the spirit of Marxism. "His understanding of Marxist theory and is an active method, need to be applied creatively. the only way it can provide the key to answering real questions. "Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
1. Is a scientific world outlook and methodology
Marxism is a scientific world outlook and methodology, but the treatment must not take a dogmatic Marxist approach, sticking to some individual conclusions hold Marx, Engels, the founders of Marxism, they claim, to use the Marxist perspective on the development of and the spread of Marxism and the process with the workers' movement should not forget to constantly remind others to practice their theory as a guide, and an open heart ready to constantly change the times to correct their own theories. Marx, Engels for <<Communist Manifesto>> modification and improvement. Engels stressed that change with time the need for development of Marxist theory, etc. Engels said: "Our theory is to develop a theory, not overripe and must recite them mechanically repeated dogma. "In his view, Marxism is not a doctrine of method, dialectical method should be used as a guide to action, rather than the absolute individual conclusions. Lenin also emphasized on many occasions, the development and practice of the times Marxism, Lenin led the Russian first a relatively backward capitalist countries of the socialist revolution, and carried out the first time the history of socialist construction activities per precedent of Marx, Engels, although predicted, but they can not foresee the future of the proletariat the specific circumstances of the development of sports, so no experience in this area to follow, there is no ready answer, and all had to learn from scratch, relying on accumulated experience forward.
2. Is a continuation and development of Marxism Lenin said: "We are not demanding to know Marxist or Marxist socialism on the road to all the circumstances.
" 'We do not regard Marx's theory as something immutable and inviolable, on the contrary, We believe: it just gives a scientific basis, if the Socialists do not want to lag behind real life, it should be in all aspects of this science forward. "Marxism-Leninism for the master said:" theory is changing to practice, practice theory given by the energy from the practice to correct by practice test. "Marx, Engels, Lenin and other classical writers attitude towards Marxism, Lukacs in his later years emphasized that innovation is the Marxist theory and Marxism, Engels, Lenin and other classical writers of the spirit of the same strain, is a continuation and development of Marxism. Salvoes of the October Revolution brought Marxism to China.
Represented by Mao Zedong's Chinese communists focus on actual survey, the universal principles of Marxism with the concrete practice of China's revolutionary combination created Mao Zedong Thought, but also in the party emergence of the "Left" dogmatism, devouring books in bits and pieces, for which Mao Zedong <<Oppose Book Worship >>,<< Practice>> "transformation of our study >>,<< Rectify the Party's work style> > and <<Oppose Stereotyped Party Writing) Pu writings and speeches critical of this idea. Mao Zedong pointed out that, in order to Marxism with China's realities, we must first do: First, we must take a realistic approach, by investigating and research methods to understand the real situation of China, be targeted, and second, to a correct view of Marxism, this should be "truly understand the essence of Marxism, Marxist-Leninist understanding of the true position." At the same time have a developmental point of view, because "Marxism does not end the truth, but in practice, continue to open up understanding of the path of truth."
3. To test and develop the truth of the standard
After the Third Plenum, Deng Xiaoping launched the reform and open policy, both advocates realistic, but also advocated emancipating the mind, put forward the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. "Marx never be asked to solve a century after his death, several hundred years issues arising from ready-made answers. Lenin also can not afford fifty years after his death, a hundred years the problems arising from the task of providing ready-made answers. true Marxism-Leninism under the current situation must understand, carry and development of Marxism-Leninism is not new ideas, viewpoints, to inherit and develop Marxism is not a true Marxist. "Jiang Zemin, Communist Party of China to celebrate the 80th anniversary of the General Assembly re-emphasized against dogmatism, the development of Marxism, the theory the need for innovation, Jiang Zemin pointed out: "If we disregard the reality of historical conditions and circumstances change, stick to classic Marxist writers in the specific historical conditions, the specific circumstances of some individual theses and specific programs of action, because we will thinking is divorced from reality and can not move forward smoothly, even make mistakes Party members must adhere to scientific principles of Marxism and scientific spirit, good at grasping the objective conditions change in Sui, good at summing up the people in practice to create new experiences, and constantly enrich and develop Marxist theory. "building a moderately prosperous society in the new period, Hu also pointed out:" Adhering to all from the reality, theory with practice realistic in practice to test and develop the truth of the Marxist theory of quality. "
Recalling the teachings of Marxist classical writers to sum up 160 years to the development of Marxism in the history of experiences, lessons learned, in the new historical conditions, review of Marxist theory in his later years Lukacs innovative ideas, I find it invaluable. Links to free download Center http://eng.hi138.com