Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Technology Philosophy Papers
Post Time:2010-10-28 15:17:00
Paper Keywords: philosophy of technology innovation Position of the Philosophy
Abstract: This paper presents philosophy philosophy of technology into the mainstream and what is close to social reality, must be located in the natural transformation of Marx's philosophy of practice. In this position, the philosophy of technological innovation has become the key elements of the Philosophy of Technology.
The positioning of a Philosophy of Technology: the establishment of a Marxist Philosophy of Practice of the natural transformation
Philosophy of foreign technology has gone through 30 years of systematic effort, though quite good results, but as a discipline Rengwei into the "normal science" stage, the edge of philosophical research is still yet to produce significant theoretical and practical value. In response to this dilemma, in order to meet the requirements of the development of today's technological age, in order to promote the prosperity of philosophy of technology, foreign technology philosophy of the philosopher of technology made many useful suggestions. For example: SPT former chairman of the Pitt advocated the strengthening of technical Epistemology, by Philosophy of the door to integration into the mainstream of philosophy, La recommendations of the dynamics of technological change, Lenk and Luo Boer advocates the establishment of a "pragmatic interdisciplinary philosophy of technology," Ferre proposal should join the Western mainstream philosophy of technology Thinking technology philosophical tradition, Freud believes that philosophy of technology must adapt to the changed environment, technology and culture, reflect the new world of modern technology problems, Mechem said, must strive to reflect on our technology as part of the meta-(meta-technology) , Du Erbin is called activism, calling technical philosophers into areas of activism, joining the ranks to solve practical problems in the past, Mr. Chen Changshu suggested that philosophy of technology must have their own subject characteristics, basic research and applications. These recommendations highlight the two "problem consciousness.
" First, how the philosophy of technology integrated into the mainstream of philosophy, and the second, philosophy of technology to study how proximate social reality. These two "problem consciousness" really should be the technology as a discipline Philosophy of the "direction finder", think technology should be our fundamental philosophy of how to position the pointer.
Philosophy of Technology Philosophy to be integrated into the mainstream, to be circulated closer to the social reality depends largely on what kind of discipline it chooses the topic. Philosophy of Technology What is the subject disciplines, philosophy of technology in the foreign sector has a lot of controversy. I agree with such a point of view: technology philosophy is "philosophy of the natural transformation." modern philosophy of life from the perspective view of the world, technology has two basic ideas to explain that "technology is a means," "Technology is human action." The two basic point is essentially a "one." They run through the definition of Karl Jaspers on technology, they also ask technical nature of Heidegger is the first time "through the right thing." Technology is human action, specifically, domestic scholars said: "Technology is the design, manufacture, adjustment, operation and monitoring of artificial process or activity itself." foreign scholars said: Technology is "People with tools for human purposes, the natural forms of activities to give "Technology is" an implementation of the design. "After all," technology is doing, "technology is a natural transformation of the scope of the problem is the practice of technical problems. Therefore, the subject theme of philosophy of technology should be positioned as the" natural transformation theory ", which is the study of" change the nature on the general law in this area. "
More importantly, the theme of this subject position, not only in the philosophy of technology in modern philosophy has distinct characteristics and outstanding value, but also to make it truly was close to social reality. On the one hand, the beginning of modern philosophy, Marx at the request "the philosopher not only to study how to understand the world, more important is to study how to transform the world." _18_ Marx's study of the modern philosophy since the task is far from complete. It can be said to accomplish this task, we must to develop such a philosophy of positioning technology. and because the Chinese and foreign history of philosophy, "natural transformation" or "creation" theme is always missing, so the philosophy of technology is even more valuable this positioning. On the other hand, as Marx said, transform the nature of the material production practice is one of the first historical event, but also the most basic of human society, decided to practice all other activities. "such activities, this continuous emotional labor and the creation of this production is the the existing very deep emotional foundation of the world. "Therefore, to this practice for the study of philosophy of technology must be truly was close to social reality. I do not agree with, philosophy of technology should be "technology-centered epistemology" of the claim.
This view of the theory of default is about the technology of a "knowledge system", the question of understanding technical issues attributed to technical philosophy boils down to "technical epistemology." This view, their essence is the kind of "great importance to the theory of transcendental thought, contempt for practice activities" in the philosophical tradition continues today in the philosophy of technology. As the theory is really needed now " Natural transformation of "." transformation of nature ", the first points to" natural transformation "activity itself, of its nature, elements, structure and form, but does not exclude" technical Epistemology. "technical knowledge required in practice, a unique understanding of the phenomenon, technology necessary to study the epistemological problem, of course, but it is not enough to constitute a philosophy of technology research center. Of "natural transformation" theory, the philosophy should start from the better.
Here, "better philosophy" is the practice of Marxist philosophy. People usually achieved by the history of philosophy, Marx's philosophical revolution known as the "practice turn." Marxist Practice philosophy focuses on "human" "practical," "sentimental," "real world" in order to practice as the anchor of their view of the world, from human activities and the historical development of the practice set out to find the road of human liberation. Comparison of different life view of the world, highlighting Marx's practical philosophy of material life, it is the object of activities based on the life of the world, while others have varying degrees of modern philosophy is to put people's lives comes down to everyday life or everyday language exchanges, will be material life, activities were excluded from the object of life outside the world. Therefore, only the Marxist Philosophy of Practice have a scientific view of practice, in order for the "natural transformation" Research provides a comprehensive framework of scientific theory. In fact, because of its prominent "practice Turn ", Marxist practical philosophy inherently includes a wealth of" natural transformation of Theory ". in these ideas under the guidance of the" natural transformation "Research, not only make the philosophy of technology to grow as a philosophical discipline, but also promote the development of Marxist Philosophy of Practice. If Mr. Chen Changshu said, "leave the natural transformation of theory, practical materialism will be sidelined."
In summary, the philosophy of technology to integrate into the mainstream of modern philosophy to be defined as "the natural transformation of Marx's philosophy of practice." In fact, the current philosophy of technology development in Europe and America have been clues to the location. Compared with the classical philosophers of technology than in the United States philosopher of modern technology Bergman, Freud and Feinberg are more emotional reality to the living world. Bergman discovered the existence of contemporary life, "Device Paradigm" (deviceparadigm), Freud reveals Technology intermediary products and people to contact (relationsofmediation), his sexual contact (alterityrelations) and background links (backgroundrelations). They are focused on daily life, but are not concerned about the production of technical devices or technology products, technology practice. In comparison, Feinberg technology practice areas are more concerned about his "tool theory" (instrumentalizationtheory) is described in the application of technology products become tools of practice. At present, this sensitivity to the reality of the return of the living world, in Europe and the United Technology philosophy has developed into an "empirical turn" movement. it stands, philosophy of technology must be based on technology "inside" understanding "must be based on the understanding of the technology practice itself, that is how technology products are designed, developed and produced. "present," the experience of philosophy of technology to "still preliminary, can be expected, the further development of practice theory will point to the technology itself, will make the technology of prominent theory of practice. because only then can the philosophy of technology "concerned about the users of technology products, stage (theuserphase) shifted to concerns about its design, development and production phase",  can really open the "new research field." It also means that this rise in Europe and America "philosophy of technology experience to "only thoroughly to a" natural transformation of Marx's practical philosophy of "the way in order to achieve its objectives.
Second, the key to the Philosophy of Technology: Philosophy of technology innovation
Once the Philosophy of Technology located in the "transformation of Marx's practical philosophy of nature", then the philosophy of technology of the many topics in philosophy of technology innovation is particularly critical and urgent. It is no longer just a "philosophy of technology application "or" technology Methodology "areas, but rather belongs to the philosophy of technology research. can be said that there is no in-depth philosophy of technological innovation, as" the natural transformation of Marx's practical philosophy of "philosophy of technology is difficult to truly establish. from the building "Marx's practical philosophy of the natural transformation of" philosophical point of view of the importance of technological innovations highlighted in the following points:
First, from a theoretical logic, technological innovation is the technology to become the technology practice, firmly grasp the philosophy of technology is only the formation of the practice of this technology to the technology "open" to reveal the inner nature of technology. History Usually, technology is an inventor's creation, and creation itself is a no structure, no process of psychological insight, seems to be "of no trace", "with the magical color." created by this technology, "said the gift" L29J has limited the people first "technology awareness within. It is now argued that technology from concept to practical application of the society is a complex technology and the creative process of construction of social interaction. Among them, the technical, economic, political, , social, cultural and physical geography of the interaction of many factors, eventually produce the technology and society to adapt, adapt to the society and technology. The technologies used to produce practice, this technique into practice it is a process, is termed "Technical innovation." Therefore, "innovation" concept itself means the process of his mouth so that technology to create "disenchantment", to "substance" of the meaning into the category of practice has been to the inner "technology inside" understanding of open. So. Only the study of technological innovation, it may truly know what technology is, how it is possible, why have. In essence, De Shao Seoul has long been clear that this point his view, philosophy of technology can only study the technical creative activities in order to found that "technology is how the possible." He rightly points out: "In order to meet the essence of technology, we have to create new forms were first place to look. large-scale industrial production of poetry and music is similar to the replication and reproduction , and only in the artist's creative activity closer to where we did the nature of poetry and music. technology is the invention. Unfortunately, his activities are mainly attributed to the technology to create inventor of the "internal to" (innerworkingout), and are unable to take it as a matter of social practice. De Shao Seoul that the original thinking of the correct philosophy of technology, philosophy of technology in the later studies have not been implemented. On the whole, the actual philosophy of technology "The most striking feature is the common method of external technology." At present, those who intend to "take seriously the technology," the philosophers, Germany, this idea Shao Seoul Philosophy of Technology before becoming a fundamental guiding principle. transfected affixed to the free paper download http://eng.hi138.com
Second, from the historical practice, technological innovation has always been the axis of development of human society, firmly grasp the philosophy of technology is only the social development of the axis, to the real world to "open" to guide and promote the development of the real world. In ancient times, the axis of social development is implicit and can be created from the prehistoric variety of the legends of kings in the noteworthy tracks, including "<Yi Xi Ci>> for gossip about the Chinese kings Fuxi, Reticulum, Shen Lei for plow, Huangdi Yao Shun as Zhou Ji, Chujiu, sagittal and so on, in the modern, the axis is significant in social development, and all the facts show that technological innovation is the lifeblood of modern business and society, economic development, productivity growth and improved living standards in the basic driving force. technological innovation is used as the primary productive force, the first competition, the first combat, has become the world entrepreneurs, politicians , top strategist the subject of concern. From the depths of history to see, from the macro that the institutionalization of technological innovation began in the late 19th century, after a century of development, technological innovation has become the practice of contemporary creative body of material production, the more and more as the development of social productive forces, liberation and the basis and signs. from the micro, said technology innovation is precisely a new "production of society" formation. Therefore, the study of technological innovation, the Philosophy of Technology will close links with the social reality so as to promote actual social problem solving and development. If you do not "sink" to "technological innovation" level, the philosophy of technology can not achieve its emphasis on "changing the world" philosophy purport. For example, Mumford, Marcou Cyprus, Fromm's technical human thought, to really act on the reality of social life, you must develop the appropriate more specific theory of human innovation.
Third, the development of philosophy itself from a technical perspective, the reason why the Philosophy of Technology for the project and split the two opposing schools of humanities, mainly because of their bigotry in the end: Engineering philosophy of technology, technology and invention as the main object of study, only concerned about how the technology is purely possible, while ignoring the complexity of technology and society relations, humanities, philosophy of technology, the technology's social impact as the main object of study, concerned only with the perspective from the Humanities and Social evaluation techniques, often hostile to the technology at the expense of full understanding of the technology itself. described by the former, technological innovation is the technology as it is a social process of technology, philosophy of technology innovation, both to the technology "open", but also to the community, "open . "Thus, studies of technological innovation in the engineering and humanistic philosophy of technology bridge the gap between philosophy of technology, to achieve the two facilities, so as to establish a sound, coherent and consistent philosophy of technology laid the foundation. For example, Based on Marx's practical philosophy, practice of technological innovation at least include "Structure of Practice" and "On the Forms of Practice" and to study the contents of these two aspects have to "project" and "humanistic" research perspective combined Engineering Philosophy of "On the Structure of Innovation Practice," there must be humanistic perspective, and humanities philosophy of technology in the Vision "technology innovation practice forms of" must have a project basis. In addition, technical innovation and research in philosophy of technology research in China has a special significance.
The one hand, studies of technological innovation is a positive philosophy of our technology needs for the practice of socialism. Invigorate China's enterprises, the implementation of national revival ultimately up to the technological innovation. the face of globalization, ecology, information, knowledge of the serious challenges and a large population, weak economic foundation, a relative shortage of resources per capita national conditions, how to rely on technological innovation and development is the practice of socialism in our country a key problem. In order to solve Wisdom of this problem in contemporary China to provide technical task of the philosopher's responsibility. On the other hand, studies of technological innovation is the record of the characteristics of philosophy of technology where possible. Our philosophy of technology no longer follow blindly the introduction of a review of the Discipline to follow the strategy. In view of the international philosophy of technology is still in the period before the paradigm, our philosophy of technology, as long as based on the Chinese reality, vision, Tong Xiao Siwei in the history and achievements, based on the record it is possible to philosophy of technology with Chinese characteristics theory. Compared with developed countries, as "late-onset exogenous" a modern country, faces a serious challenge and national conditions, China is particularly complex factors involved in technological innovation, to be particularly difficult, and therefore constitute the social practice of highlighting issues . firmly grasp the practice of contemporary China's technology innovation, practical philosophy of Marxism as a guide, our philosophy of technology might be able to create their own features.
From the construction of "the natural transformation of Marx's practical philosophy of" the height of view, at least the philosophy of technology innovation, including technological innovation practice, ontology, epistemology and theory of value and so on. Technological innovation practice theory is to study the nature of technological innovation practice , characteristics, types, structure and morphology. technological innovation ontology, is to study the practice of technological innovation, "primitive" or "ontology" is for technical innovation as it is "the highest reason." epistemology of technological innovation, is the study of technology understanding of the occurrence of innovation, development and law. technological innovation of value, is to study the values of technological innovation, value and value orientation and other issues. Obviously, these areas of research are interdependent and mastery, in contrast, On Practice of technological innovation is the basis of other studies, which together form the philosophy of technological innovation, in essence, can be regarded as the generalized theory of practice of technological innovation.
At present, the philosophy of technology innovation focused on technological innovation practice theory, focuses on the scientific, technical and economic perspective of the relationship between the concept of technological innovation, the nature and characteristics of innovation are highly desirable from the perspective of host-guest interaction in man and nature, nature and nature, man to grasp the vast space between the nature of innovation practice, structure and morphology. ontology of technological innovation in our technology has hardly been involved in philosophical circles, but the overall philosophy of thinking is the desire in the most profound level, or the most thorough grasp of the sense of the ultimate basis of technological innovation, standards and scale, so the topic will ultimately be proposed. In my opinion, at least pay attention to in-depth study of Plato's craftsman production of "imitation" ideas, Aristotle's technical production "four causes" thinking, and Germany produced Shao Seoul critical theory of technology, Heidegger's ontology of technical activities, ideas, Feinberg's technical activities "tool theory" and so on. technological innovation epistemology philosophy of technology sector in China has just started. in the moment more and more attention to technology research in an atmosphere of epistemology, I agree with the view that "the epistemology of technological innovation issues at the technical research center "," Technology innovation is the key to epistemology. "In recent years, technical value problem is the field of philosophy of technology focus of the study, but more general studies, must now work hard to sink to the technology innovation level, reflect the values of modern technological innovation and its rebuilding, so as to promote technological innovation and human culture and ecology of the turn. Links http://eng.hi138.com
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