Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Technology Philosophy Papers
Post Time:2010-10-28 15:21:00
Paper Keywords: philosophy of technology, technological innovation philosophy, technology Enlightenment
Abstract: This paper summarizes the Germany, the United States and China, the historical development of philosophy of technology, reveals the study of contemporary philosophy of technology consciousness, and thus proposed that philosophy of technology research at this stage there are two key tasks: first, for technology, technical innovation and research, and secondly, for the social, technical enlightenment. I.
History and Philosophy of Technology Status "Philosophy of Technology" research originated in Germany .
1877, the German philosopher Carp (E. Kapp) Publishes "" Technical Philosophy Program> "was Written, which is Germany's systematic study of the beginning of philosophy of technology. After that, the base Mo brief (E. Zschimmer! and German Shao Seoul (F. Dessauer) were published in 1913 and 1927 their own <"Technical Philosophy>> books. from the 20th century, 20 years to 60 years, the philosopher Husserl (E . Husser1), Scheler (M. Scheler) and Heidegger (M. Heidegger) from the perspective of phenomenology and existentialism made a lot of research on technology. nearly 30 years, the German philosophy of technology has experienced a sustained, system grows, most notably the results of the German Association of Engineers and the Technical Committee of Humanities. The Committee was established in 1956, members of a German philosopher of the most outstanding technical Junin (A. Huning), Lenk (H. Lenk), Mercer (S. Moser), La (F. Rapp), Luo Boer (G.Ropoh1), Sake Se (H. Sachsse), Tucker (K.Tuche1), hereby Mo Li (w.C.Zimmerli). To date, the Commission's technical philosophers main achievements include: Lenk's <"Technology Age Philosophy>" (1971), "<On Technology Social Philosophy>" ( 1982), Luo Boer _ a <"System Technology: Fundamentals and Applications>" (1975), "<a disadvantage of TECHNOLOGY" "(1985)," "Technical Enlightenment>" (1991), Rapp's <<Analysis Philosophy of Technology> "(1978)," "Modern World Dynamics>" (1994), Hu Ning <<engineer's creativity> "(1974), Sake Sai's <" Technical Anthropology> "(1978 ) and so on.
Overall, the development of over a hundred years after the German philosophy of technology, although gradually gained recognition in the academic community, but still belongs to the edge of the field of philosophy. The German philosophy of technology has the following characteristics: ... First, the field of intellectual structure is more species diversity, rather than single and standardized. roughly empiricism, existentialism, pragmatism, anthropology perspective of different studies. Second, sociology and technology, technical economics and political science and other technology-related research closely linked to each other's boundaries less clear. Third, the technology of the ethical, ecological and resource issues concern more and more researchers have turned to highlight the realism. Philosophy of Technology metaphysical thoughts turn from the past practice of the present-oriented .
To a global perspective, philosophy of technology first in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain and other European countries and Japan have started to echo 60-70 years .20 century rise in the United States .1975-1977, the American Philosophical Society and Technology (sf, r) .1978 established philosophy of technology began publishing the Yearbook in 1981 began a biennial international seminar held in the SPT, established in 1995, and Journal (Techne). nearly 30 years, the U.S. philosophy of technology has developed rapidly, there have been a number of well-known excellent technical philosopher and academic monographs. such as: Mitcham (c.Mitcham) of the <"Technical Consideration: the road between engineering and philosophy>" (1994), Freud (D. Ihde) of < "Technology and the Living World>" (1990), Ferre (F. Ferre) of <<the existence and value: for a constructive postmodern metaphysics> "(1996) and" <understand and value: for the Constructive Postmodernism Epistemology> "(1998), Bergman (A. Borgmann) of the <" Technical features of contemporary life> "(1984)," <adhere to it> "(1999), Winer (L. Winner) of the <<self The TECHNOLOGY "" (1977), Feinberg (A.Feen-berg) for <<ask TECHNOLOGY "" (1999) and "<transformation TECHNOLOGY" "(2002), Du Erbin (P. Durbin) of < "Science, Technology and Medicine Social Responsibility>" (1992). Overall, the characteristics of American Philosophy of Technology are: First, the U.
S. philosophy of technology has been rapidly and even can be said that rapid development. Nearly 30 years, the U.S. philosophy of technology development, and relevant scientific philosophy and development of sociological research techniques compared favorably. l2J this literature mainly for high growth, and research team does not extend. SPT always keep the size of the level at the beginning, members of less than 300 people. The Second, the paradigm of American Philosophy of Technology is diverse. In the SPT Dewey advocates inside, Ellul advocates, Marxism and Heidegger advocates. Third, the United States criticism of philosophy of technology research in a prominent of GDP. In philosophy, the philosophy of technology is still at the edge. As many SPT members critical of the technology, SPT former president of the Pitt (J. Pit) that the United States load the ideological philosophy of technology framework, its core is hostile Jishu . because it is not comprehensive, fair treatment of all aspects of technology, Peter believed that the U.S. philosophy of technology, especially in SPT research, the existence of "intellectual credibility crisis" issue.
Philosophy of Technology in China started in the 20th century, early 80s, after 20 years of development, the establishment has been set up in the discipline of the Chinese Research Society of Dialectics of Nature Philosophy of Technology Committee, has several technology research philosophy as the main philosophy of science and technology doctoral and master's degree. From the research point of view, published in 1999, Mr. Chen Changshu <"Technical Philosophy of>> this is the first marked" philosophy of technology, "the title of academic works. From the total, China's Philosophy of Technology who has few systematic, large family, but also in philosophy marginalized.
Second, the technical philosophy of the "self-reflection"
In summary, although the philosophy of technology through a system of 30 years of effort, but still in the absence of a unified paradigm, the status of non-philosophical dilemma. At the same time, human society more sharply into the technology community, and technology, especially Modern high-tech, more sharply provoked a series of philosophical questions to be studied. In this context, how to understand and study the philosophy of technology, modern technology has become the subject of philosophers thinking, resulting in the Philosophy of Technology " self-reflection. " On the nature of philosophy of technology.
Whether the philosophy of technology is a new independent branch of philosophy, the researchers had been arguing. Rapp believes that technology is neither a philosophy of engineering science element theory, not a sociological or historical subjects such as independent part, can not be attributed to a particular branch of philosophy. It epistemology, social philosophy, philosophical anthropology, history, philosophy and metaphysics are closely linked, but not subordinate to them. In view of technology, epistemology, ethics, culture, society and the link between metaphysics is so close, La consider it necessary to develop a new branch of philosophy - a unified philosophy of technology to be studied. Rapp of this view has been largely academic identity: philosophy of technology is a new independent branch of philosophy. as an independent branch of philosophy, Mechem said, philosophy of technology is about the production and use of artificial products, philosophical reflection. Chen Changshu that the philosophy of technology can be broadly seen as the natural improvement of the system, mainly to change the nature to the bottom of the reflection. On the contents of Philosophy of Technology.
Generally accepted that philosophy of technology to study the technical ontology, technical epistemology, technology theory of value and technology of social criticism and so on. And what kind of problem which is today the heart of Philosophy of Technology, philosophers have different interpretations. In China, Mr. Zhang and other Chinese and Zhang Zhilin that technology, epistemology and logic of structural problems is the core philosophy of technology. They call for "philosophy of technology and technical knowledge to turn the logic of research and technology." Chen Changshu and far Germany Mr Yu argued that technology and science compared with a more direct, more vivid, more intense value, in view of this, we should put on the value of technology as the core issue of Philosophy of Technology. In the United States, many scholars advocate the main philosophy of technology technology is ethical, political analysis, and Pitt insisted that "the most important issue is the philosophy of technology epistemology." He said only started studying the problem of epistemology, philosophy of technology is possible shelter from the mainstream philosophical discussion. It should be emphasized In discussing the value of technology research epistemology and technology varies inside, do not ignore the close relationship between the two, especially not to the two against each other, both are a complete philosophy of technology indispensable. Perhaps insight into the philosophy of technology in a particular scenario should be studied in more meaningful specific issues. Rapp believes that today's technology the most urgent task is to study the philosophy of the dynamics of technological change, the key is to clear the "technological determinism" in which people as possible . Research methods on the philosophy of technology.
In the absence of a specific historical tradition of a strong, technical philosophy of the lack of accepted theoretical basis and methodology means. From a practical point of view, Mitcham identify two different research methods or the traditional one is engineers and technical experts from the creation of their own engineering philosophy, this philosophy focuses on technology, internal structure, the other is the creation of humanities scholars, human philosophy of technology, this philosophy focuses on the meaning and interpretation of technology, the development of technology to human beings community to reflect on the consequences. engineering and philosophy tend to favor technical analysis, and humanities are more inclined to explain the philosophy of technology and critical technology. In theory, the technological phenomenon is a complex phenomenon, limited epistemological, methodological point of view, or only limited from the speculative, "pure metaphysical" perspective technologies are not enough, but should be integrated from multiple angles research. Lenk and Luo Boer, such as the said: "across the old faculties and academic boundaries, particularly in the natural sciences and humanities, social sciences and technical sciences the boundaries between, for fruitful cooperation and realism in the philosophy of technology research today than ever more important. "
Research in philosophy of technology, experience in handling theoretical reasoning and research are highly important, "rationalism" or "empiricism" methods are not desirable. Against the "rationalism," Rapp said: "can not ignore the empirical evidence of specific only based on the logic of the technology, unchanging nature of thinking, interpretation of the reality of the technology features. In order to prevent arbitrary and unreliable speculation, philosophical analysis and reflection must be conditional on facts. From this point to generalize. "and for" experience "theory, Rapp pointed out:" philosophy of technology must be used to explain and try to integrate the philosophical tradition. Figuratively speaking, the philosophical tradition to the growth of any philosophical interpretation of soil, do not use The basis for the philosophy of technology to reinvent the 'wheel' is stupid. "should be said that La this is very pertinent comments. Links http://eng.hi138.com
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on the Philosophy of Technology research methods, Feilei Ji in the decades of teaching, research and reflection, the formation of his own four tenets: First, philosophy of technology should join the mainstream of the philosophical tradition of Western thinking technology, and the second, applied epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, philosophy of science, social philosophy and other disciplines, areas, to clarify the technological phenomenon, its third, philosophy of technology in understanding what is a legitimate philosophical method should take a wide range of strategies, the Fourth, a comprehensive, critical and pluralistic approach to the understanding of philosophy of technology development related to technology and social policy is beneficial. About the Future of Philosophy of Technology.
From a technical and cultural environment, the end of the Cold War, the 20th century, 90 years, technology and cultural environment has fundamentally changed. If the people huddled in bomb shelters in the past, so now people swim in the network. Freud that the philosophy of technology must respond to environmental change such a culture to reflect the new problems the world of modern technology, not only to continue research and Ellul, Heidegger and Marcuse same theme . from the technology itself to see, as the global electronic media, and cultural development of infrastructure, Mechem that modern technology (and background of) being a new kind of "meta-technology" (meta-technology) instead. RMB technology is in the form of a virtual re-connected to the separation of the world as a whole. In this case, Mechem said, "Over the past two decades, philosophy of technology to think about what we do in the technology, the next two decades must be to think hard As part of our meta-technology. "From the perspective of the relationship between knowledge and practice, Du Erbin is called activism. Duer Bin said that although the need for advances in theory, but more is needed to resolve technical problems obtaining the social reality progress, while understanding the technology is important, but more importantly, around their social problems related to what to do. To this end, he called College activism technical philosophers into the area, adding to the ranks of solving practical problems rhyme in the past. from the basic spirit, no matter how will the development of philosophy of technology, Mr. Chen Changshu suggested that philosophy of technology must have their own subject characteristics, basic research and applications. to him, the philosophy of technology "does not feature (subject characteristics) to No status, no foundation (basic research) there is no level, no application (real value) have no future. "
Third, the key to the Philosophy of Technology: Research and Technology Innovation Enlightenment
Based on the above philosophy of technology "self awareness" study, this paper argues that, in the Philosophy of Technology on the way to prosperity at least two key tasks: First, for technology, technical innovation and research, and secondly, for social, technical enlightenment.
Technological Innovation of the reason for at least the following three points: First, from the historical practice, technological innovation has always been the hub of human society, firmly grasp the philosophy of technology is only the social hub of the community to "open "proximate and social realities. In ancient times, the social axis is implied, it can be noteworthy prehistoric traces of a variety of legendary, including" <Yi Xi Ci>> for gossip about the Chinese kings Fuxi, net Kwu, Lei Shen for the plow, Huangdi Yao Shun as Zhou Ji, Chujiu, sagittal, etc., in modern society is evident in the axis. All these facts show that technological innovation is the lifeblood of modern business and society, economic development, productivity growth and raise living standards the basic driving force. can be said that technological innovation is used as the primary productive force, the first competition, the first combat, has become the world entrepreneurs, politicians, top military strategist subjects of concern. So, of technological innovation, closely the actual philosophy of technology and social ties, thus promoting the development of philosophy of technology and the actual social problems.
Second, from a theoretical logic, the technology for technology innovation process, firmly grasp the philosophy of technology is only the process of the formation of this technology, to the technology "open", and technical realities of what is close. Generally recognized that technology In the final analysis is a practical activity, and technological innovation is a most basic skills practice, therefore, to reflect on philosophy of technology is bound to first examine the technology on technological innovation. technologies from concept to practical application of the community, is a a complex social process of creative technology, in which technical, economic, political, social, cultural and physical geography of the interaction of many factors, eventually produce the technology and society to adapt. the technology generation process, this technology into it is a process, known as technological innovation. Therefore, the philosophy of technology is only of technical innovation, it may truly know what technology is, how it is possible, why produce, how to generate, produce nothing.
Third, the development of philosophy itself from a technical perspective, the reason why the Philosophy of Technology for the project and split the two opposing schools of humanities, mainly because of their bigotry in the end: Engineering philosophy of technology, such as technology and other inventions Dessauer study, only care about how technology is just possible, while ignoring the complexity of technology and society relations, humanities, philosophy of technology, such as Ellul and other social impact of technology for the study, only care about the perspective from the Humanities and Social Assessment technology, often hostile attitude of technology, while ignoring the comprehensive understanding of the technology itself. by the former described the technology as its technological innovation is a social process of technology, philosophy of technology innovation, both to the technology "open ", but also to the community" open ", and therefore the study of technological innovation in the engineering and humanistic philosophy of technology bridge the gap between philosophy of technology, to achieve the two facilities, so as to establish a sound, coherent, consistent lay the foundation philosophy of technology. Philosophy of technology innovation, including technological innovation practice at least, ontology, epistemology and theory of value and so on.
Technological innovation practice theory, practice is the study of the nature of technological innovation, characteristics, types, structure and morphology. Technological innovation ontology, is practice of technology innovation, "primitive" or "ontology" is for technical innovation as it is "the highest reason." epistemology of technological innovation, is to study the occurrence of awareness of technology innovation, development and law. technological innovation of value, is to study the values of technological innovation, value and value orientation and other issues. Clearly, research in these areas are interdependent, mastery, in contrast, technological innovation practice theory is the basis of other studies, which together formed the philosophy of technological innovation, in essence, can be regarded as the generalized theory of practice of technological innovation. It is through technological innovation, is a man who created the technology world today.
"Technology is everywhere, but nowhere to be seen." First of all, not so much into our habitat in nature, rather, we have habitat in the technology world, and And we still deeper, more widely to caught it. "technology is the modern human habitat." Second, for the creation of man himself "second nature", we seem to be well known, but are actually not true knowledge . today's technology more and more "heavy", more "deep", ordinary people come in contact with only its external "terminal" or "display", ordinary people only know the operation of some kind of simple function only know the "name", such as "This is a computer", "This is a phone", "This is a car", "This is a bank card," and so, while the technical principles and techniques system is poorly understood. The experts seem to know the technical principles, but the view of the increasing complexity of modern technology, modern technology developers, manufacturers, users and consumers have been separated, and the developer, manufacturer and use of by their internal division of labor is a huge community of fine, so each expert really know is their local knowledge, but also know little about the technical system as a whole. The fact is that little is known about human beings not only for technology, and thinking the less. from the whole metaphysical thinking technology issues, the general public and technical experts, few people whom the philosopher as well. Today the famous French philosopher Stigler (B. Stiegler) said: "The philosophy since ancient times, the technology Thinking outside the abandoned object. technology that is without thinking. "Once again, technology. Since the occult seems to have roots in the mainstream of human society and ideology. Husserl said: "People that do not understand the internal operation of the machine the possibility and necessity, but it can learn to properly operate." Can be said that this sentence is the modern human The core technology of the mainstream ideology of the world. It is this ideology, the role of human social neglect the spread of technical knowledge and understanding. It is this ideology, the role of technology in the construction process has been ahead of the black box of. The black box technology, the surface is that consumers "burden", but in fact it is hidden technology increased. Finally, people and technology more closely, their mutual success. humans can not ignore the technology, Technology can not help but think more. Modern technology has begun to replicate the life and dreams direct manipulation of atoms and production, as it may have unpredictable and difficult to reverse the social impact of the social construction of modern technology requires not only high-level skills (knowhow) and awareness of knowledge (knowwhat), need more systematic knowledge of the metaphysical (knowwhy), not only technical experts, technical intelligence community, but more people, the wisdom of the whole social community. As Hoshino Lang Fang said: "Modern science and technology development has on all fronts to be attended by the public stage. "Thus, on the one hand, the more is the development of modern technology, the more need for public participation, on the other hand, the more is the development of modern technology, the more hidden in the acceleration. This Modern technology is an inherent contradiction between the world.
Modern human condition is: since the Renaissance, with the rise and development of natural science, human nature gradually from ignorance of the liberation, the liberation of humanity through science and at the same time, with the rise and development of technology of human ignorance again caught in a technological world, human beings are blinded by technology. So, technology has become the technology of Enlightenment philosophy of the times the task. Technical enlightenment key is to the community on technology to criticize the mainstream ideology, take this, and establish a relationship between freedom of people and technology. Links http://eng.hi138.com
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