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Post Time:2013-2-6 11:21:00
I had written in 2007 << Henan University (contained << >> 6, 2007 - Discussion with Professor Cheng Zhongtang >> article refuting the ancient Chinese logic theory, recently I read Professor Cheng << ultimate cultural the fate of the care and logic - On the root cause of the Chinese culture can not produce logic >> ① (hereinafter referred to as "Cheng" that there are many irregularities. therefore, close-up article, a discussion with Professor Cheng again and this is due in China's academic circles all my colleagues.
In order for convenience, this article is no longer listed subheadings, and just basically in accordance with the order of Cheng to successive discussed relevant issues.
1. "Cheng said:" two different concepts of logic and logical thinking, logic refers to a thinking science, logical thinking refers to a way of thinking activity or way of thinking ... the formation of logical thinking to the birth of logic from the laws of logic and logical reasoning is not consciously use to their form has been consciously and systematic leap. "② we think," Cheng "On the distinction between logical thinking and logic here correct logical thinking is logical thinking, the use of the form of thinking and its laws, logic logical thinking, is a form of thinking in the use of logical thinking (concepts, propositions, reasoning and so the logic of its laws summed. But, so I understand that, "Cheng cited passage << University >>:" ancient desire Mingming in the world to put the nation first.
Want to rule the country, the first of the home For extension of knowledge in the phenomena of nature. phenomena of nature of the home, to Advanced Placement its body. Items Number of Copies of its body, the first is its heart. For being its heart, first the sincerity of their views. want sincerity of their views by first cause its knowledge. then know to know to then Yicheng Yicheng then the heart is, the heart is and then the body repair, body repair and then home Qi, home Qi then country governance, country governance and then the world level. "(3) This passage obviously should belong to logical thinking of the range was "Cheng called" logical relationship, and is the basic relationship of propositional logic implication and inverse implication also accurate understanding ④. (so that it is it should belong to the range of logic? while Cheng cited the << Mojing >> proposition on conditions necessary conditions, sufficient conditions for theoretical generalization: "Little Therefore, there is not necessarily, without which it will or ...... therefore, inevitable." Originally logic range (it the logic part Mojing, turned Cheng attributable to the use of propositional logic ⑤!
2 Cheng believes that culture has two basic components: the system of values and knowledge systems, value systems, including moral values, political ideas and religious beliefs we all know, moral values, political ideas and religious beliefs are all ideologies, are class nature some content in the knowledge system no class character (such as natural science, some class nature, such as philosophy (philosophy belongs ideology would appear that the main content is in a class society, culture belongs ideology, class nature. Marx said: "The thoughts of the ruling class are dominant ideology in every era. This means that a class is the dominant material force in society, but also the community the dominant spiritual force ... the dominant ideology, but the concept is the dominant material relationships. "⑥ Therefore it can be said, in a class society, the thinking of the mainstream of the culture of each era must be ruled class thinking reflected their role lies first and foremost with maintaining the domination of the ruling class. Cheng thought that Greek culture is not the case. "Cheng said, the main orientation of Greek philosophy, cognitivism ⑦ The Greek philosopher satisfied just to cognition and life. Is the fact really is that so? Let's take a look at the definitive work on this issue is how to say: ancient Greek society is Slavery Society.
Ancient Greek philosophers at the same time the slave owners. "In ancient Greek philosophy slaves the main worldview, Democritus Crete atomists and Plato's theory of ideas, theory both are different, as well as opposition. the Democritus Crete, and Plato as slave owners philosophers, they the theory they are reasonable for defense of slavery, and services for the consolidation of slavery. they all think that this system is in line with the natural system, the slave according to the nature, born to be contented, engaged in heavy manual labor, slave owners By nature, inherently give orders to engage in the political, cultural, and military activities. slavery forever immutable changed slavery is a violation of the natural, the rebellious nature of the universe and human nature. "⑧
Cheng so misinterpreted the fundamental nature of ancient Greek philosophy, the key is to demonstrate the fundamental orientation of the decision of the Greek would have a logic of Greek philosophy. "Cheng said:" Greek philosophy, cognitive orientation, on behalf of the the mainstream of Greek culture, Greek culture's ultimate concern. ⑨ and the "ultimate concern of the Greek culture, the generation of logic have a decisive impact." ⑩ Do generation of Greek logic really is due to the so-called Greek philosophy recognized intellectualism orientation determines it? No, as mentioned above, the so-called Greek philosophy, the cognitivism orientation is false, and the generation of Greek logic is cognitivism orientation of Greek philosophy, culture, decision saying, is even more absurd Let us look at the history of Western logic of Ma Yuke editor << >> (College Philosophy professional textbooks on this issue is how discourse: the emerging industrial and commercial slave owner due to economic development in some of the city-state "this emerging class representative of the progressive forces of various political struggles, with the landlord aristocratic slave-owning class. represent the interests of different sectors of the thinkers and philosophers of different viewpoints argue, is a reflection of the political struggle in ancient Greece, in the field of social ideology struggle involved in all aspects of political, ethical, legal, religious, philosophical. 'contending' the argumentation of wind frantic. contend, argumentation, can not stay in the simple instructions or statements need convincing reasoning and argument, you need to enhance the ability of rational thinking. Thus, as the theory permits oratorical eloquence have come into being. "(11) on the basis of these elocution and oratory, logic will gradually form." This shows generation logic and argumentation, to prove directly related. "(12)
Seen, the generation of Greek logic is not only not called cognitivism orientation of Greek philosophy, but rather the development of the class struggle of the Greek ideological field performance - the product of "a hundred schools of thought contend". "Cheng" ultimate concern of the Greek culture, have a decisive impact on the generation of logic "to this view, the two arguments.
Fact, these two arguments also apply to our point of view." Cheng said : "First of all, the Greek cultural awareness orientation logical thinking to be fully developed. Greeks, both about the external natural or recognize their own, are reasoning, argumentation." (13 ), however, the class struggle in the ideological field - a hundred schools of thought contend ", not need more reasoning, to demonstrate it?" Cheng said: "Second, science is always in response to the needs of the community generated, the Greek culture, the ultimate care also calls for logic, because the cognitive activities very logic of norms, in order to clarify Fallacies and (14) However, the class struggle in the ideological field - "Flowers", not also need logic specification , Fallacies and to clarify it?
4 Cheng reason to misinterpret the characteristics of the Greek culture and thus misinterpreted the cause of Greek logic, the key is a fundamentally different order to demonstrate the characteristics of Chinese culture and the Greek culture, and therefore decided to impossible for China to produce logic. "Cheng said:" Chinese culture, two of the moral and political one as the ultimate concern.
"(15) added:" Saints and External Kings Road, Road to make the ultimate concern of the Chinese culture. "(16)" in Chinese culture, the supreme value on the surface is a moral, in fact the supreme value is political. "(17) I believe that, not to mention the" Cheng summary of the characteristics of Chinese culture is one-sided and simplistic, we emphasize that : As mentioned above, in a class society, the culture of a country, especially showing the important position of moral and political, which is not only correct, but it is inevitable not only this, Greece is also the case, just not Cheng correct understanding of the characteristics of the Greek culture.
Cheng for its point of view, "the characteristics of Chinese culture decided not produce a logic" to carry out a series of demonstration, but these arguments are not tenable. Rebuttal now choose to be as follows:
"Cheng said, value-neutral nature of the Chinese culture forged by the moral and political value system, the logic is incompatible It even cited Mou Tsung-san," is based on the intellectual in the outcome of that logic, mathematics, science, and did not appear this layer areas completely become a desolate consciousness not layer continue all the way to the place. "(18) added:" Confucianism is not anti-intellectual, just the intellectual as a moral political tool of ... However, due to the moral and political value system forged dominated and dominating everything, value-neutral knowledge simply has no place at all. "(19) I believe that the political, moral, on the first bit, does not mean you do not develop non-class nature of the science - logic, mathematics, science, of any brains rulers will know that the development of logic, mathematics, science, and thus improve the economy of the country as a whole better and faster cultural level, to improve the people's quality of life is the most fundamental to the maintenance of state power, the best way, never appeared As Chinese cultural values determine the logic, science, mathematics, and completely contrary to the facts. Chinese in premodern The technology has been in the world's advanced ranks, this certainly has many Chinese and foreign scientists, Qi by Cheng, "to write off the (20) Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
"wisdom" (that is, refers to the so-called value-neutral informative science: logic, mathematics, science as a political tool of this is it's position, and that it simply has no place at all, which is entirely self- contradictory, and, since it is a "tool" of course, it is necessary to reinforce this tool. In other words, even in the case of the moral and political value system dominated, bound to develop logical science, and how will be impossible produce logic?
"Cheng said:" pre-Qin philosophers have different political demands or concepts of good and evil, for example, Mozi advocates 'universal love', Yang Zhu advocate 'for me' is incompatible, Mencius more Yigai to deny , denounced him, saying: 'Young' for me, is the sovereign of no. Mozi universal love, no parent also father and emperor, the beast also. 'then the logic should be consistent with the whose political demands, for whom the good and evil concepts services? Are different class or faction has a different logic? "(21) I believe that that logic to become tools of political morality, regardless of Mozi, Yang Zhu, Mencius political moral values is to say how different or antagonistic, they all need the same logic tools, and certainly not said it must be a different logic to create a different class or faction just as different artisans to produce different types of furniture, the tools used can be the same.
"Cheng said:" When << Mo Hsiao >> proposed 'debate' to 'trial order or disorder'' at stake' service when also given the 'debate' attribute to ideology. "( 22) I believe that, first, this statement is discussion about the nature and role of the "debate" >> << small take-sidedness, and proved Original: the "Cardiff advocate, will be Ming non-divided trial Governance chaos of the century, Ming at the similarities and differences of the reason the police name real, Department interest, must suspects. Yan (of all things is the G slightly contingent on the demand of Languages. "Obviously, >> << small take does not take the role of the "debate" comes down to trial Punishment "and" at stake ", but pointed out that it has the tools ming at the similarities and differences, and so on as understanding and discourse, and as a tool for understanding and Essays, of course, also be used trial order and disorder "and" at stake, therefore, must not be thus concluded >> << small take argument is that the "debate" boils down to ideology.
Second, whether the "debate" belongs to the ideology of science, or is it instrumental science << small take >> few discourse about the role of "debate" must not only see, but small take depends on << >> all specific content. Due to space limitations, you can not expand here explain (<< small take >> details, the reader is referred to in the writings of many Chinese Logic History has taken >> << small, but Overall, >> << small take no more than such << small take >> said, is "real name held to resign express intended to say so, that is about the" name "(concept "resigned" (proposition, "said the exposition of the form of thinking" (reasoning, logic theory.
"Cheng said: the Mohist for the 'universal love' and 'Kill Pirates' two conflicting political views of the intention to defend impose reasoning when it plunged into the 'kill Pirates of the non-murder' of sophistry, leading to a series of contradictions ...... ruin the future of its logic, because logic theories can become a contradiction. "(23) I believe that, first, Mohist" universal love "and" kill stealing "two conflicting political ideas is not correct. "universal love" to the masses of the people equal love "kill Pirates recruiters want to undermine the normal life of the broad masses of the people to suppress as we now want to build a harmonious society must be serious damage to the cause of socialism with criminals crackdown in the time to reach the "Fraternity" must "kill Pirates.", "universal love" and "kill stealing" Mohist system of thought exactly., "Cheng" in a formal logic system contains a logical contradiction and a non-formalized system a local (in one example contain logical contradictions confuse a formal logic system If both the launch of the theorem P launched theorem of non-P (┑ P, which is to appear a logical contradiction. while based on mathematical logic theorem (P ∧ ┑ P → B, that is logical contradictory propositions can launch any proposition, this logic system is naturally no scientific value. << small take >> "Kill Pirates of non-homicide" just as "or else" (provided for affirmative proposition but launched the reasoning in the form of a negative conclusion ("Pirates of the people also ... kill Pirates of non-homicide also "For example, even if this example is improper, it will not lead to collapse << small take >> build logic system. Thirdly, in fact << small fetch> > "kill Pirates of the non-murder" argument is not is sophistry, on the contrary, it touches on a delicate argument, we know, can be both broad and narrow meaning of the word "person" in a different context, broadly defined to include all the bad guys and most people, including the "people", while the narrow sense refers only to the most people, which does not include the bad guys, including thieves are people too "," person "is broad people." × × very bad, they are simply not people "," people "but the narrow sense. << small take >> argument about" kill stealing non-homicide "It is in the context to distinguish between two different meanings of" Take a look at << small take >> Original: "Pirates of the people, multi-Pirates, non-people, non-stealing, non nobody also. Xi to tomorrow's? evil multi Pirates, non-evil people also want no Pirates of non For no people world phase total is the. Ruoruo is, then although the Pirates of the people, love Pirates of the non-lover, not love Pirates of the non-not lover also, kill Pirates of non-homicide also. "(24) is very clear," Pirates, man. " in the person represents a generalized, multi Pirates, non multiplayer "so the sentence" narrow sense, therefore, to say "kill stealing, non-homicide" and "Pirates of the people "is not a logical contradiction. fact, this argument makes sense. Conversely, If you can not tell the meaning of the two" people "in the argument, which did cause confusion, such as:" the killers committed a capital offense, the death penalty for murder is murder, the murderer at the death row inmates condemned to death. "This is not precisely the sophistry you?
Cheng scholars criticized Write a History of China logical thinking to confuse the concept, with the history of logical thinking "posing" History of Chinese Logic "Cheng said:" The logical thinking is logical thinking applied to specific ideological or academic field and produce the results, so, the ancient Chinese also 'logical thinking history' at all. "(25) I believe that this argument really is conceptual confusion. according to this view, all logical conversation articles science and culture of all belonging to the logical thinking, because they are all logical thinking applied to specific ideological or academic field generated. history of logical thinking is not like "Cheng said the Chinese intellectual history and an important part of the cultural history of China, but to include the entire contents of the Chinese intellectual history, cultural history, the history of science, etc. Is not this logic intellectual history became << the Yongle Dadian >>-book? fact, logic thinking is logical science ideas, or ideological discourse about forms of thinking and its laws. failed to form a completely separate disciplines in ancient logic, the logic discussed often scattered in philosophy, linguistics, argumentation surgery treatise, and they tend to only about a (some form of thinking and an exposition of the law (did not constitute a complete system of logic, but as long as the discussion of the relevant form of thinking and its laws , they all belong to the category of logical thought. our logic historians, our country since ancient times relevant of contained in logical thinking, to quote, sorting, analysis, order history, choreography, it became a "logical thinking history. "This work allows us to see a summary of the historical development of China logical thinking, our logic makes sense, how can they be" posing "words!
Cheng order to demonstrate the ancient Chinese culture can not produce logic, and finally even hesitate to denounce the thinking and culture of the ancient Chinese logic: "Ancient Chinese logical thinking, but not in the quality or quantity of fully developed. "(26)" logical thinking has not become the mainstream of people's way of thinking. "(27)" China's traditional culture is a structural imbalance in the culture, because it only focus on the value to the neglect of the knowledge. "(28) China since ancient times is just a poor logical thinking ability, not only the world's Logic three birthplace of title in accordance with the "Cheng" no longer exists, I am afraid it has become a problem of the splendid culture of five thousand years of ancient civilization. they really is that so? here no more to say, please readers seriously thinking about it!
Received date :2008-07-30
① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑦ ⑨ ⑩ (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (21) (22) (23) (25) (26) (27) (28) the seeking: << culture the ultimate care and logic the fate - On the root cause of the Chinese culture can not produce logic >> << History of Chinese Philosophy >> 1, 2008. ⑥ Marx and Engels: >>, << Feuerbach, Marx and Engels, Selected Works >> << Volume I, People's Publishing House, 1972.
The editor << the ⑧ seedlings force field of ancient Greek philosophy >> (Chinese arts textbooks), China People's University Press, 1989.
(11) (12) the Mayu Ke the editor << western logic the History >> (College Philosophy professional textbooks), China People's University Press, 1985.
(20) on the ancient Chinese science and technology development, see Du stone natural compile >> << China Science and Technology Historical Manuscript, Science Press, 1982, Needham: << History of Science and Technology >> China Science Press, 1978 Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com