For social science analysis methodology notes

Discussion of social science research methodology, Weber (Max Weber) is around, but the name. "Value-free" has been read too familiar, the Weberian sense "value-free" how should understand? In academia but is still obscure. both today's social development and crisis, therefore there are serious differences between the intellectual, academic and political relations become cloud wave sly deceitful, scholars should be used "to moral and value" stance "method to deal with this situation, however, "to moral" and "no position" exactly in what sense is possible and effective? political and academic in the context of Weber's exactly what it means? Every Weber, the 90th anniversary of the death of his book again in the Chinese world, a large number of published re-reading Weber, to finishing the entanglements of Chinese intellectuals on the issue of the academic and political position of the value, and has once again become a topic of great theoretical and practical significance. ②

The double meaning of a "value-free"

"Objectivity" >> << social scientific understanding and social policy awareness is a programmatic document of 1904, Weber took over hosting << social science and social policy library >> magazine, explained the purpose of the magazine from which we can see Weber is how the thinking of social science methodology and academic ethics and academic community together, which is Weber focused discussion and summarizes the important literature of social science methodology, however, since the 1980s, Chinese academia "discovered" Weber since this also a misreading of the most serious part of So, back to the text itself, should reread the most important method of Weber.

Weber outset << library >> purpose first, the expansion of the understanding of the facts of social life, and the other is training people to make judgments of actual social life. Well, to judge the validity of what? Alternatively, in what sense can be said that social science research there is "objective truth"? Weber entire presentation is the awareness of this problem.

Weber oppose two historical view, the moral evolution, historical relativism, by culture Weber national economics as the main target of criticism, pointed out: It is a combination of both achieved a dominant position in the field of social sciences. the value of the overall field of the moral content regulations in the field of morality, and thus learn to improve the national economy to the scientific status of "ethics" In fact, this is all possible cultural ideal in overall posted a "moral" label, both obliterate the unique status of the moral imperative, but also the ideal of "objectivity" What contribution. << library >> need to be on fundamentally rejects the popular view, it is: the national economy from a special school "derived from, and should The resulting value judgments. task of empirical science is not the proposed binding norms and ideals, in order to derive a practical prescription. << library >> require rejection of another economic worldview kinds of perspectives: value judgments based on some kind of ideal, which has a subjective origin, you can get rid of the "scientific" discussion. twofold meaning of this is "value-free", can not be neglected either party, while the domestic academic Weber views around economics whether there should be a moral discussion, in fact, did not seize the key to Weber.

Weber said, << library >> concern question really is: what is the meaning and purpose of the judgments made on the ideals and values ​​of "scientific" critique? The scientific technical criticism "most fundamental function is to make the pursuit of purpose consideration to fully assess and weigh, and only at this time, most need to implement the logic of "value-free" method after this, weigh up the decision-making, it is no longer the task of the science, policy-makers according to their own conscience and worldview weigh the choice between a variety of value, but it is that science can make him realize that all actions, of course, there is not action depending on the circumstances, its results are meant to absorb the certain value, which often means that - this currently particularly vulnerable to being overlooked - give up some value to make a choice is his own thing. "③ scientific task it is to reveal and clarify the logic of the" purpose " establish a foundation on top of the "concept", "explore the scientific value judgments not only the wish of the people to further understanding and experience as his ideal, and, above all, need to teach people critically 'judge' them." ④ In other words, as a "science" itself is not as a value judgment task, but it is a value judgment on the basis of this is because, in the era of a view of the world there is a serious conflict, "universally valid to create the ultimate ideal way to solve our actual common denominator, which is no doubt neither is the task of this magazine, and must not be the task of an empirical science: such a task not only in fact can not be resolved, but also their own is unconscionable. "⑤ decided on the methodology of" value-free "status as a logical sense.

A hearty tree of the knowledge of the culture of the times, its fate must know how well regardless of the results of research on world events are impossible from informed of the significance of world events, but must be able to create this sense view of the world must can not be the product of experience in the advancement of knowledge, therefore, the most powerful driving our highest ideals, in any era can only be in the ideal struggle to achieve these other ideal for other people, As our ideal for us, is sacred. ⑥
Therefore, it can be seen, the meaning of "value-free" Weber said, is to completely get rid of the myth of the so-called "universal value" of an era, the gods battle to decide the social sciences can not ultimate value should not exist universally valid. inexpensive relativism in this sense and optimism eclecticism ignore its grim, either in theory or in practice to avoid the results of these scientific "objectivity "no" middle way "did not have a scientific truth. shows that precisely to the clearance of the boundaries of the" scientific "validity, it is to solve the problem" exists as a methodology of "value-free" The problem, rather than the "effective". thinking finishing involves the problem of "objectivity" and "effective" related to cultural characteristics or value which must be operating in the science of "objective" and value judgments to draw the line between.

Therefore, the function of the magazine seeking scientific truth, and science as empirical reality thinking finishing validity, Weber made two important responsibility:
First, is used as a measure to let the reader and the author himself clearly aware of the reality, and to deduce what is the standard of value judgments and scale, not the value of the different categories confused with only through established standards of value and other value of the standard, it is best to confrontation with their own standard of value - any meaningful evaluation can only proceed from their own worldview criticism, rather than through the diversion between different values ​​and ideals conflict between trade-offs to deceive ourselves. reflective contrast between the different scale of values, clarify and reveal all for a meaningful evaluation of others are just from the criticism of their "world view", based on their own ideal with others ideal as a result of the struggle.

Second, to make readers, editors and writers to understand where scientific research remained silent, and began to speak as a "desire", where argumentation recourse understand where recourse feelings must be opposed confusion between the scientific discussion and evaluation of inference, but "by no means opposed to affirm their own ideals." no inner approximation between belief and scientific "objectivity" here "value-free" meaning embodied << library >> academic journals have the nature of the academic community, it is not engaged in the opposition faction of political or social policy debates place, is not the place to attract in favor of or against a political ideal or social policy factions ⑦ but a public domain. "academic" Weber described as such:
Magazine features the outset is that, and as long as it let the editors in the future should be that the sharp political opponents are in the magazine for the scientific work and peaceful coexistence it is so far not a "socialist" publication,

The future will not be "bourgeois" publications it does not exclude people willing to exposure above the base of scientific discussion outside of the range, it can not be a "response" rebuttal, re-rebuttal playgrounds but it is not partial to anyone, either its author or his editors should be subjected to in their part want to see the most stringent objective and scientific criticism can not tolerate this person, or unwilling, with those people's cooperation in the field of scientific understanding and their ideals, can not participate in it. ⑧
However, Weber also acknowledged that without prejudice to the same with political adversaries in a neutral academic spaces, is not easy in Germany at that time, that kind of to as partisan fanatic limitations and underdeveloped political culture flag, should be unconditional opposition. "In this sense, the" value-free "academic opposition Pan-political tendency, serious injury because this inevitable academic" scientific "However, this does not mean that this magazine is not by those who value "feature" << library >> To explore the problem is closely related with the highest values ​​play a decisive role, and thus become the most stable of the people, "is precisely so they become a representatives of the concept of the same or similar cultural outlook different view of these authors, but "they regard the protection of the health of the working masses, and to maximize the share of the working masses of material and spiritual wealth of our culture as a goal, but a combination of the free development of the national intervention in the field of material interests and the existing political order and the legal order as a means. "⑨ these people no matter what kind of views held on the future of the social order, but certainly in terms of contemporary the development of capitalism ", not because of it earlier than the social system is a better form, but in practice because it is inevitable, which is the academic attitude to face the reality of politics.

<< Library >> main concern is the socio-economic problems. Event as a social and economic phenomenon, its nature has not itself "objective", but awareness of "interest" tendency to conditions. "Is a phenomenon just focus on our interest, it has significance for the material struggle for survival, or only at this time, only to get an 'economic' phenomena of nature. "the task of the magazine: the study of human living together universal cultural significance of the socio-economic structure and its history, the organizational form.

Not the "facts" of the "real" contact, but the thought of the problem contact constitutes the foundation of all science areas of work: a new way to explore a new problem and thus finding opens up a new and important perspective of truth place, there will be a new "science." ⑩
Different from Marx's economic base and the superstructure theory, different from the kinds of cultural determinism - Weber is not a cultural determinist, he emphasized the economic and cultural relationship of mutual restraint Weber: In accordance with the economic the constraints and scope of the special perspective to analyze social phenomena and cultural events, is still a creative achievements of scientific principles, but this is precisely the need to distinguish between these two tendencies: either historical reality can not be economically motivated deduced as scientifically meaningless "accidental" or "residue", or to extend the concept of economic affairs to unknown areas, so that all combined in some way with the external means reality and human interests are included in that concept. (11) This is the way Weber's strong opposition to dominate the social value and social sciences economics value judgment, which is Weber "value-free" has historical relevance.

Second, the empirical facts, cultural values ​​and academic ethics

For Weber, the social sciences as a reality of science is to understand that we are into which, surrounded by the characteristics of our reality, and that its cultural significance: why is it in history like this. "Limited the the human spirit on the establishment of the infinite realities thinking understanding in this occult prerequisite that each time only a limited part of reality constitutes the object of scientific understanding, only that it was in the sense of 'worth knowing' is' fundamentally '"(12) Weber clearly pointed out that the empirical facts only in association with the cultural values, is the researcher close to the" real "way to social science not establish the regularity of purposiveness, but" individual " causal link between the "value". reality applicable law is the individual, the individual is not deduced from the law. clear concept of the existence of the law assumes that, just recognize the reality of the premise and the means, and the real meaningful analysis and holistic description, but the significance of a cultural phenomenon of the new "independent", as well as the reasons for the formation of such significance can not proceed from any regularity concept and system to derive demonstration or clarify , because they are based on a cultural phenomenon, and the relationship of the values ​​for the prerequisite, the concept of culture is the concept of value. individual reality the reason for our meaningful is therefore important for us because it showed values relationship just because of this point, it's individual characteristics and is worthy of our understanding of the other words, the value of the idea is to confirm the study's premise, not the conclusion, because:
Important things of course, not with any regularity own equivalent, and the law more generally effective, more is not the same with itself because a real component has special significance for us, of course, is precisely that it extremely large number of other ingredients that share those relations. reality and give it the importance of values ​​and ideals, and the outstanding view of the importance of their cultural and finishing thus rendering out realistic ingredients, in accordance with the law of reality analyzed, compared and organize it in the general concept, is a heterogeneous, different views. thinking finishing reality two ways not necessarily any logical relationship between the individual case, they can consistent with each other, but this occasionally agreed to cover up the principle differences can lead to very disastrous consequences. (13)
These economics, is no exception, in fact, Webber more precisely it from. Precisely because Weber for "law" cult worship, especially the law of the "market" economics with disaster warning of the consequences is particularly worth today academia lessons We can also learn to see Weber's position in Europe, but that does not mean he is a so-called "Western centrism" who, while On the contrary, he repeatedly warned it is the vigilance of the "universal values". vital core view for Weber, we are not fully understood, but it is Weber stressed that the main starting point for the "value-free" .

Weber specific monetary exchange economy: universal essence and market exchange interaction "technology" research is essential, but this is only preliminary work, it can not answer exchange how historically its basic meaning today historical facts need to be clarified in the cultural significance, is the one in charge of the cultural significance of the monetary economy - because it is, we will be interested in exchanges technology. "only a limited part of the infinite variety of phenomena, only meaningful a prerequisite, the understanding of the individual nature of the phenomenon of thinking logically it makes sense. "(14) concrete reality exhaustive causal inference not only is impossible in practice, and, in theory, is also ridiculous where individuality "causal problem is not a question of law, but the specific causal link, not formula phenomenon as a sample to be classified: it is a vested ....... a causal explanation of the 'historical individual' - are taken into account, the understanding of the law of cause and effect can not be the purpose of the study, but only a means of research "Weber repeatedly stressed that the law is more popular, the more abstract, contribution of individual phenomena causally attributable fewer, and thus indirectly to understand the significance of cultural events the smaller historical phenomenon, the general rule is the most empty content is usually the least value of the validity of the concept of a class is more extensive, the more we left reality richness to contain as much common phenomenon, it must be as much as possible to abstract the total phase of understanding for historical research words no value. therefore, restore the experience as "universal" or "objective" does not make sense for the social science work. This is not to say that "the law" does not exist

, But because of the understanding of the laws of society is not the same as understanding of social reality, it is only an adjunct to our thinking is used for this purpose. Culture is only an individual, its culture values ​​determined , any law can not reveal these values ​​of different 'culture' is infinitely generated world process meaningless from the point of view of people, starting with the meaning and importance of thinking of the limited cross-section (15 ) following Weber passage of particular concern:
Priori premise of any culture and science do not we think of a certain kind, or any kind of cultural valuable, but we are the intellectuals, endowed with attitude and give it a sense of the world, said the ability and the will consciously. Whether this is the meaning of what it will lead to our departure from it in life to judge human co-existence of certain phenomena, they are regarded as an important (positive or negative) attitudes.

The ability and the will of the world that attitude and give it meaning, in fact, it is the basis of academic ethics Weber description of the prophets of Israel, focusing on what they construct meaning for cultural and religious communities "vocation." (16 ) Here we again see the a Weber World intellectuals academic ethics and religion of the Prophet ethics overprint. precisely on this basis, Weber stressed that "personal" factors for the importance of academic research scholars. because there is no what point of view is naturally derived from the material, the so-called let the facts speak for themselves, not self-deception is deceptive. really has significance as a "personal" scholars "mirror of the soul", the only way to the mirror reflection of the reality cultural values ​​and meanings:
Anywhere consciously or unconsciously, to specific aspects of individual things made this choice, the dominant scientific work kind as happens every proposition - a scientific work of the "personal factors" before factor is its real value addition, any work is valuable, it must demonstrate a "personality" - the basis of the factors. Needless to say, the values ​​of the researchers, there would be no material selection principle, there would be no individuality reality meaningful understanding of, like, if not the researchers' beliefs, understanding of the significance of some of the cultural content of any of the individual reality is absolutely no sense, as he The concept of personal tendency to value reflection in the mirror of his soul, the provisions in the direction of his work. scientific genius to their object of study of those who value associated with it, but the ability to specify the entire era of "point of view" is decisive: not only in terms of the phenomenon as a "valuable" things, and the phenomenon is regarded as meaningful or meaningless "important" or "unimportant" things This is true. (17)
Weber cleaned exactly the basis of academic intellectuals in contemporary established ethical values ​​inherent aspirations of the intellectuals of the academic world construct meaning confirmation and belief, this is to promote the power of civilization itself and cultural development. At this point, we can understand the core of Weber's social science methodology, that is, in an era of the gods, the social sciences are not seeking universal and ultimate law or purpose, but understanding, establish value and create a culture of meaning, this is academic and intellectual molecules established ethical cornerstone settle down. sure to seek value significance to human civilization, within that civilization itself, also within the Knowledge Community and the national community is that any age, they are precisely the intellectuals should be to undertake the "mandate of heaven". positive In this sense, the "destiny" of the intellectuals is an ethical commandments, is a combination of external mission and internal ambitions.

Third, the "ideal type" and "objectivity" of the social sciences - the criticism of the National Economics

Weber is the National Economics "naturalistic monism" as the target of criticism, began his discussion of social science methodology.
Learn the beginning of the national economy is a discussion of the phenomenon of the "technical" national "wealth" growth, but it is from the outset, not just technology, because it is incorporated into the natural law of the 18th century, rationalist worldview the the huge continuum Natural Science: According to the regularity of contact made on empirical facts general abstraction and analysis, validity and mathematical form of a metaphysical concept system, to the reality of a purely objective "to get rid of all values ​​of, at the same time is also absolute rationality of that to get rid of all individuality" contingency "of one yuan On understanding this scientific thinking of the mode, in addition to discover things," law ", the scientific work of the other meaning unthinkable only "together law" is the science of the nature of things, "individuality" event only as "typical", that is, as the explanation makes sense of the law, these events are not "scientific "interested in the history of the field, the history of abstract theory and experience work against abstract economic theory provides us with an economic organizations, free competition and rational behavior in commodity markets the ideal picture of the various events. "the ideal picture of some of the contacts and events of the history of life unified conceived Contact was seamless system in terms of content, the idea of ​​an ideologically improve certain elements of reality get comfortable utopian nature with life experience given the fact that the relationship solely in the abstract description in the kind of idea that contact, and thus dependent on the events of the 'market', is found in the reality or is guess to some extent role, we are able to take advantage of an ideal typical (idealtypus) the actual presentation and explanation of the characteristics of such a link. "(18)
"Ideal typical" (domestic translate more as "ideal types", below, using the concept of this translation - of note) in order to vest judgment, it is not assuming, nor is the description of reality, it is the history of a given modern exchange of economic and social organization "concept." Weber pointed out that the "market" in Western economics as the concept of genesis on Western medieval urban economy "concept, both of which are based on the principle of" identical to the logic expand the concept of "urban economy" is not the actual existence of all city inspection economic principle of "average", but unilaterally raise one or some of the points scattered individual phenomenon is integrated into a unified ideal the meaning of the third picture obtained for this purpose, the "ideal type" is selected from the empirical facts different elements to the logic of finishing is concerned, it does have a "objectivity", this is the "value-free" "ideal type" as a logic analysis tool itself is "value-free", but on the other hand, its conceptual purity of the ideal picture can not experience in reality place to find it is a utopia. historical work, a task that should confirm the reality from that ideal picture in any specific occasion how near or how far, the relationship between the economic characteristics of a city in much extent, in the meaning of the concept of which is said to be 'urban economy'. (19) Therefore, the ideal type is not "objective" reality unconditional "reflect", but "finishing", Weber strongly opposed to the concept of the ideal type of image as a historical reality "real" content, as "essence" ideal type is not the robbers in ancient Greek mythology Proctor Rust Bed, history should not be in this literally, and should not be treated as the "real" power to play a role in history - Weber stressed the special needs vigilant after a dangerous Western medieval "city economy" model developed for China Economics economics "principle", what can explain the extent to which China and solve the problem of China's urban and rural areas? worth today more profound questioning and reflection.

Weber tells us precisely: not established concept with a specific historical context of contact, on the West, such as "market" economics of this concept is applied to simple swept everything is extremely dangerous, because it is such practices violate " value-free "social science methods, contrary to the reality principle of" objectivity "for us today for all kinds of market fundamentalism, it should be a wake-up call Weber clear that economic theory is a" teach Science In particular, it assumes the dominant role of the purely economic interests, to the exclusion of political orientation, and other non-economic orientation of behavior, so it can only be an "ideal

Type ", and certainly not the history of the development of" natural ", more" should not become so universal road:
Kind In this sense, "national", "amoral" and "individualism" purely theoretical, as adjunct methods and always essential, and the extreme school of free trade, then it is understood as "natural", that is not stupid distort the reality of an exhaustive portrayal, and further accordingly understood as a "should be" understood as an ideal in the value field, rather than understood as The empirical study ideal typical one can be used (20)
So, the "ideal type" function, not as an end but as a social science "means" to play the role of social science must use usually only in the "ideal type" in order to understand the provisions of the concept of work. The working principle is summarized, measured with the contrast, is to establish the concept of "boundaries" is the prerequisite for this is a professional 'training:
It is an ideal picture, but not the reality of history, but also is not "real" reality, it is also not at all fit in reality classified as a sample schema, but rather refers to the boundaries of the concept of a pure ideal significance With this concept to clearance the reality of the experience of the content of some of the important ingredients to weigh the reality. contrast to make it reality. Such a concept is a product of the idea, we use them through the use of the category of objective possibility conceived various linkages, based on reality oriented, trained imagination they make a judgment that they are suitable. (21)
But the confusion is always very easy to produce historical relativism always let the "philosophy" in the sense of ideal types generated as the concept of "demand in the ideal sense, let it become a value judgment., Science self-monitoring of the basic obligations and the only means to avoid being cheated, is strictly distinguish between these two ways to compare the ideal type of sense of reality and logic linked, make evaluative judgments of reality from the ideal starting point for this is two completely different ways This is Weber stressed as the ideal type of methodology is "value-free", that can not be used as a value judgment standard. ideal type "is some sort of evaluative judgments totally not interested in something, in addition to the pure logic. the perfect addition to it have nothing to do with any other kind of perfect. "(22) That is, in Weber's theory, the ideal type is actually a logical tool does not have the significance of value judgments, this "value-free" core meaning, otherwise, there will be reduced to a naturalistic or moralism "teleological" great danger.

Weber further stated: "ideal type" accidental "something to be excluded in the formation process, but its still" individuality ", not typical of the average. Because the purpose of the concept of the ideal type, "is anywhere people are clearly aware that it is not in line with something like On the contrary, the cultural characteristics of the phenomenon" (23), the expression of cultural individuality , "ideal type" is by no means universal manifestation of the "law", but clear boundaries. At this point, we can already understand, Weber stressed its critique of the object is the "ideal" value-free " type "instead of a value judgment, such a reality poses the greatest risk ideological confusion, the main representative of what the Western Economics.

Naturalistic view of history, that is the purpose of the social sciences must be reality restore "law" Weber's criticism is the danger of "rational type reality confusion Weber cautioned, must be soberly aware the development and history of the "ideal type two must effectively distinguish things, the idea here is just the plan to a historical event attributable to the basis of our understanding of the current situation and possible causes range of practical reasons means (24) It is here, Weber Marx - who he also respected the most important theoretical opponents made the following comment: "law" of Marxism and the historical development of the idea, in theory. has the characteristics of the "ideal type", "people know who use Marxist concepts, reality these ideal typical comparison, they have a huge, even unique inspiration, the same once they envisioned experienced or even conceived of it (in fact that is metaphysics), 'force', 'trends' and so on, they are dangerous. "(25) This assessment is noteworthy also worth today As an important perspective to understand the fate of Marxism in China.

Weber fully affirmed the logic of the "ideal type" role, but he stressed that the idea of ​​the "ideal type" temporary, "the result of cultural and scientific work is the continuous transformation of the process that we are trying to grasp the concept of reality, therefore, about the social life science history and is still with the concept of the process of social life, science, history and remains With the formation of the concept of trying to ideologically finishing reality, due to the expansion of scientific horizons and more shift abrogation of thought between the new concept of changing the image formed on the basis of such a change. "(26) This is because of the formation of the concept depends on the issues raised, and the issues raised with the change the content of the culture, the concept is conceptualized something contains a comprehensive temporary Therefore, the concept of value is that they reveal the effectiveness of boundaries as its based on the concept of meaning, rather than the target. the meaning of the "ideal type" is it temporary, and transcendent inevitable, the means and tools, service to establish the purpose of the value of the contact, and therefore must not be confused with the concrete reality, which is the first sexual purposes. purpose of the concept is assumed to "reflect" on the concept of "objective" reality, which can be traced back to Kant's modern epistemology, the relationship between the concept and history work cephalopods inverted and social sciences It is of great progress with actual cultural changes are closely related, and to take a critical reflection in the form of concept formation Weber announced << the library >> most important task is for this kind of criticism and further consolidated Services:
Objective validity of all empirical knowledge, are and just finishing as the scope of a given reality, while these areas in a special sense is subjective, we know that performance conditions precedent, subject only to the experience and knowledge to give us (27) those truth values ​​a prerequisite constraints.

The "objectivity" of the social sciences is this, that it comes from logic synthesis of empirical reality and finishing therefore clear boundaries and therefore can not prove specific empirical facts as "essential" or "law" accordingly, determine the realistic value of the privilege can not be achieved, because the measure of value can only come from specific cultural task of the social sciences is not constantly chasing new ideas and concepts, but on the contrary, the cultural understanding of the significance of specific historical ties , is the fact that all concepts and concepts critical to serve the ultimate purpose. material specialized households "and" meaning households "are not able to known and known views combine to create something new.

Weber, the value of significance is the premise of the "ideal type" logical sense, deny the truth as the value of a specific cultural product, there is no social science, only with the concept of universal judgment to replace science. Once the social sciences to its methodological principles established in processing materials as an end in itself, rather than consciously based on the final values ​​to examine and reflect on the individual understanding of the material value, can not be aware of the cognitive value is rooted in specific practical culture as the final value, the road will get lost, this time, from the sense of cultural value paradigm breakthrough this time, the significance of the point of view is not added reflectively become unreliable, the road was lost in the evening. significant light of the cultural issues still exist. Thus, science armed, change their foothold and concept system, looking down from the height of thought things ilk. (28)
Power to promote the development of social sciences, not the internal logic of the scientific, but the major issues of a particular social and cultural value we need to be understood in this sense Weber phrase seemed to startle the world scared vulgar: political and

Economics and political servant!因为,作为现实的、具体的德国的文化价值才是真正的政治性问题,学术的目的正在于是否能够落实于具体的文化语境中——它既是社会科学问题意识的来源,也是作为学术研究的社会科学最后的旨归.只有在这里,在责任伦理高于信念伦理的情况下,两种伦理才可以寻求互相支持的契合点,我们也需要从今天中国的历史语境中重新确立和理解韦伯的意义.

最后,让我们再来读一读韦伯自己的论述:

我们最终必须竭尽全力反对的是一种并不少见的观念,它认为通过权衡各种彼此对立的价值判断和他们之间的"政治家式的"折中,就可以踏上通往科学"客观性"的大道."中间路线"不仅恰好与"最极端"的价值判断一样,不能以经验学科的方法得到科学的证明,而且,在价值判断的范围内,它正是在"规范的"意义上最晦暧不清.它不属于讲坛,而是属于政治纲领,官僚机构和议会.科学,无论是规范的还是经验的,都能为政治活动家和对立的党派提供无可估量的帮助.它告诉他们,(1)对于这个世纪问题,某些不同的"最终"立场是可以考虑的,(2)在你就这些立场作出抉择时,存在着这样那样你必须考虑的事实.(29)

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韦伯指明的是,真正的有责任的"政治"行为应该建立在学术的"科学性"的基础上,即有价值的政治行为必然充分估计三个方面:(1)不可避免的手段,(2)不可避免的附带后果,(3)由此制约的在其实践结果中众多可能的评价相互之间的竞争,这正是经验科学以自己的手段能够揭示的东西.(30)只有在此基础之上的"政治"行为才可以与现实中党派利益纷争的政治活动划清界限.社会科学的"客观性"绝非折中的中间路线,因为妥协和折中并不是以价值的澄明为前提的,因此需要反对各种"伪"客观性(以及在此基础上的各种伪"政治"性,即建立在党派利益纷争基础上的"政治").

认为从要求经验地讨论"价值无涉"的立场出发,价值判断的讨论就是无结果和毫无意义的观点,是与我们完全不相干的,因为关于价值判断意义的认识恰是所有这类讨论的前提.这种讨论的先决条件是理解各种原则上不可逾越的和大相径庭的最终价值判断的可能性.然而,"理解一切"并不意味着"原谅一切",单是对他人观点本身的理解也不导致同意它们.另一方面,这至少可以使人同样容易并且通常极其可能认识到妨碍人们达成一致的原因和问题.但是,这种认识恰恰是真理性的认识,而"价值判断讨论"正好有助于这种认识.(31)
至此,韦伯对于社会科学的"客观性"和"价值无涉"的思想已经清楚了.这里试从以上三个互相关联的层面上做一个分梳和归纳:
首先,韦伯所说的"价值无涉"是社会科学的历史观,它反对把历史纳入任何道德主义或自然主义的目的论体系中,因此,它本身不属于也反对任何"宏大叙事".其方法论上的体现是划清"理想类型"的有效性边界,不能把"理想类型"或者任何概念性的逻辑思维的产物上升为价值判断.任何意义上的"理想类型"作为对经验事实的逻辑整理,都不是对现实的"反映",而是归纳和总结,归根结底是"个体性"的,因此不能把"个别"上升为"普遍"的规律,并成为"应当"如此的历史力量.因此,韦伯反对从历史的"发展趋势"中引申出对实践的评价,因为这意味着把"变迁"视为目的论的,并成为对现实政策毫无反思的美化:
无论如何,我们都无法看出,为什么经验科学的代言人应当感到有必要支持这种做法,使自己成为某个时候的"发展趋势"的喝彩者,使对这些"发展趋势"的"适应"从一个终极的、只能由具体的人在具体场合解决的、因而也只能取决于具体的人的良知的评价问题变成一个据说由一门"科学"的权威庇护的原则.(32)
第二,韦伯所说的"价值无涉"指的是建构学术公共领域的原则,即不同的立场和观点都具行平等准入的地位与权利,而且在这个意义上接受最严格的反思与批判.知识共同体不能以某种预设的绝对价值作为规范,或者以"普世价值"来压抑和取消歧见,这是作为经验科学的社会科学能够生产"有效"知识的前提.但是,作为个体的学者,却正是以自己的立场,以及以此立场出发的知识建构进入学术公共领域,"正是'个人'的最内在的因素,规定我们的行动、赋予我们的生活以意义的最高的和最终的价值判断,才是某种我们感到有'客观'价值的东西."(33)这个意义上,韦伯的"价值无涉"决不是取消价值立场,而是相反,不同的价值判断必须接受自己以及对手的反思和挑战,方有可能有真正意义上的社会科学的发展.

第三,韦伯所说的"价值无涉"指的是在学术共同体内部建立理解的方法.在各种不同的、甚至歧见严重的观点之间,"价值无涉"要求的是对他者观点的理解,它建立在以经验的方式,从概念的逻辑意义上,去考察他人的行为和动机,以发现真正的不同的立场,这是一切有意义的学术辩论的前提.这样的以建立理解为前提的"价值无涉"的工具性,是学术对话和论辩的基础.它可以使人从逻辑和事实的角度认识到妨碍达成一致的原因和问题:
人们可以是不一致的,以及为什么不一致,在什么地方不一致.恰恰这种认识是一种真理认识,而且"价值讨论"也就是为它服务的.与此相反,人们以这种方法肯定不能获得——因为它在一个截然相反的方向上——的东西,是某种规范的伦理学,或者就是某种"律令"的约束力. (34)
这才是为什么"价值无涉"需要发挥作用的地方,也正是社会科学"客观性"的体现.
但是,遗憾的是,在过去的韦伯研究中,我们恰恰在很大程度上把韦伯极力批评和反对的方法强加给韦伯自己了,对"理想类型"盲目而混乱的运用就是最鲜明的例证.

四、学术与大众传媒的"公共性"——韦伯的新闻思想与实践

由上所述,韦伯的整个社会科学方法论正是以建立学术公共领域的伦理与方法为基础的.而韦伯为<<社会科学和社会政策文库>>所做的阐释工作,也给我们提供了一个视野来讨论学术的公共领域与大众传媒的公共性之间的关系.

新闻业其实是作为社会学家的韦伯投注了极大关注的一个领域,但这却是韦伯研究中最被忽略的部分,中文学术世界里尚无韦伯新闻思想的介绍.在英语世界中,是汉诺·哈特(Hanno Hardt)教授在1979年出版的<<新闻社会理论:早期德国和美国的视野>>(Social Theories of the Press:Early German & American Perspectives)挖掘了这段被埋没的历史.该书在第六章<<社会意识:马克斯·韦伯论新闻与责任>>

中,集中论述和介绍了韦伯的新闻思想,特别包括了韦伯呼吁对新闻业进行大型社会实证调查的主要演讲内容.(35)韦伯其实一生都没有中断过时事政治评论,也因此和新闻业有密切的互动,他担任过很多严肃报纸的专栏作者和社评人,并在新闻界赢得了尊敬和名声,但是也与新闻界有过多次严重的冲突与斗争.这些合作与斗争的经验都凝聚在韦伯对新闻思想的理解与阐发之中.

德国社会学家大会是1909年韦伯以热情的态度和大量的精力参与创建的,其目的正是"希望找到一个能够展开价值中立的学术工作和讨论的地方."(36)1910年,韦伯在第一次德国社会学家大会上发表了开展新闻业实证调查和研究的演讲,他强烈呼吁社会学界关注新闻业,认为新闻业和新闻组织作为德国社会的两个重要层面,需要系统性地加以调查和研究,其重要性在于现代新闻事业对社会公共性以及对于现代人的塑造.韦伯雄心勃勃地把关于新闻业的实证调查看成是实现其社会科学研究"价值无涉"的重要实践.在演讲中,他一再追问的问题意识正在于:什么是当代的公共性((publicity),它未来的发展是什么?报纸公开了什么,没有公开的又是什么?需要通过对事实的观察去发现观念在不同的时期和地区的变化与发展,过去和现在的观念是如何变化的,谁掌握着它们?他敏锐地注意到现代资本主义发展对新闻公共性的影响:媒体的资本化、私有化以及媒体企业不同于其他企业的独特性,即它既依靠订户,也是依靠广告业,这两种不同的客户.在政治和其他议题上,新闻业希望富于教育性地和客观地建立"公共",而企业向公共性索要的是对其广告的反映,这两者性质完全不同.那么,其后果会是如何?资本主义的发展需要媒体工业,因此,在什么程度上它对资本的需求意味着业已存在的企业对垄断(monopoly)的增长?投资增长是否意味着以一己之见对舆论的型塑力量更强了?或者相反,私营企业对舆论变动的影响会更敏感了?是否对当下舆论不断增长的依赖是资本不断增长的需要呢?这样的变动是否会导向对报纸的信任?在韦伯看来,媒体企业的商业性质是今天必须予以重视的:我们必须要问自己,从社会学研究的立场出发,资本主义发展在媒体企业中的表现究竟意味着什么?它因此在舆论形成过程中扮演的角色又是如何?现代媒体组织和机构的运作是韦伯关心的另一个层面.很显然,这是韦伯对官僚和科层体系研究在新闻研究中的投射.韦伯关注新闻界是否应该保持不署名原则的论争,并考察其在欧洲不同国家的运用目的,它涉及的问题其实是:谁从外面向报纸写稿?写的是什么?谁不为报纸写稿,不写的是什么?为什么不写?报纸如何获得它的材料并提供给公众?什么是它不得不提供的?什么是最终的新闻来源?因此这项研究也涉及大型的通讯社及其建立的国际关系.韦伯还关心欧洲不同国家的专业新闻记者的变化情况.其实在上述问题中,韦伯一直是把德国与欧洲其他国家放在一个比较的视野上来设问的.韦伯追问什么是当代新闻记者的出身、教育与专业要求?这对于他们在新闻业内和业外命运的改变意味着什么?在韦伯看来,这项研究计划是对新闻业作为人类大脑的一次检验,现代人已经习惯了新闻业提供的各种大杂烩,这迫使他们在不同的文化生活中匆忙穿行,从政治到剧院到各种不同的主题.新闻对现代人的改变是显然的,也需要更深的探究.它对现代人阅读习惯的改变究竟意味着什么?最后,韦伯做了这样的总结:我们必须彻底地检讨新闻业在于:第一,它对于现代人的形成有何贡献?第二,传统新闻业的客观性、超个体性(supra-individual)的文化价值观的影响,有什么样的变化发生?大众的信仰和希望有哪些被摧毁,哪些被重建?
这是一个包容面极为宽阔的新闻业调查计划,其问题意识具有极大的前瞻性.但是,一个历史遗憾的事实是:这个大规模的新闻调查研究计划最终流产了.这是因为韦伯被迫卷入一场耗时长久的媒体诉讼案件.(37)这个案件极大地影响了韦伯的生活,也使得他获得深刻的亲身经验去理解和质疑媒体在保障公共性上的问题与错误.它的缘起是韦伯夫人参与领导的妇女解放运动.1910年,玛丽安妮·韦伯领导的德国妇女联合会在海德堡召开代表大会,这是德国妇女运动史上的大事.但是一位青年讲师R却发表了对妇女团体的诽谤文章,冷嘲热讽地提到妇女运动仅仅是那些未婚妇女、寡妇、犹太女人、不孕症患者以及不是母亲或者不想担任母亲责任的人构成的.玛丽安妮·韦伯因为没有孩子,又是主要领导者,因此最尖刻的评论都指向她.玛丽安妮给作者写了一封信,要求他收回其恶言,韦伯支持妻子的行为.但是该作者拒绝了,并且扬言韦伯是不能接受决斗挑战的丈夫躲在妻子身后.韦伯得知此言后宣布,他接受决斗.但是这位作者又宣称自己反对决斗,并向法庭控告韦伯诽谤,后来在第三方教唆下撤诉.但是,新闻界却在几家报纸上发表了一篇耸人听闻的文章对此进行评述,并沸沸扬扬到处转载,还扩散到了海外.该文章在结尾部分引用了R博士问韦伯教授的话,问韦伯是否准备为妻子决斗,韦伯做了否定的回答,说自己的健康不允许这么做.但事实上是韦伯一再宣称自己愿意参加决斗,因此,他把这样的流言视为"可耻把戏".

他觉得这不仅违背了他自己的利益,而且同样违背了公共利益,为此他不遗余力地一连几个月都在努力匡正视听.这个事件的来龙去脉不仅表明了韦伯的个性,也反映了新闻界的某些行为特点:以编辑部保密为由耸人听闻地揭露名人以取悦读者,这使得那些受到牵连的人物要从轰动效应中来保护自己显得非常困难.(38)
但是,韦伯决定抗争到底.韦伯先给有关报纸写了极其礼貌的信,指出捏造的事实,请予以刊登.但是编辑部的回复却表示,他们宁愿相信自己的记者,如果根据新闻法公布韦伯的更正,就需要公布记者的名字作为回应和对质.他们不打算这么做.韦伯逐一指出那篇文章的捏造和虚妄之处,并认为一次认真的调查就可以澄清事实.但是编辑部依然相信他们的信息来源是可靠的.在韦伯的坚持下,编辑部愿意以一则启事和致编辑部的匿名信的方式进行书面澄清,韦伯轻蔑地拒绝了这个要求,并再次敦促发表他的声明.在遭到再次拒绝后,韦伯强烈地斥责编辑部,"并因此使得报纸和它的编辑不得不向法庭控告他诽谤".几个月后,此案进入审理,在案子进入第二个阶段的时候,一位匿名挑唆者暴露了出来:一位海德堡的新闻学教授.该记者是他的学生,而且因为这篇文章,该记者已经被教授推荐到新的新闻职位上.这位教授与韦伯并无私交,不过韦伯曾因为第三方的反对意见没有邀请他参与对于新闻业的社会学调查.韦伯改变了对该记者的看法,为他恢复名誉,并且给他写信道:"我毫不犹豫地参加诉讼,并不是为了揭露X博士或者不惜代价证明自己正确,而是无论如何要让真相得到澄清,不管真相到底是什么,而在这方面你应该发挥一份作用."在韦伯看来,这已经不再是他个人的名誉问题,"而是牵涉到了公共利益——维护大学的尊严以及让新闻界摆脱这种恶劣的行径".他给这位新闻学教授写了长信,指出:
向一个职业记者传播有关一个同事的流言,你打算如何把这种做法与在大学里的身份调和起来?当这个人——可以想见

——以新闻业的方式对这些事情进行加工利用之后,你又为什么隐名埋姓躲藏起来而不采取任何措施对已经发生的事情作出公开和私下的改正呢?……在蒙受大量损失澄清事实真相之后,我自然已经没有兴趣使你陷入什么狼狈境地,甚至更没有兴趣让这件事情成为一个有损大学声誉的公开丑闻. ……对我来说,关键在于,不论你在上述事件中的所作所为,还是你对我的态度,看来根本不配你完全有资格在海德堡大学培养未来的记者这样的自我鉴定.(39)
韦伯希望该新闻教授自愿辞去教职,但是该教授没有这样做,而是向法庭控告韦伯诽谤,希望把全部责任都推给记者.这个海德堡的"教授案件"已经成了市民口中的津津乐道,韦伯的整个朋友圈子都不希望看到诉诸法庭,他们认为,对此报以轻蔑而不是对质,会更加"优雅",韦伯的处境很困难,但他不为所动.终于,在复杂的法庭辩论之后,记者作证说,新闻学教授给他看了R反对妇女运动的文章和韦伯夫人的答复简报,并且告诉他R发出了决斗挑战,当该记者觉得应该向R或者韦伯本人核实事实的时候,教授却建议他不要做,并且向他确认说:事情肯定就是这样的.这时,法庭上的新闻学教授没有勇气坦白他的教唆,却一口咬定该记者是惯于撒谎的无耻之徒.真相清楚了,"他的同事们现在也公认,在这件事情上他的个人利益和公共道德是一致的.总之,让人们知道什么叫恶意诽谤还是很有价值的."(40)
但是这时的韦伯却为该教授感到遗憾和难过,他觉得学校当局和教育部应该按照医生和律师们的模式建立名誉法庭.他甚至给该新闻学教授的系主任写信,希望能够让他获得宽大对待.为了把人们的注意力从事件的个人意义引向它的客观意义,韦伯给新闻界提出了建议,即在报道私人事务上应放弃编辑部保密的做法.

在韦伯与媒体发生的多起遭遇战中,值得一提的还有一个与韦伯有关的名誉案.韦伯的一位年轻学者朋友的首部重要著作,遭到一位同行X教授损伤声誉的评论,还被暗示说"剽窃".韦伯认为这种在科学上毫无益处、对个人吹毛求疵的批评是令人厌恶的,他为作者的驳斥附上了自己的"后记",逐一细致检讨和暴露批评的褊狭和错误,并斥责指控者动机恶劣,为此卷入一场涉及系和不同的大学同事之间的激战.这起新的"教授案件"再次在国内外的媒体上闹得沸沸扬扬,韦伯不得不耗费大量时间和精力来批驳各种指控.但是,当韦伯的一位信赖的同事告诉他指控者并非出于"卑鄙动机",韦伯则很乐意更正他的说法,他呼吁X教授认识到,"诚实地"收回一项不公正的指控是有可能的.在原则问题上,韦伯是不让步的,但是为了使X教授能够从容地履行对那位受到辱骂的作者应尽的义务,韦伯声明:"和不可避免地出现的表象相反,我无论如何不能因此指责X教授曾经想要'诽谤'那位作者.这同样适合于'剽窃式的窥视'以及其他类似的指控."(41)
韦伯与国家官僚体系、大学体制和新闻界的斗争经历可以作为韦伯对于"公共领域"思考的一种现实阐释.比如1911年,韦伯参加在德累斯顿召开的一次大学教师会议.在会议上,韦伯的观点引起了极大的争议,也使得他被迫卷入广泛的辩论中.韦伯批评了现代的商学院不去关心严格的学术训练,而是受到诱惑去追求社会特权,文凭贵族的兴起导致的是新的阶级分化,而把他们吹捧为新人类是危险的.他还批评了国家官僚政治和德国大学之间的关系,特别是普鲁士当局直接把教职不经过学校的认可就给予年轻学者的做法,对于学术新生代来说是有害的.韦伯一向认为,这种做法诱使年轻人依靠为国家效力而在学术生涯中寻求捷径,把他们培养成一种"生意人",是对学术尊严的破坏.但是这些言论被新闻界以耸人听闻的措辞进行报道而遭到误解,也引发了巨大的轰动.当局要求韦伯公开澄清,韦伯不得不做了一些修正和补充,他充分体会到的正是,新闻界惯于"不时的、冷酷无情地迎合那种对轰动性新闻的要求,而在没有这种新闻的时候就不择手段地欺骗读者."(42)
在这些涉及学术界和新闻界发生的侵害真相和公共利益的案例中,韦伯都表现出极大的决心和毅力为事实真相、社会的公共利益和学术尊严而斗争,这其实也是韦伯新闻思想的外在体现.1919年晚年的韦伯在<<以政治为业>>的演讲中专门讲了新闻工作的地位(43),也可以看成是韦伯新闻思想的一个重要总结,它侧重关心的是新闻工作与政治的关系,新闻工作者是否具备承担以"政治为业"的命运.显然,这些思想来源与他长期的新闻实践以及与新闻界的斗争是联系在一起的.在这里,韦伯认为自政党兴起之后,政治更多的是在公众中利用言辩和文字来操作的.而新闻工作者,在韦伯看来,正是立宪国家,或者说民主国家出现之后,与作为煽动家的政治人物一起出现的.他们和律师一样有着相似的命运:缺乏固定的社会归属,是"贱民等级".虽然他也强调,新闻工作所需要的才干堪比任何学术研究.但是由于新闻业的现实状况,一名合格的新闻工作者需要比普通人更多的谨言慎行,因为这一行业具有极强的诱惑力使其偏离公共性的原则,也有极重的脚镣去影响他们走向政治家的位置.在旧时代,新闻业很容易受到国家和政党的伤害.而在资本主义时代,媒体更无保持独立政治立场的好处,商业利益和广告业务严重影响了媒体的政治立场.这使得新闻业并不是产生真正的政治领袖的正常渠道.

很清楚,从历史和现实出发,韦伯已经否认了大众传媒具有天然和独立的公共性,也因此否认了其自觉承担社会"公共领域"的理想图景.正是因此,他才认为公共领域更根本的体现是大学的课堂和学术共同体.只有大学与学术共同体的存在才有可能去抵御和批判新闻业偏离公共性给社会带来的伤害.因此,大学课堂和学术期刊必须不以自己的立场为唯一的立场,而是尽可能地呈现各种不同立场的知识与事实的联系,尽可能包容各种歧义的知识立场,才是知识共同体作为公共领域存在的前提.它也是新闻业构建大众传媒公共性的基础,否则,其对公共性的偏离就无法被矫正.这也是韦伯一再努力投身于对新闻界不公正事件斗争的动力来源.在这个意义上,理解韦伯的新闻思想,是我们理解韦伯社会科学方法论的钥匙,它使得我们明白作为"科学"的社会研究,其学术公共领域的建构对于社会公共性所具有的根本性价值.

五、今天,重读韦伯的意义

现在,让我们回到中国的问题.在今天的历史语境下,重读韦伯的意义何在?
首先,韦伯作为历史观的"价值无涉",有效地处理了普遍与特殊的辩证关系.它击破了历史学宏大叙事和微观叙事的困境,开辟出了一条历史研究,也是社会科学研究的新路,为我们在新的历史语境中重新建立中国研究的问题意识打开了空间.对于我们破除各种形式的普世价值和目的论崇拜,可以起到强大的解毒作用.也正是在这个意义上,它对于我们今天重新理解什么是中国:在世界格局中的中国作为历史的和现实的存在,及其文化与政治的特定意义,特别是体现在讨论各种"中国模式"的时候,可以

提供强大的借鉴.需要把这个意义上的韦伯从"理想类型"的西方普世模式中解放出来,才能使之成为今天中国研究中发挥作用的重要理论资源.所以,首先要在这个意义上纠正对韦伯的严重误读.

第二,韦伯"价值无涉"的方法论,必须体现为中国学术公共领域的建设上,才是有意义的.今天中国的学术生态最大的问题正是缺乏自觉意识的学术共同体,立场的澄明与反思本身正是建构学术共同体的前提.但是,当立场分歧变成党同伐异,以自我标榜的政治正确性强占道德制高点,以普遍性的公理推导世界大同,不仅不能回应真正中国现实的问题,而且已经是学术共同体的轰毁.而没有一个具有自我批判和反省能力的学术共同体,以及这个共同体对学术自由的保护,这个社会中的公共领域其实并没有生存的空间.因为一个社会的公共领域,无论是政治公共空间还是大众传媒的公共空间,都必须以一个社会的学术公共领域为依托,否则就会失去其价值判断的"科学"标准和"客观性"要求,这正是韦伯再三强调的要旨.所谓"客观",不是超越性的普遍的范式,恰恰是以立场为前提的,这种立场是处理事实和自我关系的学术工作的价值所在.作为学者的知识工作需要在与不同立场的检讨、对话与权衡中完成,在这个意义上,无立场是不可想象的.教师和知识的作用不是回避选择,而是帮助和教导做选择的人批判式的反思和评价自己的选择.经验科学的任务不提供信念,但是它却是所有可能的价值判断的基础,而价值讨论的真正意义是把握对手和自己"实际意指"的东西,如此才能有真正的建设性的学术对话.在这个意义上,失去社会科学有效的批判与反思,一个国家和社会有责任的政治行为的基础就会崩毁,大众传媒其实也因此无法"独立"地成为"公共领域".而没有学术共同体来践行严谨而"科学"的社会科学方法,任何意义上的"中国深度研究"的理想图景都不过是一纸空谈.

第三,韦伯以"天职"观来确立知识分子在学术与政治之中的位置,应该成为今天中国知识分子思考的新起点.上世纪80年代韦伯与中国知识界的相遇是一个重要的学术史现象,它与当时中国追求"现代化"的历史语境息息相关,"新儒学"以及一些港台学者对新教伦理与资本主义问题的关注是其中醒目的地标,但是对韦伯的误读也是严重的,其流弊至今.(44)与此同时,另一个没有被重视的维度,却正是韦伯意义上的学术与政治的关系.在中国80年代末和90年代初这段特殊的危急时刻,韦伯对于中国学人的自我反思曾产生了重要的启示和影响,这一点值得今天重新读解.汪晖在回忆创办<<学人>>刊物的时候,曾叙述了韦伯对他的影响:
为什么在1989年的那个冬天,我和朋友们会建议出版刊物呢?这也不是一时的想法.……希望能够重振旗鼓,做点严肃的学术工作,并以学术研究的方式总结我们在80年代经历的过程和失败.我记得会上两种意见较为突出,一种是消极的,觉得在政治状况没有改变之前,知识界不可能有所作为,另一种意见较为积极,觉得即使无法直接讨论我们当下的问题,也应该坚持学术研究,对我们自身进行反省.在那次会上,我引用了韦伯<<作为学术的志业>>(Wissenschaft als Beruf)中的话,试图为自己的研究工作提供某种伦理的基础.

......

在一个政治上无所作为的时代,知识分子必须找到适合自己的方式,并把自己的道德激情转化为一种立身处世的方式.这一际遇恰恰与学者们的反思相吻合.学术的专业化就成为这一方式的表达.在我的记忆中,如何处理政治与学术的关系是许多学者思考的问题:我们刚刚经历或者说正在经历一场社会动荡,处于极为严峻的政治氛围中,但当时的共识似乎并不是直接介入政治问题,而是力求形成相对独立的学术领域,不至于让学术研究迅速地转变为另一种政论.(19)89年的失败使得大家意识到那种过度的政治激情会影响人们的判断力,而严谨的学术研究是我们理解中国历史和社会的重要途径.(45)
通过韦伯的视野,可以发现一个社会越是在政治、社会的危急时刻,学术的伦理问题就越会上升为严峻的思考对象.与此相关联,当一个社会面临文化危机与断裂,也越是学术研究需要范式突破的时候.由<<学人>>开启的学术规范的讨论,正是在这样的历史语境中获得其作为学术伦理的意义,其一系列反思的视角与韦伯的视野有着密切的契合.今天,中国的改革已经再次处于严峻的历史转折关头,各种政治势力的斗争也日趋激烈和残酷.如何重新思考学术与政治的复杂关系,以及学人在其中坚守的学术立场,如何确立什么是真正的学术伦理,以及建立在此基础上的学术规范,学术共同体如何保护学术自由,以及建立在此基础上的思想论辩,学术思想的突破与中华民族文化命运的关系究竟该如何建立等一系列重大问题已经成为每一位严肃的知识分子无法回避的现实存在.在这背后,则是中国未来的道路究竟向何处去的历史抉择.重读韦伯,在他所开辟和献身的巨大的思想空间中探索前行,正是为了理清今天中国知识界的责任和方向,寻求在学术共同体的建设中重新确立"诚实"而"正直"的学术伦理的意义,并以此重铸和激励知识分子对社会守望的职责与信念.

韦伯在<<社会科学认识和社会政策认识的"客观性">>一文中最后用了歌德的<<浮士德>>中的诗句作为结束:"新的冲动已经苏醒,我急忙向前,吸吮它永恒的光辉,我的前面是白昼,背后是夜晚,头上是太空,脚下是波涛."对于今天的中国学界来说,超越左右并不意味着取消价值和立场,以及为此而必须付出的艰苦的学术工作,而是反对用政治化的道德标签来取代、阻碍和败坏真正的学术工作.在这个意义上,坚持学术"价值无涉"的客观性原则,不畏任何艰难险阻,以世界历史的比较视野、"科学"的研究精神、自觉的文化意识去担当中国自己的现实问题,是任何意义上的"中国模式"研究都应该追求的标杆.在这个严峻的历史坐标点上,为天地立心,为生民立命,已经狂飙落地,再次成为中国知识分子任重而道远的历史天命.

Note:
①关于此一问题的争论,可参见罗卫东:<<社会科学从业人员的理性回归:重返韦伯>>,载<<浙江社会科学>>2006年第5期,冯钢:<<"客观性"、"理想类型"与"伪道德中立"——评罗卫东的"重返韦伯">>,载<<浙江社会科学>>2006年第6期,其讨论的核心问题是如何看待经济学与道德的关系.本文在此的讨论,与上述两位作者的观点都有重大不同.另,赵汀阳提出的"无立场"分析方法以及相关讨论也包含了这样的意愿.

②限于篇幅,此处发表的文稿属于笔者<<学术与政治:重读韦伯>>长文的第三部分,前两部分是:<<"先知"与知识分子——学术的伦理与天职>>,<<何为政治?——政治的伦理及其悖论>>(未刊稿).
③[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会科学认识和社会政策认识的"客观性">>,载马克斯

·韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,李秋零、田薇译,北京:中国人民大学出版社2009年版,第3~4页.马克斯·韦伯的<<社会科学方法论>>的另一中译本是中央编译出版社2002年版,译者韩水法、莫茜.本文中的引用参照这两个译本,具体见注释.

④同上,第4页.
⑤同上,第6页.
⑥同上,第6页.
⑦[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会科学认识和社会政策认识中的"客观性">>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,韩水法、莫茜译,北京:中央编译出版社2002年版,第10~11页.
⑧[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会科学认识和社会政策认识的"客观性">>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2009年版,第9页.
⑨同上,第10页.
⑩同上,第14~15页.
(11)同上,第16页.
(12)同上,第18页.
(13)同上,第21~22页.
(14)同上,第22页.
(15)同上,第24页.
(16)此部分的详述见本人<<学术与政治:重读韦伯>>长文的第一部分,即<<"先知"与知识分子——学术的伦理与天职>>(未刊稿).
(17)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会科学认识和社会政策认识的"客观性">>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2009年版,第25~26页.
(18)同上,第31~32页.
(19)同上,第32页.
(20)同上,第146页.
(21)同上,第34页.
(22)同上,第28~29页.
(23)同上,第40页.
(24)同上,第41页.
(25)同上,第42页.
(26)同上,第43页.
(27)同上,第47页.
(28)同上,第49页.
(29)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会科学和经济科学"价值无涉"的意义>>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2002年版,第145页.
(30)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会学与经济学的"价值阙如"的意义>>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2009年版,第124页.
(31)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会科学和经济科学"价值无涉"的意义>>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2002年版,第149页.
(32)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会学与经济学的"价值阙如"的意义>>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2009年版,第129页.
(33)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会科学认识和社会政策认识中的"客观性">>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2002年版,第6页.
(34)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<社会学与经济学的"价值阙如"的意义>>,载韦伯:<<社会科学方法论>>,2009年版,第120页.
(35)参见Hanno Hardt, Social Theories of the Press: Early German & American Perspectives, London: SAGE Publications,1979,pp. 174-182.感谢南洋理工大学郭振羽教授和耶鲁大学博士生王颖曜同学提供线索和材料.该书在2002年再版,补充了卡尔·马克思论新闻自由的章节.

(36)[德]玛丽安妮·韦伯:<<马克斯·韦伯传>>,阎克文等译,南京:江苏人民出版社2002年版,第481页.
(37)同上,第182页.但是在玛丽安妮的<<马克斯·韦伯传>>中,并没有直接提到这个原因,而是更多地提及同行和董事会对该项目和社会学学会的影响和干扰.见玛丽安妮·韦伯:<<马克斯·韦伯传>>,第478~481页.

(38)同上,第488页.
(39)同上,第494页.
(40)同上,第496页.
(41)同上,第507~508页.
(42)同上,第486页.
(43)[德]马克斯·韦伯:<<以政治为业>>,载马克斯·韦伯:<<学术与政治>>,冯克利译,北京:三联书店1998年版,第77~81页.
(44)对余英时和林毓生误读韦伯的分析参见杨念群:<<东西方思想交汇下的中国社会史研究——一个"问题史"的追溯>>,载<<杨念群自选集>>,桂林:广西师范大学出版社2000年版,第42~52页.

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