For social science analysis methodology notes

Discussion of social science research methodology, Weber (Max Weber) is around, but the name. "Value-free" has been read too familiar, the Weberian sense "value-free" how should understand? In academia but is still obscure. both today's social development and crisis, therefore there are serious differences between the intellectual, academic and political relations become cloud wave sly deceitful, scholars should be used "to moral and value" stance "method to deal with this situation, however, "to moral" and "no position" exactly in what sense is possible and effective? political and academic in the context of Weber's exactly what it means? Every Weber, the 90th anniversary of the death of his book again in the Chinese world, a large number of published re-reading Weber, to finishing the entanglements of Chinese intellectuals on the issue of the academic and political position of the value, and has once again become a topic of great theoretical and practical significance. ②

The double meaning of a "value-free"

"Objectivity" >> << social scientific understanding and social policy awareness is a programmatic document of 1904, Weber took over hosting << social science and social policy library >> magazine, explained the purpose of the magazine from which we can see Weber is how the thinking of social science methodology and academic ethics and academic community together, which is Weber focused discussion and summarizes the important literature of social science methodology, however, since the 1980s, Chinese academia "discovered" Weber since this also a misreading of the most serious part of So, back to the text itself, should reread the most important method of Weber.

Weber outset << library >> purpose first, the expansion of the understanding of the facts of social life, and the other is training people to make judgments of actual social life. Well, to judge the validity of what? Alternatively, in what sense can be said that social science research there is "objective truth"? Weber entire presentation is the awareness of this problem.

Weber oppose two historical view, the moral evolution, historical relativism, by culture Weber national economics as the main target of criticism, pointed out: It is a combination of both achieved a dominant position in the field of social sciences. the value of the overall field of the moral content regulations in the field of morality, and thus learn to improve the national economy to the scientific status of "ethics" In fact, this is all possible cultural ideal in overall posted a "moral" label, both obliterate the unique status of the moral imperative, but also the ideal of "objectivity" What contribution. << library >> need to be on fundamentally rejects the popular view, it is: the national economy from a special school "derived from, and should The resulting value judgments. task of empirical science is not the proposed binding norms and ideals, in order to derive a practical prescription. << library >> require rejection of another economic worldview kinds of perspectives: value judgments based on some kind of ideal, which has a subjective origin, you can get rid of the "scientific" discussion. twofold meaning of this is "value-free", can not be neglected either party, while the domestic academic Weber views around economics whether there should be a moral discussion, in fact, did not seize the key to Weber.

Weber said, << library >> concern question really is: what is the meaning and purpose of the judgments made on the ideals and values ​​of "scientific" critique? The scientific technical criticism "most fundamental function is to make the pursuit of purpose consideration to fully assess and weigh, and only at this time, most need to implement the logic of "value-free" method after this, weigh up the decision-making, it is no longer the task of the science, policy-makers according to their own conscience and worldview weigh the choice between a variety of value, but it is that science can make him realize that all actions, of course, there is not action depending on the circumstances, its results are meant to absorb the certain value, which often means that - this currently particularly vulnerable to being overlooked - give up some value to make a choice is his own thing. "③ scientific task it is to reveal and clarify the logic of the" purpose " establish a foundation on top of the "concept", "explore the scientific value judgments not only the wish of the people to further understanding and experience as his ideal, and, above all, need to teach people critically 'judge' them." ④ In other words, as a "science" itself is not as a value judgment task, but it is a value judgment on the basis of this is because, in the era of a view of the world there is a serious conflict, "universally valid to create the ultimate ideal way to solve our actual common denominator, which is no doubt neither is the task of this magazine, and must not be the task of an empirical science: such a task not only in fact can not be resolved, but also their own is unconscionable. "⑤ decided on the methodology of" value-free "status as a logical sense.

A hearty tree of the knowledge of the culture of the times, its fate must know how well regardless of the results of research on world events are impossible from informed of the significance of world events, but must be able to create this sense view of the world must can not be the product of experience in the advancement of knowledge, therefore, the most powerful driving our highest ideals, in any era can only be in the ideal struggle to achieve these other ideal for other people, As our ideal for us, is sacred. ⑥
Therefore, it can be seen, the meaning of "value-free" Weber said, is to completely get rid of the myth of the so-called "universal value" of an era, the gods battle to decide the social sciences can not ultimate value should not exist universally valid. inexpensive relativism in this sense and optimism eclecticism ignore its grim, either in theory or in practice to avoid the results of these scientific "objectivity "no" middle way "did not have a scientific truth. shows that precisely to the clearance of the boundaries of the" scientific "validity, it is to solve the problem" exists as a methodology of "value-free" The problem, rather than the "effective". thinking finishing involves the problem of "objectivity" and "effective" related to cultural characteristics or value which must be operating in the science of "objective" and value judgments to draw the line between.

Therefore, the function of the magazine seeking scientific truth, and science as empirical reality thinking finishing validity, Weber made two important responsibility:
First, is used as a measure to let the reader and the author himself clearly aware of the reality, and to deduce what is the standard of value judgments and scale, not the value of the different categories confused with only through established standards of value and other value of the standard, it is best to confrontation with their own standard of value - any meaningful evaluation can only proceed from their own worldview criticism, rather than through the diversion between different values ​​and ideals conflict between trade-offs to deceive ourselves. reflective contrast between the different scale of values, clarify and reveal all for a meaningful evaluation of others are just from the criticism of their "world view", based on their own ideal with others ideal as a result of the struggle.

Second, to make readers, editors and writers to understand where scientific research remained silent, and began to speak as a "desire", where argumentation recourse understand where recourse feelings must be opposed confusion between the scientific discussion and evaluation of inference, but "by no means opposed to affirm their own ideals." no inner approximation between belief and scientific "objectivity" here "value-free" meaning embodied << library >> academic journals have the nature of the academic community, it is not engaged in the opposition faction of political or social policy debates place, is not the place to attract in favor of or against a political ideal or social policy factions ⑦ but a public domain. "academic" Weber described as such:
Magazine features the outset is that, and as long as it let the editors in the future should be that the sharp political opponents are in the magazine for the scientific work and peaceful coexistence it is so far not a "socialist" publication,

The future will not be "bourgeois" publications it does not exclude people willing to exposure above the base of scientific discussion outside of the range, it can not be a "response" rebuttal, re-rebuttal playgrounds but it is not partial to anyone, either its author or his editors should be subjected to in their part want to see the most stringent objective and scientific criticism can not tolerate this person, or unwilling, with those people's cooperation in the field of scientific understanding and their ideals, can not participate in it. ⑧
However, Weber also acknowledged that without prejudice to the same with political adversaries in a neutral academic spaces, is not easy in Germany at that time, that kind of to as partisan fanatic limitations and underdeveloped political culture flag, should be unconditional opposition. "In this sense, the" value-free "academic opposition Pan-political tendency, serious injury because this inevitable academic" scientific "However, this does not mean that this magazine is not by those who value "feature" << library >> To explore the problem is closely related with the highest values ​​play a decisive role, and thus become the most stable of the people, "is precisely so they become a representatives of the concept of the same or similar cultural outlook different view of these authors, but "they regard the protection of the health of the working masses, and to maximize the share of the working masses of material and spiritual wealth of our culture as a goal, but a combination of the free development of the national intervention in the field of material interests and the existing political order and the legal order as a means. "⑨ these people no matter what kind of views held on the future of the social order, but certainly in terms of contemporary the development of capitalism ", not because of it earlier than the social system is a better form, but in practice because it is inevitable, which is the academic attitude to face the reality of politics.

<< Library >> main concern is the socio-economic problems. Event as a social and economic phenomenon, its nature has not itself "objective", but awareness of "interest" tendency to conditions. "Is a phenomenon just focus on our interest, it has significance for the material struggle for survival, or only at this time, only to get an 'economic' phenomena of nature. "the task of the magazine: the study of human living together universal cultural significance of the socio-economic structure and its history, the organizational form.

Not the "facts" of the "real" contact, but the thought of the problem contact constitutes the foundation of all science areas of work: a new way to explore a new problem and thus finding opens up a new and important perspective of truth place, there will be a new "science." ⑩
Different from Marx's economic base and the superstructure theory, different from the kinds of cultural determinism - Weber is not a cultural determinist, he emphasized the economic and cultural relationship of mutual restraint Weber: In accordance with the economic the constraints and scope of the special perspective to analyze social phenomena and cultural events, is still a creative achievements of scientific principles, but this is precisely the need to distinguish between these two tendencies: either historical reality can not be economically motivated deduced as scientifically meaningless "accidental" or "residue", or to extend the concept of economic affairs to unknown areas, so that all combined in some way with the external means reality and human interests are included in that concept. (11) This is the way Weber's strong opposition to dominate the social value and social sciences economics value judgment, which is Weber "value-free" has historical relevance.

Second, the empirical facts, cultural values ​​and academic ethics

For Weber, the social sciences as a reality of science is to understand that we are into which, surrounded by the characteristics of our reality, and that its cultural significance: why is it in history like this. "Limited the the human spirit on the establishment of the infinite realities thinking understanding in this occult prerequisite that each time only a limited part of reality constitutes the object of scientific understanding, only that it was in the sense of 'worth knowing' is' fundamentally '"(12) Weber clearly pointed out that the empirical facts only in association with the cultural values, is the researcher close to the" real "way to social science not establish the regularity of purposiveness, but" individual " causal link between the "value". reality applicable law is the individual, the individual is not deduced from the law. clear concept of the existence of the law assumes that, just recognize the reality of the premise and the means, and the real meaningful analysis and holistic description, but the significance of a cultural phenomenon of the new "independent", as well as the reasons for the formation of such significance can not proceed from any regularity concept and system to derive demonstration or clarify , because they are based on a cultural phenomenon, and the relationship of the values ​​for the prerequisite, the concept of culture is the concept of value. individual reality the reason for our meaningful is therefore important for us because it showed values relationship just because of this point, it's individual characteristics and is worthy of our understanding of the other words, the value of the idea is to confirm the study's premise, not the conclusion, because:
Important things of course, not with any regularity own equivalent, and the law more generally effective, more is not the same with itself because a real component has special significance for us, of course, is precisely that it extremely large number of other ingredients that share those relations. reality and give it the importance of values ​​and ideals, and the outstanding view of the importance of their cultural and finishing thus rendering out realistic ingredients, in accordance with the law of reality analyzed, compared and organize it in the general concept, is a heterogeneous, different views. thinking finishing reality two ways not necessarily any logical relationship between the individual case, they can consistent with each other, but this occasionally agreed to cover up the principle differences can lead to very disastrous consequences. (13)
These economics, is no exception, in fact, Webber more precisely it from. Precisely because Weber for "law" cult worship, especially the law of the "market" economics with disaster warning of the consequences is particularly worth today academia lessons We can also learn to see Weber's position in Europe, but that does not mean he is a so-called "Western centrism" who, while On the contrary, he repeatedly warned it is the vigilance of the "universal values". vital core view for Weber, we are not fully understood, but it is Weber stressed that the main starting point for the "value-free" .

Weber specific monetary exchange economy: universal essence and market exchange interaction "technology" research is essential, but this is only preliminary work, it can not answer exchange how historically its basic meaning today historical facts need to be clarified in the cultural significance, is the one in charge of the cultural significance of the monetary economy - because it is, we will be interested in exchanges technology. "only a limited part of the infinite variety of phenomena, only meaningful a prerequisite, the understanding of the individual nature of the phenomenon of thinking logically it makes sense. "(14) concrete reality exhaustive causal inference not only is impossible in practice, and, in theory, is also ridiculous where individuality "causal problem is not a question of law, but the specific causal link, not formula phenomenon as a sample to be classified: it is a vested ....... a causal explanation of the 'historical individual' - are taken into account, the understanding of the law of cause and effect can not be the purpose of the study, but only a means of research "Weber repeatedly stressed that the law is more popular, the more abstract, contribution of individual phenomena causally attributable fewer, and thus indirectly to understand the significance of cultural events the smaller historical phenomenon, the general rule is the most empty content is usually the least value of the validity of the concept of a class is more extensive, the more we left reality richness to contain as much common phenomenon, it must be as much as possible to abstract the total phase of understanding for historical research words no value. therefore, restore the experience as "universal" or "objective" does not make sense for the social science work. This is not to say that "the law" does not exist

, But because of the understanding of the laws of society is not the same as understanding of social reality, it is only an adjunct to our thinking is used for this purpose. Culture is only an individual, its culture values ​​determined , any law can not reveal these values ​​of different 'culture' is infinitely generated world process meaningless from the point of view of people, starting with the meaning and importance of thinking of the limited cross-section (15 ) following Weber passage of particular concern:
Priori premise of any culture and science do not we think of a certain kind, or any kind of cultural valuable, but we are the intellectuals, endowed with attitude and give it a sense of the world, said the ability and the will consciously. Whether this is the meaning of what it will lead to our departure from it in life to judge human co-existence of certain phenomena, they are regarded as an important (positive or negative) attitudes.

The ability and the will of the world that attitude and give it meaning, in fact, it is the basis of academic ethics Weber description of the prophets of Israel, focusing on what they construct meaning for cultural and religious communities "vocation." (16 ) Here we again see the a Weber World intellectuals academic ethics and religion of the Prophet ethics overprint. precisely on this basis, Weber stressed that "personal" factors for the importance of academic research scholars. because there is no what point of view is naturally derived from the material, the so-called let the facts speak for themselves, not self-deception is deceptive. really has significance as a "personal" scholars "mirror of the soul", the only way to the mirror reflection of the reality cultural values ​​and meanings:
Anywhere consciously or unconsciously, to specific aspects of individual things made this choice, the dominant scientific work kind as happens every proposition - a scientific work of the "personal factors" before factor is its real value addition, any work is valuable, it must demonstrate a "personality" - the basis of the factors. Needless to say, the values ​​of the researchers, there would be no material selection principle, there would be no individuality reality meaningful understanding of, like, if not the researchers' beliefs, understanding of the significance of some of the cultural content of any of the individual reality is absolutely no sense, as he The concept of personal tendency to value reflection in the mirror of his soul, the provisions in the direction of his work. scientific genius to their object of study of those who value associated with it, but the ability to specify the entire era of "point of view" is decisive: not only in terms of the phenomenon as a "valuable" things, and the phenomenon is regarded as meaningful or meaningless "important" or "unimportant" things This is true. (17)
Weber cleaned exactly the basis of academic intellectuals in contemporary established ethical values ​​inherent aspirations of the intellectuals of the academic world construct meaning confirmation and belief, this is to promote the power of civilization itself and cultural development. At this point, we can understand the core of Weber's social science methodology, that is, in an era of the gods, the social sciences are not seeking universal and ultimate law or purpose, but understanding, establish value and create a culture of meaning, this is academic and intellectual molecules established ethical cornerstone settle down. sure to seek value significance to human civilization, within that civilization itself, also within the Knowledge Community and the national community is that any age, they are precisely the intellectuals should be to undertake the "mandate of heaven". positive In this sense, the "destiny" of the intellectuals is an ethical commandments, is a combination of external mission and internal ambitions.

Third, the "ideal type" and "objectivity" of the social sciences - the criticism of the National Economics

Weber is the National Economics "naturalistic monism" as the target of criticism, began his discussion of social science methodology.
Learn the beginning of the national economy is a discussion of the phenomenon of the "technical" national "wealth" growth, but it is from the outset, not just technology, because it is incorporated into the natural law of the 18th century, rationalist worldview the the huge continuum Natural Science: According to the regularity of contact made on empirical facts general abstraction and analysis, validity and mathematical form of a metaphysical concept system, to the reality of a purely objective "to get rid of all values ​​of, at the same time is also absolute rationality of that to get rid of all individuality" contingency "of one yuan On understanding this scientific thinking of the mode, in addition to discover things," law ", the scientific work of the other meaning unthinkable only "together law" is the science of the nature of things, "individuality" event only as "typical", that is, as the explanation makes sense of the law, these events are not "scientific "interested in the history of the field, the history of abstract theory and experience work against abstract economic theory provides us with an economic organizations, free competition and rational behavior in commodity markets the ideal picture of the various events. "the ideal picture of some of the contacts and events of the history of life unified conceived Contact was seamless system in terms of content, the idea of ​​an ideologically improve certain elements of reality get comfortable utopian nature with life experience given the fact that the relationship solely in the abstract description in the kind of idea that contact, and thus dependent on the events of the 'market', is found in the reality or is guess to some extent role, we are able to take advantage of an ideal typical (idealtypus) the actual presentation and explanation of the characteristics of such a link. "(18)
"Ideal typical" (domestic translate more as "ideal types", below, using the concept of this translation - of note) in order to vest judgment, it is not assuming, nor is the description of reality, it is the history of a given modern exchange of economic and social organization "concept." Weber pointed out that the "market" in Western economics as the concept of genesis on Western medieval urban economy "concept, both of which are based on the principle of" identical to the logic expand the concept of "urban economy" is not the actual existence of all city inspection economic principle of "average", but unilaterally raise one or some of the points scattered individual phenomenon is integrated into a unified ideal the meaning of the third picture obtained for this purpose, the "ideal type" is selected from the empirical facts different elements to the logic of finishing is concerned, it does have a "objectivity", this is the "value-free" "ideal type" as a logic analysis tool itself is "value-free", but on the other hand, its conceptual purity of the ideal picture can not experience in reality place to find it is a utopia. historical work, a task that should confirm the reality from that ideal picture in any specific occasion how near or how far, the relationship between the economic characteristics of a city in much extent, in the meaning of the concept of which is said to be 'urban economy'. (19) Therefore, the ideal type is not "objective" reality unconditional "reflect", but "finishing", Weber strongly opposed to the concept of the ideal type of image as a historical reality "real" content, as "essence" ideal type is not the robbers in ancient Greek mythology Proctor Rust Bed, history should not be in this literally, and should not be treated as the "real" power to play a role in history - Weber stressed the special needs vigilant after a dangerous Western medieval "city economy" model developed for China Economics economics "principle", what can explain the extent to which China and solve the problem of China's urban and rural areas? worth today more profound questioning and reflection.

Weber tells us precisely: not established concept with a specific historical context of contact, on the West, such as "market" economics of this concept is applied to simple swept everything is extremely dangerous, because it is such practices violate " value-free "social science methods, contrary to the reality principle of" objectivity "for us today for all kinds of market fundamentalism, it should be a wake-up call Weber clear that economic theory is a" teach Science In particular, it assumes the dominant role of the purely economic interests, to the exclusion of political orientation, and other non-economic orientation of behavior, so it can only be an "ideal

Type ", and certainly not the history of the development of" natural ", more" should not become so universal road:
Kind In this sense, "national", "amoral" and "individualism" purely theoretical, as adjunct methods and always essential, and the extreme school of free trade, then it is understood as "natural", that is not stupid distort the reality of an exhaustive portrayal, and further accordingly understood as a "should be" understood as an ideal in the value field, rather than understood as The empirical study ideal typical one can be used (20)
So, the "ideal type" function, not as an end but as a social science "means" to play the role of social science must use usually only in the "ideal type" in order to understand the provisions of the concept of work. The working principle is summarized, measured with the contrast, is to establish the concept of "boundaries" is the prerequisite for this is a professional 'training:
It is an ideal picture, but not the reality of history, but also is not "real" reality, it is also not at all fit in reality classified as a sample schema, but rather refers to the boundaries of the concept of a pure ideal significance With this concept to clearance the reality of the experience of the content of some of the important ingredients to weigh the reality. contrast to make it reality. Such a concept is a product of the idea, we use them through the use of the category of objective possibility conceived various linkages, based on reality oriented, trained imagination they make a judgment that they are suitable. (21)
But the confusion is always very easy to produce historical relativism always let the "philosophy" in the sense of ideal types generated as the concept of "demand in the ideal sense, let it become a value judgment., Science self-monitoring of the basic obligations and the only means to avoid being cheated, is strictly distinguish between these two ways to compare the ideal type of sense of reality and logic linked, make evaluative judgments of reality from the ideal starting point for this is two completely different ways This is Weber stressed as the ideal type of methodology is "value-free", that can not be used as a value judgment standard. ideal type "is some sort of evaluative judgments totally not interested in something, in addition to the pure logic. the perfect addition to it have nothing to do with any other kind of perfect. "(22) That is, in Weber's theory, the ideal type is actually a logical tool does not have the significance of value judgments, this "value-free" core meaning, otherwise, there will be reduced to a naturalistic or moralism "teleological" great danger.

Weber further stated: "ideal type" accidental "something to be excluded in the formation process, but its still" individuality ", not typical of the average. Because the purpose of the concept of the ideal type, "is anywhere people are clearly aware that it is not in line with something like On the contrary, the cultural characteristics of the phenomenon" (23), the expression of cultural individuality , "ideal type" is by no means universal manifestation of the "law", but clear boundaries. At this point, we can already understand, Weber stressed its critique of the object is the "ideal" value-free " type "instead of a value judgment, such a reality poses the greatest risk ideological confusion, the main representative of what the Western Economics.

Naturalistic view of history, that is the purpose of the social sciences must be reality restore "law" Weber's criticism is the danger of "rational type reality confusion Weber cautioned, must be soberly aware the development and history of the "ideal type two must effectively distinguish things, the idea here is just the plan to a historical event attributable to the basis of our understanding of the current situation and possible causes range of practical reasons means (24) It is here, Weber Marx - who he also respected the most important theoretical opponents made the following comment: "law" of Marxism and the historical development of the idea, in theory. has the characteristics of the "ideal type", "people know who use Marxist concepts, reality these ideal typical comparison, they have a huge, even unique inspiration, the same once they envisioned experienced or even conceived of it (in fact that is metaphysics), 'force', 'trends' and so on, they are dangerous. "(25) This assessment is noteworthy also worth today As an important perspective to understand the fate of Marxism in China.

Weber fully affirmed the logic of the "ideal type" role, but he stressed that the idea of ​​the "ideal type" temporary, "the result of cultural and scientific work is the continuous transformation of the process that we are trying to grasp the concept of reality, therefore, about the social life science history and is still with the concept of the process of social life, science, history and remains With the formation of the concept of trying to ideologically finishing reality, due to the expansion of scientific horizons and more shift abrogation of thought between the new concept of changing the image formed on the basis of such a change. "(26) This is because of the formation of the concept depends on the issues raised, and the issues raised with the change the content of the culture, the concept is conceptualized something contains a comprehensive temporary Therefore, the concept of value is that they reveal the effectiveness of boundaries as its based on the concept of meaning, rather than the target. the meaning of the "ideal type" is it temporary, and transcendent inevitable, the means and tools, service to establish the purpose of the value of the contact, and therefore must not be confused with the concrete reality, which is the first sexual purposes. purpose of the concept is assumed to "reflect" on the concept of "objective" reality, which can be traced back to Kant's modern epistemology, the relationship between the concept and history work cephalopods inverted and social sciences It is of great progress with actual cultural changes are closely related, and to take a critical reflection in the form of concept formation Weber announced << the library >> most important task is for this kind of criticism and further consolidated Services:
Objective validity of all empirical knowledge, are and just finishing as the scope of a given reality, while these areas in a special sense is subjective, we know that performance conditions precedent, subject only to the experience and knowledge to give us (27) those truth values ​​a prerequisite constraints.

The "objectivity" of the social sciences is this, that it comes from logic synthesis of empirical reality and finishing therefore clear boundaries and therefore can not prove specific empirical facts as "essential" or "law" accordingly, determine the realistic value of the privilege can not be achieved, because the measure of value can only come from specific cultural task of the social sciences is not constantly chasing new ideas and concepts, but on the contrary, the cultural understanding of the significance of specific historical ties , is the fact that all concepts and concepts critical to serve the ultimate purpose. material specialized households "and" meaning households "are not able to known and known views combine to create something new.

Weber, the value of significance is the premise of the "ideal type" logical sense, deny the truth as the value of a specific cultural product, there is no social science, only with the concept of universal judgment to replace science. Once the social sciences to its methodological principles established in processing materials as an end in itself, rather than consciously based on the final values ​​to examine and reflect on the individual understanding of the material value, can not be aware of the cognitive value is rooted in specific practical culture as the final value, the road will get lost, this time, from the sense of cultural value paradigm breakthrough this time, the significance of the point of view is not added reflectively become unreliable, the road was lost in the evening. significant light of the cultural issues still exist. Thus, science armed, change their foothold and concept system, looking down from the height of thought things ilk. (28)
Power to promote the development of social sciences, not the internal logic of the scientific, but the major issues of a particular social and cultural value we need to be understood in this sense Weber phrase seemed to startle the world scared vulgar: political and

Economics and political servant!因为,作为现实的、具体的德国的文化价值才是真正的政治性问题,学术的目的正在于是否能够落实于具体的文化语境中——它既是社会科学问题意识的来源,也是作为学术研究的社会科学最后的旨归.只有在这里,在责任伦理高于信念伦理的情况下,两种伦理才可以寻求互相支持的契合点,我们也需要从今天中国的历史语境中重新确立和理解韦伯的意义.



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人们可以是不一致的,以及为什么不一致,在什么地方不一致.恰恰这种认识是一种真理认识,而且"价值讨论"也就是为它服务的.与此相反,人们以这种方法肯定不能获得——因为它在一个截然相反的方向上——的东西,是某种规范的伦理学,或者就是某种"律令"的约束力. (34)



新闻业其实是作为社会学家的韦伯投注了极大关注的一个领域,但这却是韦伯研究中最被忽略的部分,中文学术世界里尚无韦伯新闻思想的介绍.在英语世界中,是汉诺·哈特(Hanno Hardt)教授在1979年出版的<<新闻社会理论:早期德国和美国的视野>>(Social Theories of the Press:Early German & American Perspectives)挖掘了这段被埋没的历史.该书在第六章<<社会意识:马克斯·韦伯论新闻与责任>>




——以新闻业的方式对这些事情进行加工利用之后,你又为什么隐名埋姓躲藏起来而不采取任何措施对已经发生的事情作出公开和私下的改正呢?……在蒙受大量损失澄清事实真相之后,我自然已经没有兴趣使你陷入什么狼狈境地,甚至更没有兴趣让这件事情成为一个有损大学声誉的公开丑闻. ……对我来说,关键在于,不论你在上述事件中的所作所为,还是你对我的态度,看来根本不配你完全有资格在海德堡大学培养未来的记者这样的自我鉴定.(39)







为什么在1989年的那个冬天,我和朋友们会建议出版刊物呢?这也不是一时的想法.……希望能够重振旗鼓,做点严肃的学术工作,并以学术研究的方式总结我们在80年代经历的过程和失败.我记得会上两种意见较为突出,一种是消极的,觉得在政治状况没有改变之前,知识界不可能有所作为,另一种意见较为积极,觉得即使无法直接讨论我们当下的问题,也应该坚持学术研究,对我们自身进行反省.在那次会上,我引用了韦伯<<作为学术的志业>>(Wissenschaft als Beruf)中的话,试图为自己的研究工作提供某种伦理的基础.







(35)参见Hanno Hardt, Social Theories of the Press: Early German & American Perspectives, London: SAGE Publications,1979,pp. 174-182.感谢南洋理工大学郭振羽教授和耶鲁大学博士生王颖曜同学提供线索和材料.该书在2002年再版,补充了卡尔·马克思论新闻自由的章节.



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