Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Logic Papers
Post Time:2013-3-7 9:43:00
<< German Ideology >> << (hereinafter referred to as morphological >>) is the writings of Marx and Engels in 1845 to 1846 together with the epoch-making milestone in the history of the development of Marxism. Previous studies of the philosophical community angle different on many insights: the most common and the most common is it considered fully complete exhibition of Historical Materialism above, scholars believe that it implements the revolutionary transformation of the concept of human nature, some scholars have stressed the principal position in << morphology >> >> << outline is not a loss but a real return of scholars analyzed its value orientation of the reality of the future of communism and explore, as well as scholars from the perspective of the social form their own views, this article intends integral part of Marxist philosophy from the category hierarchy << shape >> unified understanding.
Lenin once said: "category is some small stage in the process of distinction (between man and nature), that some small stage in the process of understanding the world, is to help us to understand and master the natural phenomenon of the network's online knot." Any scientific the scope of their specific areas, areas of reasonableness, validity, normative, and a reasonable description of the relationship between the scope and the scope and expand the use of certain methods will form a scientific form of the << >> Vol. 1 chapter in the category of the importance of as much as thirty or forty. course, Marx and Engels' view of the world just shift near some areas of terminology is not very scientific, reasonable and fuzzy boundaries, but without prejudice to our interpretation of the genius idea to know these exact connotation of the areas, to understand the relationship between them, and sort out their hierarchy, has important theoretical significance for us to grasp the Isle of Man to the formation of historical materialism logical thinking on scientific views about materialism and philosophical concepts, and guidance understanding role.
<< >> Marx and Engels, preface German Ideology is all the "he is about themselves, or their own should be a false idea of what things", "these philosophical heroes bleating sounds just to repeat the German public in the form of a philosophical concept, "in accordance with the concept of own God about the model person to establish their own relationship." that thoughts rule the world, the ideas and concepts as a decisive principle, to a certain thought as only philosophers in order to reveal the secrets of the material world. "This is a purely subjective abstract speculative philosophy. Marx and Engels feel the need to debunk" this is such a pandering to indulge in fantasy apathetic German people taste philosophy of struggle ", so can not be trusted." In addition, we know that Marx's view of the world by the speculative reason by Hegel and Feuerbach naturalism and human humanism affect the final transformation to become science course. >> << 1844 manuscript performance: on the one hand, Marx has recognized the need to proceed from objective reality to the importance of the factual statements, on the other hand, in the framework of its overall thinking, strong the humanistic subjective transcendental logic still throughout the whole chapter when describing historical reality, a priori assume that the state of human nature and from the awareness of the general labor, achieved through the negation of alienation and abandonment reversion to the general labor and real possession, the imaginary transition to a communist state. undoubtedly hampered the formation of their true scientific worldview.
In order to criticize the various forms of subjective idealism point of view, to purge yourself thinking understanding idealism residual .1845 Marx has written << outline >> << morphological >> two articles here, Marx and Engels completely abandoned old abstract humanitarian values hypothesis insight into the objective process of human society, to a concrete reality, a historical perspective in order to elaborate a different theory of all previous materialism and idealism sight historical materialism. grasp the scope of the different levels << shape >> and its associates grasp of Marx and Engels founded the unique perspective of historical materialism and the overall framework to help achieve its scientific understanding.
To make a distinction between the areas can have different standards here is based on the whole idea of the scope of in Historical Materialism formation in traction and the formation mechanism of interaction, the vesting level, restricting levels and is divided into three levels. levels of the formation of the historical materialism of the most fundamental core center areas. they are the center level determined by the theory, the main division of labor, production tools, productivity we "owned by the people of this level, because in < <morphology >> Marx believed that it "began to talk about the premise, the premise of" reality, these people are no longer abstract, intuitive, only with affection and love in general or standard . "This is some real individuals, their activities and their material living conditions, they get ready and material living conditions created by their activities in these areas to determine their own historical materialism Marx logical thinking initial starting point of the trip, he answered What is the social history of the subject, what is the nature of social existence, and what is the most basic issues of the social and historical decisive thing these historical materialism. "This is in no way what people should have an abstract class nature, even if the 'production' should have, but the history of mankind (the physical organization of biological internal driving force due) historic take this step 'to begin production from the animal survival' moment, personnel history, specifically, the reality of access to a new quality of human and social survival normalized qualitative human society exists in a certain stage of the development of long-term substance production history and reality to achieve. "
Labor history, the history of the evolution of the production tool that the history of the evolution of productivity at the same time is a division of by pristine natural division of labor, and then developed a simple division of labor division of the development process. "The level of development of the productive forces of a nation, most apparent in the ethnic division of labor on the degree of development of any new productivity, as long as it is not just the expansion of the existing amount of productivity, will lead to the further development of the existing productive forces. "This is just one aspect of the understanding of the nature of the facts and the people of the history of mankind, It also includes the other hand. thus traction by the scope of the first level to the second level as a way of life, forms of labor, activities and mode of production, relations of production, ownership, communication exchanges form of communication methods, capital, competition etc. Some areas connotation duplicate the epitaxy was different. defined and history only from the production up, had reached only the general provisions on the primary level, and also the lack of its essence requirements. prescriptive, what is it? point to the other is the first level in the division of the scope of the pole - the relations of production. production constraints relations of production, "it is a greater extent on the activities of these individuals, the performance of some form of their lives, their lifestyle. "certain internal structural organization of the production and function of the dynamic pattern of implementation, which is the mode of production." the nature of the personal social exist in this unique production way of being. "Therefore, they are what, this is consistent with their production - that is, with what they produce consistent, consistent, and how they produce. thus, the individual is what this depends on them material conditions of production. "This consensus reflects a highly unified, get rid of the speculative philosophy on the pure definition of a subjective nature.
Mutual relations between different ethnic groups depending on the degree of development of each nation's productivity, division of labor and internal exchanges, "of course, is not only the relationship between the peoples, the same is true of the entire internal structure of the nation itself. Productivity is human society the basis of the division of labor and the decisive factor in any leap in productivity brought about changes in the division of labor, and changes in the form of intercourse,
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while cause different forms of ownership changes from tribal ownership, state ownership, the feudal ownership until it has been true of capitalist ownership in the period of capitalist ownership, development, the expansion of exchanges in the form of division of labor and productivity, the opening up of overseas colonies, the formation of the world market, increased competition, the rise of the commercial capital, gradually crowding out natural capital is the most decisive status and factors of course, is productivity. This objective material forces is nurtured by the conflict between man and nature exist in reality. division of labor which is the best extension of the productive forces in a certain extent, the history of the productive forces of history is the division of labor, or vice versa. nation internal and external exchanges also will be developed, contacts and relations, exchanges in the form of communicative action is not a real life crowd Community information, energy, substance swap the interworking of simple relations, must be placed to adapt to the unity of opposites productivity relationship interpretation of all of this all the result is some form of ownership form developed which is a product of history, certain productivity, division of labor, a continuation of the exchanges and reflected both the latter play an active role stage, also can become a limiting its development and extension of the yoke and shackles. visible, productivity, division of labor, communication, forms of ownership, mode of production, social relations and other areas is profoundly expounded the historical materialism of Marx and Engels thought, we grasp << morphology> > must be where the attention and correct understanding. course, not only from the dimension of time to examine these areas any term in a level of mutual restraint and social development of the mutual recognition between them, mutual provisions, mutual restriction was interacting complex history of continuous transmutation.
The third level category: alienation, form of ownership, interests, social relations, social status, social forms, guilds, civil society, the family, the state, communism, France, grade, class, collective, morality, religion, metaphysics, historical consciousness, ideology, form of consciousness, chance. these areas, although somewhat derivation from the property, and to some extent the second, three nature, but it is definitely not a dispensable It is this determining the fit between the three levels of scope, may construct historical materialism perfect Building some areas has the connotation of the superstructure, but can not cage system, we must in each category for the substantive value of vested and defecate determined, so that it will be an integral part of building materials to build Marx and Engels Theory of Historical Building.
Concept of "alienated labor" in a the << 1844 manuscript >> << shape >> Marx conversion, but spontaneously formed due to the joint activity itself is not voluntary, this social forces in these personal opinion not their combined forces, but some kind of alien in their power. "<< the 1844 manuscript >> made the a priori set logic here is no longer on alienation description, but the description of the reality of the objective logic of contradiction between the unity of opposites on the basis of a realistic productive forces and production relations, Marx use the experience in the the << form of >>, induction from experience narrative the fact that in the abstract the following two points: First, because of the division of labor exists, inevitably contradictions between the productive forces and social conditions (social form), it also is family-based natural division of labor and social divisions as separate families for ".... (iv) 'the resulting labor and the unequal distribution of the product and the emergence of private ownership. division of labor to produce a contradiction between personal and collective interests, the public interest," a national posture taken The Unreal Community and practical benefits from the independent form of the form of "performance. spontaneous formation due to a different division and mutual combination of common activities of social forces, for the special interests is an alien, can not control the real upside forces dominate people's consciousness and behavior of the host-guest relationship between the split, it is a rule over us, beyond our control, thwarting our expectations, and is going to force us naught. Marx and Engels, the elimination of alienated labor "by the logic of this thinking itinerary future state of communism to describe proposed two premises: the majority of universality and human alienation" no property "- the proletariat broad, which in turn is based on the premise of the tremendous growth of the productive forces and the rapid development of all the trite things have to resurgence "in cases of extreme poverty, on the re-start the struggle to fight necessities, on the other hand universal intercourse can establish, the proletariat to find each other and combine with each other. "or communism is just a" regional presence "mind trip logic to this, we can see that it is the specific perspective of an objective reality, Marx station In a practical point of view, starting from the most fundamental condition of the productive forces and production relations, described the irrationality of capitalist private ownership of alienated labor, and the elimination of alienated labor urgency and prerequisite to the future communist human nature real possession. itinerary of this thinking the logic addition itself is an abstract generalization, there is no point to speculative idealism colors., thus Marx said: "Communism whom should we say that the situation did not come to be established, not reality fit the ideal we called communism the real movement which abolishes the present situation. "
People may think the materialist conception of history for this artificial mechanical distinction will undoubtedly split the writings of complete harmony, but the distinction here is not to disrupt the scientific and historical materialism system, just to sort out and grasp the logic of Marxist philosophy thinking itinerary provide a convenient path. Marx and Engels speak up scientific thinking has not broken this point, we must make a panoramic view of the interpretation of logical thinking on >> << morphology of Marx and Engels.
<< Shape >> Marx and Engels' departure from the practice of a scientific concept, under the guidance of the practical way of thinking, the first time in almost typical and perfect philosophical way of thinking - history and logic consistent way to build their own theory to achieve the complete elucidation of historical materialism in the field of social and historical dialectics logical thinking expand this important premise of the "people" logical demonstration stroke: "personal bodily tissue, as well as the constraints of the physical organization with nature relations "(natural presence) -" cooperation of many individuals (human society) - "These individuals certain activities, the performance of a certain form of their lives, their lifestyle" (people the nature of existence). addition, Marx and Engels that consciousness by their physical organization of the constraints, equally long history with the language, "" is a "a purely animal nature", "narrow Contact "a sense of necessity, because the exchanges only as a relationship exists, the development of a social consciousness. Finally, due to the emergence of the spirit of the division of labor, manual and mental workers before the class thinkers as only their livelihoods, but still as a "pure" consciousness "However, based on the thought manifested in the form of the dominant material relations". followed we can see that Marx and Engels is a phenomenon to essence, from the abstract to the specific history and logic in a consistent manner. course, its main line is still the reality of the existence and development of social and historical foundation.
"Contains new world view the talented budding files" - >> << outline, on the one hand, Marx's critique of Feuerbach's materialism "of things, in reality, perceptual, just from the object or intuitive to understand the form, rather than treat them as human sensuous activity as a practice to understand, not from the subjective aspect to understand the other hand, he said: "He (the fee) is not understood as activities objective activity. "Does this contradiction? here we want to grasp the relations Margery's theoretical point of departure and a logical starting point. >> << outline theoretical starting point is the perceptual activity, is a dynamic the objective material activities, its practicality that reflects the emotional substance activities objectivity, also reflects the human body and initiative not Feuerbach intuitive emotional events row when entering << form >> text on the logic level occurred micro differentiation, "the original logic overall as (external object opposition's) in the main aspects of material life activities but on a theoretical level is established for the narrow sense of the social history of the object aspects. "Marx called" the objective of the activity, it can be seen, the language of the >> << outline is not contradictory. practical activity is not the main nor object, "the practice of the subject" and "practical objects" are wrong understanding. fact, the practice is a bridge and link of subject and object. Marx << shape >> is reflected in practical activities such intrinsically prescriptive, in the final analysis, is a way of thinking is that the era of change, and that practice the way of thinking the birth, the end of the way of thinking of ways of thinking and to explain the thinking and there is a relationship of epistemology to explain the ontology of the world body as its mission.
Lakatos's view, a scientific theory is a "hard core" and "auxiliary protection with the" hard core "of the basic theoretical postulates, is the doctrine of the basic theory of the fundamental propositions constitute the basis of the doctrine of performance of the essence of the doctrine. "protection zone" is to use the theory postulates specific conclusions drawn by the reality of things. >> If we put the division three level categories discussed above and their understanding of the relationship as << morphology "hard core", and then recognize it from a different angle to form a section of the protection zone. "in fact, the << form of >> discussion of the above aspects are not separate and fragmented on issues elaboration and views can select a different perspective, but it is easy to cause the human castration writings endanger the integrity of historical materialism. understanding of human nature, human subjectivity, criticism of German Ideology, social forms The theoretical analysis of the delineation of the vision of the future communist society are closely intertwined << the Morphological >> Marx Engels objective material production is the starting point of the overall philosophy of sight framework level distinction be its key areas to achieve this an understanding of the best tentacles of course, we are opposed to Marxist philosophy as a system of philosophy, but need to be identified on the level of these areas from the general macro, overall and accurate positioning, to achieve complete scientific Marxist philosophy understanding of Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com