Conceptual and logical difficulties of the moral law in Kant's moral philosophy

In inside of << laid the foundation stone of the Metaphysics of Morals >>, Kant proposed the concept of the moral law, to try all human behavior can be established through the construction of three levels of moral law and moral criteria and ultimately vest. Kant's concept of moral law The center established moral philosophy became the representatives of the European continent ethics deontology.

A moral law Overview

Kant argued that the universal moral law binding, "so much so that it is not only inevitable applies to people, and it applies to all general rational beings." Therefore, the moral law is no exception, all rational beings, are absolutely necessarily applicable by this premise, Kant ruled out the formation of the impact of the experience of the moral law, he believes that "there is no experience to provide a reason, even if it is only inference to the undisputed rule the possibility of excluding experience pure practical reason is fully committed to the development of the moral law, the provisions of the task of the moral law, all moral concepts are completely a priori in the reason of its location and origin, and whether it is in the most ordinary human reason, or in the The highest degree of speculative thinking on precisely in lifted the basis of pure practical reason, Kant did not set up his deontological moral metaphysics.

Below first prove the only pure practical reason to the provisions on the basis of the moral law, Kant asked the two concepts (Hypothetical Imperative commands given words (Categorical Imperative, thus evolved the concept of moral law given words imperative hypothetical imperatives. The analysis of these three concepts.

(A hypothetical imperatives and given words command

Pure practical reason requires the moral law, and further provides that the will, thus forming a pure practical reason commandments, "an objective principle of representation, in respect of the principle of a will is mandatory, is called a (rational commandments, this commandment consensus called command. "Since it is a command, and its expression is Imperative Sentence," what you should do ". then distinguish rational as on the basis of objective rule will, Kant presented false Imperative (Hypothetical Imperative commands given words (Categorical Imperative, a word, an act issued by the command, which means that the behavior of objects in order as a means of good behavior occurs from some sort of preference or interests pathological interest (pathological interest then the command is SYLLOGISTIC command practice needs the support of some of the special conditions, if the act itself is good (good in itself, which means that the behavior of practical interest (practical interest, then the command is given words, itself has universal validity.

(B moral law

Words given under the provisions of a purely practical reason imperative is actually called the moral law. Kant is difficult to give the words imperative only one that is "only while willing it to become a universal law that the criteria to act" , and then there are two higher levels of expressions, first you have to be so seductive, that both the humanity of your personality, or any other hot personality humanity, at any time you are at the same time as an end never merely as means, this expression boils down to people for the purpose of all human behavior is attributed to the perfection of the human nature of personality. then the "will to the will of every rational there is a universal legislation this expression of every rational being must own will all the norms of himself as a universal legislators, on the establishment of the concept of the Kingdom of the purpose.

Kant put forward the concept of the moral law, in fact, is to provide detection of human behavior the ethical system that human behavior is ethical, just follow the general rule (The formula of Universal law to detection can know through detection ethical and otherwise unethical. Kant proposed the detection of two standard first own standards rise to a universal law, the logical result will automatically cancel the guidelines themselves (Contradiction in conception, such as the first example of suicide, the guidelines are "suicide is the order of the continuing scourge of life off" if this criterion is rising as a universal law, that for self-love suicide will become the means to destroy life itself to produce a logical contradiction therefore suicide does not comply with the universal law (or moral law, even if did not produce the internal logic of contradiction (will depend on whether people are willing to let their own criteria to become a universal law, that is, will not produce Contradiction in will Kant Speaking of examples of incomplete responsibility, that the reason why a certain criteria can not become a principle of universal legislation, not because of its use will result in a logical contradiction, but because people do not want to make the principle of universal legislation " .

Moral law impact

The words certainly command on the basis of pure practical reason and free will become the highest ethics fundamental premise of the research methods of the general principles and as for the practical reason of Kantian ethics system. Kant denied that the moral law is built on perceptual activities and experiences doctrine into the possibility that the universal moral law, and given words command not only a priori form, and is always the first in and outside of experience and the role of human will and behavior to determine good and evil must not be by means of acts of experience , by means of behavior can not only by means of a congenital pure characteristics moral command to determine the practical reason pure and universality is that the will out of obligation, responsibility and action the moral commands respect and Out obligation and responsibility to rule and command respect is respect for human reason and freedom of this emphasis on the non-utilitarian moral and transcendent experience, ethics caused a major change in direction led to the field of moral philosophy within the Copernican revolution.

More importantly, the change in the moral law as the core of the Metaphysics of Morals is rational from a scientific extended to the field of morality, the object of the transcendental metaphysical field transfer from the understanding of the field of ethics, moral type of metaphysical ethics fundamental premise before Kant, Hume in the field of human behavior, that is, in the sense of ethics, human reason alone can not provide the motives, rational only for passion (passion strategies and skills, which in fact is the rational disparage as "grand" as human desire. course, he also opened the first of its kind of utilitarianism. Kant resolutely safeguard the rational dignity, he thinks Hugh rational mo said, just human intellectual and proposed on this basis more The high concept of Pure Reason. thus highlight the theme of the rational, the ideal position in moral philosophy and position in the natural sciences, have become the most common basis for just as mentioned in the previous text, Kant for human guidelines for the ethical and find a unique, absolutely universal testing standards, the imperative of the moral law is given words, such a universal test to some extent similar to the methods of the natural sciences.

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Third, the logic of the moral law difficult

Kant, however, this kind of fragmented relationship between emotional and rational, moral and interests fully highlight the theme of the innate rational practice there are certain contradictions, and does not fully address the human moral standards, or even put the universal law as determine human behavior motivation only whether ethical standards, there is a very serious internal logical contradictions.

(An abstract and generalized logical contradiction

Discusses the first expression of the moral law, Kant cites four examples: (1 not to commit suicide, (2 Do not lie, (3 to develop their talents, (4 to help others if careful analysis of these four example, will find four examples have one thing in common, one of the body, the person is no other social conditions, that people just do not consider the occupation, status, or other factors, however, if we consider the special social factors, you will find that the moral law itself appears contradictory. example, if you have a personal code is: My neighbor is noisy every day, in order to enjoy the quiet, I should kill my neighbor. put the guidelines risen to the rule is , everyone in order to enjoy the quiet will kill noisy neighbors according to Kant two criteria: First, the rule does not generate internal logical contradictions, not everyone will be killed, and therefore will not self-cancel, no Secondly, I prefer a quiet environment, this rule I am willing to become a universal law, I would not be killed because this therefore will not produce contradiction in will produce a contradiction in conception, similar examples can be cited many, such as "I have to buy food to grab food store" as a personal standards, can also do the same analysis, rose to rule after the same logic and willingness not produce contradictions. these two criteria by Kant universal detection, you can become a universal law, but obviously killed noisy and grab food stores similar things will not be given to the social and legal recognition, but also immoral.

As can be seen, Kant's universal moral principles and not become the sole criterion of all human motives ethical and the moral law does not consider the perceptual characteristics of the human and social factors inherent logical contradiction.

(Second moral law egoism tendency

Criterion rose for the second criterion of the law is contradictory is "whether people are willing to let their own criteria to become standard criteria exist certain difficulties. First, due to the particularity of each person, each person will unlikely exactly the same, it amounted to less than the last fully consistent conclusion. Secondly, even if they can reach a unanimous conclusion, this standard also hidden a certain degree of self-interest tendencies. utilitarian Representative John Muller criticism: "When he (Kant deduce from this first principle of any specific moral obligations, his performance was almost ridiculous, he should have been given, all rational there are accepted the most shameless immoral rules of conduct, which will some kind of contradiction, there will be some sort of logical impossibility (de facto impossibility goes without mention, but he explained to the people only if the rules of ethical behavior is accepted, then the consequences no one would choose to bear. "of this criticism of Muller pointed out the tendency of self-interest in the implementation of the universal moral law in Kant Kant's fourth example, to help others, if not to help others" up universal law, everyone only care about their own things, "willing to everywhere take effect in accordance with such a principle as natural law, but it is impossible for a decision the will to do so would conflict with their own, because, after all, possible occurrence of such situation: he needs the love and sympathy of others, he will be deprived of all hope that they receive the assistance he expected, he has been the law of nature from a "egoism inherent in the principle of this case which took place with the Kantian deontology a contradiction, "People are talking about Kant said four responsibilities of Kant 'helping others' very dissatisfied with this general principle of the explanation given by repeatedly criticized, mainly because I think Kant steal this utilitarian principles of this criticism is not unreasonable. "
Egoism principle hidden in the universal moral law, and respect for virtue, highlight the theme of the obligations of Kant's moral philosophy in contradiction is also an inherent logical contradiction in the concept of "moral law".

In summary, we can see that, Although the concept of the "moral law" can provide a moral value judgments in abstract and general sense, but if you get to the bottom of which logic, Kant not consider the people's desires and special social factors, there are still a certain logical difficulty, and not general practice to the human society.

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