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Hegel << logic >> "Introduction" is not the the ensuing logic areas, the main content and elaborate sequence to do prior accountable and theoretical requirements, but comprehensive exposition of the philosophy of its own in the text of Thinking areas of extensive and detailed interpretation is somewhat inconsistent, it seems the "Introduction" and did not play the role of the Introduction. however Hegel the case of the arrangement is not some kind of theory of negligence, but intentional. because in his view, prior explaining its Philosophical Outlook will no doubt elaborate the logic main content and key, logic is only a part of the system of philosophy, subordinate to the overall understanding and grasp of the philosophy. readers a comprehensive understanding of its philosophy to critical, provided that in order to really understand why the writing of their logic, the scope of the provisions and logical demonstration with related text, I think that describing Hegel's philosophy should be mainly includes the following aspects:
, Philosophy is "thinking of things with the expedition"
Hegel called << logic >> "the second edition of the Preamble philosophical labors whom we have more to go and desired trend went the aim of scientific knowledge" about the truth that the most important matter to the spirit of valuable interest ", the of its philosophical desired recovery absolute content, as well as" the spirit of the most unique and most liberal quality "to achieve the freedom of movement and the development of the spirit of its own. To this end, Hegel first expounded the its own philosophy and its relationship with other forms of thinking, such as religion, art. directly defined philosophy as the "thinking forward to the visits of things he does not agree with the modern times philosophical and religious opposition to the practice of Those who wish to reconcile the relationship between philosophy and religion, it is in this process, he described the nature of the provisions of their own philosophy.
In his view, the era in which he has come to a rational despair, philosophy Fallen vulgar shallow: "do not know the truth, go cognition that only the surface of the timing fortuitous things this philosophy is the Enlightenment philosophy in modern times, especially the critical philosophy of Kant. Hegel did acknowledge that the cause of the spirit of the revival of modern philosophy major theoretical value: it broke the shackles of religious theology, to highlight the main abstract self-consciousness, established the principle of abstract thinking, thinking self as "able to emerge from this, thinking not only consciously aware of the difference between thinking something existential universe, but also the development of this difference into opposing, and want to eliminate this opposition, the interest has not that truthfully thinking individual objects, but in thinking that the thinking and understanding of these objects, that is, thinking the unified itself "modern philosophy for the first time to achieve a" thinking of things with the expedition . "But Hegel also pointed out that the shift itself is the revival of modern philosophy and religious opposition to wearing rational masks intellectual principles to establish a credible and reliable knowledge systems and religious beliefs in order to oppose, so that in the modern history of philosophy "focus on abstract intellectual enlightenment faction" and "religious pious faction" diametrically opposed. they have their own principles held against each other, but because they do not have a "material contact or common basis, so do not may reach the doctrine of, and access to knowledge and truth. "Hegel, the former's intellectual principle" only is aware of the scope or the concept of abstract, that is one-sided and limited, so they look However, the unity of the spirit "is" an abstract of no spiritual identity ", where" all is one, there is no difference between good and evil is the same thing in other areas. " but this way of thinking "in the form of abstract no content thinking is a formalism only know that the" high-called freedom of conscience, freedom of thought, freedom of teaching, and even high-called rational and scientific. " not involve substantive content, "only stay in a negative formalism and a free self-willed, freedom chaos commented 'freedom' inside ', did not reach the knowledge of the truth, similar to this, which is also just stay in the "main pride in my Master's name, but" bluntly and openly contemptuous of faith development or expansion for the spirit, essence and truth. "Therefore, both stubborn in their holdings on the one hand So, where they are out of "substantive content, the religious consciousness degenerated" philosophy "is" to get the highest satisfaction without content is only an occasional need for subjective ", it is" completely subordinate to subjective freedom needs. "In this way, philosophy has become vulgar and shallow, so that development to their own belief is impossible to find and establish about the knowledge of the truth: God as the nature of the world and the spirit, it seems not to grasp and non- understanding, can recognize only those time-sensitive and changing negative things home, absolutely, and the nature of God, the truth and the absolute essence of nature and the spirit of the community have actually been considered unknowable and not really something deprived 's right to know. Hegel ridiculed Kant's critical philosophy and even the kind of "ignorance of the eternal and sacred objects as a conscience, because it is convinced that we have proved this imaginary eternal, holy, do not know the truth. knowledge and even self-proclaimed philosophy all these without exception, are philosophical in vain habits "," world spirit is too busy with reality, Chi too greedy in the outside world has to the world the spirit of "back to the heart steering itself, to wander from Yi in their original homes when.
Different from the philosophical and religious views in opposition, Hegel, philosophy and religion are not opposites, but share the same content as the research object: "truth" and "the highest sense of truth, God is truth, and God alone is the truth. "In this regard, explained later," the preliminary provisions of the concept of logic "in Hegel: the truth is not our representation and object meet, but thinking of its own line << History of Philosophy Lectures >> added, and the truth is universal uncaused rational ", and" Only God is the concept and reality truly meet God is universal, absolute essence of the spirit ", therefore the only God is the truth., philosophy and religion to study finite things of the world, to study the nature and spirit, to study the nature and spirit of mutual inter-relationship, as well as their relationship with God (ie, the truth of both), because they are the link and the result of the spirit of their movement, must go through the process to achieve truth or absolute concept. Hegel clearly pointed out, "Philosophy history is found in the history of the idea of 'absolute'. the absolute philosophical research object. "religions" are generally thought of as its internal "art and religion is the highest concept in the philosophy of consciousness - feeling, intuitive way in the representation of consciousness. "Hegel said:" as long as the religion has a belief, a doctrine, a creed, then it has a philosophy engaged in seeking something - truth - this, philosophy and religion can be combined. "although the common religious and philosophical content, but the status is not equal: Philosophy is higher than that of religion. philosophy to understand the religious supernaturalism, religion, but only in appearance point of view to understand something "with it in the same position, but can not understand the philosophy, the concept of universal categories of thought.", Hegel said: "religion can not to philosophy, and the philosophy is not, but there is no religion, in fact, rather it should be said , the philosophy that includes religion, including "borrow than Hegel To achieve to philosophy the unified religious. Philosophy and religion, although common content, but in different forms to achieve the truth.
The religion mainly take the form of silent prayer and worship, and by means of intuitive feel and appearance consciousness to comprehend God philosophy not only with the appearance of the formation of the concept, but the key is thinking with understanding and grasp things. Hegel said, "broadly speaking, philosophy can be defined as the investigation of thinking of things with." In his view, people's different from beasts is that people thinking "Animals can not say 'I' word only person to say 'I', because the only people to thinking." But the philosophy of "thinking" not appear as a form of emotion, intuition or representation, but a special way of thinking - in this way, thinking become understanding, conceptual understanding to grasp the object. "That is the philosophy of" thinking "is" as a form of thinking "that the concept of thinking, only thinking deserves to be called a philosophical concept or instrument. "philosophy by means of reflection - reflection is" thinking of itself as the content, strive to thinking consciously as ideological "Transcendence out - from the intuition and representation, the external world and the inner the emotional truth be repeatedly thinking (Nach-denken), and go instead of the appearance of a "thinking", "category", "concept", in order to achieve emotional appearance transformed for the purpose of thinking. So when I say "I" word has entered the philosophical reflection upcoming "I" as thinking the investigated object., "I" is not simply an abstract universality, but contains all universality. "because although the" I, "which may a variety of content, I can feel, I can appearance, will I'll wait, "But in all this activity I, or can also be said to have thinking in all this activity." So people always in thinking, even when he only intuitive, he is also in the thinking. "
On this basis, Hegel both opposed to the idea of the feeling, intuitive, superficiality and thinking diametrically separation is about religion and philosophy opposing his criticism to do this separation, "forget the talent can only religious, no religious beast , can not be said to have a legal and moral. ", Hegel also opposed to the kind of practice to ignore the difference between general ideological and philosophical reflection, this philosophy, too easily, although not committed to the philosophy, but high on the philosophy that with direct knowledge and intuitive access to the knowledge of the truth and this view is clearly interested in the philosophical produce a crude misunderstanding and disapprobation. Hegel, thinking, despite the presence of emotions, beliefs or the appearance of the inside, thinking activities and results, although performance and contain them, but the mood and appearance has soaked thinking is one thing, thinking about these emotions and appearances is one thing. "only be" reflection "in the form of these awareness of thinking, is included in philosophy, and stay in the appearance of the inside, not philosophical way of thinking. Based on this, Hegel, the task of philosophy it lies: "general ordinary consciousness, philosophy required to prove that the needs of their unique knowledge of the way of even have to wake most people recognize philosophy of the unique knowledge of the way of the needs. religious objects, the truth generally, philosophy must be proved from philosophy itself departure, that have the ability to be understanding. differences between philosophical views and religious concepts, philosophy must discern why different from the grounds of the religious ideas of its various provisions. "Links to free papers Download Center http:// eng.hi138.com two the, philosophical highest purpose is "to achieve the reconciliation of reason and reality"
Expounded the philosophy of thinking of things with the expedition, Hegel fear that people will understand his philosophy as some kind of detached from reality content abstract speculation or subjective reverie, he followed closely on the philosophy has been further provisions, clearly stated: "philosophical highest purpose is to confirm the consistency of thought and experience, and to reach the conscious rational exist at things in a rational reconciliation, which is to achieve the reconciliation of reason and reality." thus indicating that his philosophy is to achieve a high degree of unity of form and content, and to distinguish it from the kind of out of the Enlightenment philosophy of "substantive content" abstract formalism.
In his view, notwithstanding the philosophical knowledge in the form of pure thinking and the scope of the concept, but its content "belongs to the living spirit of belonging to the original creation and the spirit of self formed world, that belongs to the consciousness "philosophy is the reality (wirklichkert) This" reality "is not changeable perceptual phenomenon, but the real necessity" essentially exists or within the formation of the external and inner world. " formed directly with the outside reunification ", that is to say, the reality is that the inevitable process of mental or ideas to expand and enrich itself. Hegel believes that the study of philosophy as a philosophy, not a subjective fantasy or the minds of fictional system, which itself is reality and this reality will continue to expand through nature, social conditions and institutions is rich in its own nature, social conditions and institutions is just plain external aspects of the concept. different from the Enlightenment philosophy is always placed on the concept of the field "should", "should" and "existing" in opposition to the existing practice "should" provisions ", he believes that the" existing "and" should be "But is an inevitable part of the spirit or the concept itself in the freedom movement and the development process. therefore Rather said:" All the things that are rational reality, all reality things are rational. "philosophy that is an inevitable reality and experienced consistent even said, "can be seen as consistent philosophy and experience at least outside the touchstone to test the truth of philosophy."
Hegelian philosophy is different from the modern empirical science since the latter also from personal experience, unlimited heteropoly emotional material also point to the phenomenal world, and tried to find common and criteria established from these emotional material. science in modern times is called philosophy, such as Newton's Natural Science is also called natural philosophy, Hegel but that it can only be called empirical science, because it has two aspects can not meet the requirements of reason itself. First, it can not grasp the freedom, the spirit of God, the reason why it can not grasp these objects, not because these objects and experiences, but only because their content is unlimited, and principles of empirical science pursues intellectual limited and prescribed things can grasp. Secondly, it can not meet the further requirements of reason itself, which is generalized inevitability in Hegel's view, the inevitability of the general empirical science contained vague and not determined not necessarily intrinsic association with something special, and pure external and accidental relationship and this has been confirmed by the skepticism of Hume. addition, all the methods of empirical science is always based on direct reality and giving material, this is just a "expediency assumptions". seen these two cases illustrate the empirical science can not meet the rational inevitability form. different from this, the work of Hegel's philosophy is that compensate for this defects, so as to achieve "true reflection of the inevitability knowledge" the unique universal form of speculative thinking is the concept. Nevertheless, Hegel thinks his speculative science is not ignored empirical science, but to be acknowledged and take advantage of in order to enrich their own content, speculative science need universal principles in the recognition and application of empirical science, law, and classification, but philosophical shift the introduction of some new areas of scientific disciplines, he said: "difference between philosophy and science transform of this is that the scope of speculative logic includes logic and metaphysics, the preservation of the same thought forms, rules and objects, while deeper wide areas to play and transform them. "
Since conceptual thinking can make up for the defects of empirical science, which recognizes the absolute object of God, the spirit and freedom, the inevitability of this understanding and the ability to inspection and verification should be., Hegel does not agree with Kant's Critique philosophy that should recognize before on the understanding of the ability to be critical examine that this approach can smile "is no different in some pedant smart way, did not learn to swim before, do not adventure into the water he insist on investigation of cognitive ability in the process of raising activities before, "tools to examine the so-called understanding, awareness and understanding of them, but the same thing." Hegel's method is not Kant's critical approach but dialectics. dialectic that is to recognize the nature of thinking itself. nature of being in the spirit of "the development of its own, and only through development in order to grasp its own, to become a philosophy." called also pointed out that the spirit of feeling and intuitive sensuous object, and as the imagination Zeyi image as the object for the object as Will Take purpose, but as in terms of its inherent nature, is thinking for its object ", because it requires the" own highest internal - the satisfaction of thinking - that requires a return to
It themselves, become self as spirit In other words, the spirit of the intrinsic nature of dialectical development, this development is the philosophy "itself beyond its own separation and at the same time its own response process." The spirit of this internal or own reply, it can be said that the highest absolute purpose. "spiritual development inevitably experienced the concept itself comfortable since, externalization of the concept, and the concept of the tight externalization and return to their own process, so black Heidegger's philosophy also contains three parts of logic, natural philosophy, and spiritual philosophy accordingly. Hegel by the philosophy of trying to reveal the spirit of understanding of its own, to become its own object, found himself to achieve self as combined with himself, which eventually reached the absolute freedom of the dialectical process. On this basis, Haig - Seoul thus critical that the abstract concept of freedom out of the content that this freedom is not really free but "wayward", is the opposite of the "true freedom" and "is not consciously bound, subjective fantasy of freedom - only form of freedom." take this, Hegel turn own philosophy before all philosophy drawn a line.
Therefore, the attitude of Hegel's philosophy towards experience, only experience as a starting point, but does not meet or stay here, but beyond the feel of the material to thinking itself purely miscellaneous elements, because only in the concept of the universal essence of these phenomena, thinking before they get to meet, "on their own development, and this development" On the one hand, it can be said to be thinking of empirical science content and its various provisions lessons another , so that the same content to the original meaning of free thinking, only things its own inevitability developed. "In this sense, Hegel concluded that philosophy is thanks to experience scientific, because the latter philosophy to provide the necessary content and can take advantage of the principle of law, but the philosophy is also beyond the experience of science, because the philosophy given a scientific content to the main ingredients, namely, freedom of thinking, and given the scientific inevitability guarantee, so that the scientific content not only for the beliefs of the facts found in the experience, and the experience in fact become the description and facsimile of the original completely autonomous thinking activities. "In a word, Hegel confident his philosophy to the form and content height unified, and ultimately the absolute freedom of the spirit, philosophy freed from superficial shallow state. Third, the philosophy is "a return to their own circle.
If it is just from a logical description of the origin and development of the philosophy of Hegel << logic >> "Introduction" from the point of view of the history of philosophy, the origin and development of the philosophy described, proposed The philosophy seems to be "a return to their own circle," saying, at the macro point of view to explain the relationship between philosophy and the history of philosophy as a whole.
In his opinion, on the surface, the history of philosophy seems to accumulation of a separate system of philosophy, and not some kind of an inevitable association, but in fact, that only the living spirit but it is the whole philosophy of engineering architects reflected in the history of philosophy is actually the spirit of the step-by-step process of movement, it is to achieve the gradual awareness of the spirit of its own on the nature of thinking, the history of philosophy, philosophical system at different stages of the process of spiritual development., and as a philosophical system based on the principle, it is only some branches of the same ideological overall Bale. initial philosophy of the poorest and most abstract philosophy from the perspective of the development of time, just because the concept has been minimum provisions, also remain in the general view, was not enrich themselves. the the late philosophical system time is the inevitable result is before all philosophical systems development, the inevitability to continue to advance the work of the spirit of thinking and expand , "It goad earlier view forward, not isolated to grow up." Therefore, the latest philosophical system, no doubt, before the inevitable outcome of all philosophical system contains all system kind of principle, including Hegel boasted of his philosophy as last philosophical system inevitably will be "a real one philosophical system, must be the most knowledgeable, the most abundant and the most specific system of philosophy." in there "grasp the concept of play and will be the most development, the richest, most profound."
Hegel is opposed to the practice of philosophy and philosophical system tied up, he thinks that the entire history of philosophy, but "found about the history of the idea of 'absolute'. Absolute philosophical research object." It's just the history of philosophy from history external or incidental to reveal the spirit of rational development process, and philosophy is the logical process just purely from the nature of thought to play a thinking process. "real freedom of thought itself is specific, and that is the concept of" through the history of philosophy, philosophy will inevitably be rich one by one unfolded a true reflection, followed by various philosophical systems that unique principle is the concept of self-development. Nevertheless, philosophy can not stay in the various philosophical systems itself of them, and must be as a part of the whole idea of absolute scientific system because "truth as specific, it must be in itself, expand its own, and must be linked together and maintain unity, In other words, the truth is, of all the freedom of all, with all aspects of the inevitability, the only distinction and the provisions of the various aspects of it be possible. "Therefore, on the one hand," every part of the philosophy is a philosophy of all, a complete self- the circle in which each part of the philosophical concept only express a special requirements or factors. On the other hand, every single circle are the idea of an inevitable link each individual's circle as whole will certainly surpass its special factors to establish a larger circle. "these special factors, the system constitute the entire concept, philosophy is also reflected in each individual links of" the entire history of philosophy is a spiritual return to their own circle. philosophy of free activities just thinking, thinking "they make their own objects themselves through their own objects." Therefore, in the philosophical system play, the starting point of the philosophy that transformation as the end point, while "When philosophy when the end point is reached, is the philosophy of re-achieve its starting point and return to it when. "Therefore, Hegel, philosophy itself is like is a" themselves to return to their own circle ", and" achieve the idea of the concept of their own return themselves, satisfy yourself, that is the only purpose of the philosophy of the scientific work and goals. "
Based on this thinking, Hegel want to provide an encyclopedia of philosophy, but this encyclopedia of philosophy can not come by chance and experience the sake of convenience and arranged together many scientific improvise derived from this encyclopedia but fragmented when gathered. "their polymerization only external unity," external polymerization external order, rather than a system. Haig encyclopedia of philosophy advocated by Seoul to reject piecemeal when gathering the exclusion of any established based on arbitrary disciplines, as well as exclusive stay in the to seek universal order empirical material empirical science encyclopedia of philosophy as a system to reflect and reveal the movement and development of the concept itself, this movement is not the mechanical movement, the "free thinking movement" Encyclopedia of Philosophy task is to reveal to the world of ideas and the rise of the sensible world, resulting in its development reveals Hegel's philosophy reflects Thought found their own history, but only when thinking of "found themselves, it exists and is real." thinking as ideology is itself self is eternal. thinking it is an inevitable process of movement and development. considered the nature and characteristics of the Hegelian philosophy as a philosophical system, which is divided into the logic that study philosophy at ease since science, natural philosophy, that is, research ideas different in or outside of the scientific, spiritual philosophy that studies the concept by its exclusive in returning to its science is precisely in this sense, Hegel subsequently << small logical >> body part elaborate and speculative interpretation to get the basis of its own legitimacy. logical areas other words, only the overall understanding and grasp of Hegelian philosophy itself, we be possible to understand the Hegelian logic learn fundamental theme, main content and scope of the provisions of the basic issues.
Therefore, in general, the the Hegel << the logic >> "Introduction" is not so much its ensuing basic aspects of the logic, the main content and the elaborate sequence prior accountable and theoretical requirements, as it is Haig comprehensive elaboration. Erzhe school concept which undoubtedly understand the logic of the premise and key the same token, this is also our understanding of the philosophy of Hegel one entrance and important joint point, therefore, "Introduction" We understand the premise of Hegel's Logic, or our understanding of the vital and critical of Hegel's entire philosophical system, has great theoretical significance and practical value, we need to seriously Links to free papers Download Center http://www.hi138 . com