On Confucius contingency thinking in the modern sense

Abstract: the Confucian Contingent ethical thinking Confucius did not make a detailed interpretation, but as an important founder of Confucianism, Confucius's ideological implication, honest principles and methods, vivid interpretation with the right paper individual level of ethics and morality, social and political, economic, cultural and educational and methodological level of contingency thinking its positive significance in the modern the exposition.

Keywords: Contingency, individual, social and methodology

Confucius's life doing things man reflected everywhere "rights". << Analects >> only three mentioned the "rights", such as: "Zaihan" articles "yet to know and the right to", "micro-sub" articles "waste in the right "," Yao said "papers" would like the right amount ". << (the Analects variorum · micro sub-eighteenth >>) >> << Analects Zi Han (following only Note title) proposed:" and common school, yet to know Sik Road, with the appropriate channel, yet to know, and legislation with legislation, yet to know with the right. "meaning that people can learn to work together with him, may not be able to work with him to get some kind of achievement the right of those who can be the one he made some kind of achievement, may not be able to work with him every ceremony line; one with him every ceremony and the line of people may not be able to join he changes his mind. " said also, so do the severity (">> << Chunqiu · Huangong eleven years later the idea was flexible borrow refers to the specific situation of moral conflict, the actors in the choice of ethical behavior weigh modifications.

Confucius said: "Evil, Evil listen, Evil words Evil action." << (The Yan Yuan >>) Confucius Shigenori push Chongren Zheng, "Dole love their sheep, and I love their ceremony (" << eight yi >> Confucius contingency thinking to highlight a word "change" is not clueless, chaos becomes arbitrary, but the premise of courtesy. Contingency means of achieving the ceremony, and specific measures, we can say that The ceremony is a fundamental principle, both compared Contingency around the ceremony conducted in the << Chinese Philosophy A History >> As lan said: "The road is a matter of principle, the right flexibilities in On the surface, seems to be contrary to the principle, but in essence it is principled consistency. "It can be said that the" contingency "is a degree of the times trial the severity, a without losing Festival Weirenchushi way, it is also a more high wisdom of the highlights.

Confucius inherited "Zhou" is the core of the old traditional, patriarchal kinship as the cutoff point to explore the reason why people based on intrinsic human - Ren, the creation of the "benevolence" as the core of the "benevolence", "ceremony "The combination of the Concept of Benevolence. Confucius, it is the social ethical relations as the core content constitutes According to - benevolence. Confucian thought, the concept of the "rights" of man as man, the ideal personality Approach "Ren and Li combined. Specific said to Confucius Contingency thought from the grasp of the individual human relationships to understand.

Xiaodi also by the benevolence of the! "<< (Learn >>) Filial personal benevolence fundamental.

Confucius, "filial piety" is the essential difference between man and animal. Now is filial piety, all that can raise disrespect, what is the difference? "(<< >> Politicians. Different from animals is that" filial piety " "filial piety" is not only "support", but also because the "King", "King" on the requirements of the specification of the "ceremony". ", Master Ye language Confucius said: 'I party straight bow, his father throw into confusion the sheep, and the certificate of the child 'Confucius' my party straight different from the parent to the child hidden implicit sub-father, in which straight.' ("the << Zilu >> Confucius seems, filial piety and Forgiveness conflict or contradiction, on filial piety.

Sons relative to cover up to conceal the truth, though not honest, but in line with the kiss principle, it is the "right" means.

The relationship between the monarch and his subjects, the principles of Confucius is called venerating the emperor, "Jun envoys to the ceremony, Chen Shijun allegiance to Confucius oppose blind loyalty, such as:" ministers to the Road Shijun, not the ending ". < <(the advanced >>) he main Zhang Junchen relationship processing to make different choices, according to objective conditions, weighing the pros and cons against unnecessary sacrifice.

<< (Eight yi >>) Mencius evaluation Confucius: "can speed and speed can be long and long, and may at any and any, Confucius." (Mencius Wanzhang under >>) Confucius appears that the monarch if it is wise ruler can not serve without exception reflects the elasticity of Confucius in the stock of the situation when.

Friend of Confucian human relations more equal an ethical relationship. "Cross with a friend, will keep its promise" << (learn >>) "A man without a letter, unknown also." Confucius advocated a friend of process to comply with the principle of credit, but trustworthy is not, regardless of the merits, but the basis of "justice". mechanically follow "Promises must be kept and action must be resolute" Confucius, the << (Zilu >>), but "obstinate obstinate contingent villain Kazuya."

Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

(Ibid. to us today, it seems, can do it stands by its word, action must be the people, which is very valuable, why Confucius also said that such a person is a villain like? Because people just blindly practice own promise, does not really know how to discern non. "Advice and goodness Road, not the only, since no disgrace Yan". << (Yan Yuan >>) even if it is the best friend, my well-intentioned advice should be moderate, otherwise will lead to resentment and disgrace. This is not only a question of degree, but also a question of the right, how to grasp to determine the degree, must also be contingent to solve.

Sub must: do not purport to be not Required, not solid, not me. (<< Zaihan >> In other words, in the treatment of various human relationships, Confucius put an end to four problems: do not speculate, do not no work, not rigidly stick stubbornly, not arbitrary. Confucius as the contingency leads to the highest realm of the personal qualities - the doctrine of necessary way for the cultivation and development of modern people's individual all sobering.

Week In the second generation, Yuyu Hu Bunya I from the week. "Confucius maintenance tradition has not solidified the tradition. Confucius said:" Let's for a change, As for Lu Lu a change, As for Road. ("<< Yong> > Zi Zhang asked: "X. being known?" Confucius said: "Yin Speaking at the profit and loss being known, Zhou Yin Li, the profit and loss shows also, the following week by, although BES being known." Confucius on the traditional basis in reality according to their own profit and loss innovations, to changes his mind and the formation of a the emerging unified cultural and political landscape. "principle and flexibility combined" advocated by Confucius contingency thinking and Marxism "theory practice "point of view with the same purpose. advocated in our party and state leaders of" seeking truth from facts, emancipate the mind, with the times, "the ideological line, and a series of law of the land is typical of Marxism in China example: Deng Xiaoping, according to Marxist theory of social development, combined with China's specific national conditions, proposed the construction of the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics, no doubt is a wonderful use of contingency thinking in the modern.

The country's economic construction and development can not be separated from the talent. Confucius believed should "Dade not more than idle, druid access can also" (sub >>) In other words, a person in virtue of human nature and large maintained good talent in appointments, do not go beyond the moral boundaries some of the problems of the small aspect of daily life will be nothing serious. evaluation of the merits and demerits of talent, Confucius, Guan Zhong had criticized Confucius said: "Guan Zhong's is small indeed!" << (eight yi ") but on in Guan Zhong whether Rende problem, Confucius should see his assistant JiHuanGong create great achievements, rather than demanding perfection. Confucius logical in accord with human nature provides us with the employment guidelines and evaluation criteria, including the use of "rights" extremely cause.

The well-known scholars in China, the Mr. Sun Miantao raised employment standards "De re mainstream, before a technology, which is essentially the modern version of the Confucius employing standard.

Confucius as a great educator in the history of our country, according to legend, three thousand disciples, where "70 body through six arts by two Confucius said:" No Child Left Behind ("<< Duke Ling of Wei >> Confucius disciples door first, occupations and geographical distinction, everyone he taught. Meng Yi asked filial piety, Confucius said: "Nothing against.

Mengbo Wu asked filial piety, Confucius said: "parents only its disease in fear." Sub-tour asked filial piety, Confucius said: "today's filial piety, that can raise As for pleasures, able to raise; disrespect, what is the difference." Sub- Xia asked filial piety, Confucius said: "difficult to color, something his disciples serving his labor, Wine and Food, is was thought filial almost? (" << Politicians >> For four of the questions, Confucius were given different answers. Confucius, the object of education, educational content and methods of education, ways must avoid follow a fixed pattern, so individualized, flexible contingency. Confucius's educational philosophy and methods of modern education reform in China is still regarded as the best example.

The purpose of the "rights" of Confucius to maintenance Zhou, depending on the situation and make the appropriate change. "Right" is in fact a concrete analysis of the particularity of contradiction, the particularity of contradiction and include the main aspects of the major contradictions and contradictions two kinds of situations. "rights" also means judge contradictory aspects, so as to grasp the essence of things and mainstream, this can be reflected from the front of Confucius Guan Zhong can say, "rights" as a manifestation of a methodology value in a dilemma and more difficult to value conflicts based on Renyi standard priority judge to weigh the good and evil fortune or misfortune, the stakes, the severity and urgency of gains and losses, to determine whether the right line. Identify with actual consistent principles, methods, and strategies from the actual situation, rather than real life, the principle to be applied mechanically. Confucian by the right is knowable, is both a concern universality and particularity, and ethical principled and grasp the flexibility of modern minds, to adhere to the correct direction of development and principles in advance with the times, to ideas, innovation to achieve personal health and social harmony development.


[1] ARTS AND on Confucius and "the right" [J]. Liaoning Normal University, 2001 (5).

[2] Yang Bojun. Analects Annotation [M] Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 2008.

[3] Zhu Xi's Four Books Zhangju Annotations [M] Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 1983.

Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

Ideological Philosophy Papers