On I and binary dialectical thinking

[Abstract] I << moral up and down by the >> book where five thousand statements were made, full of simple dialectical thinking I [1], such as "size", "whether or not", "fortune", and "equally important," "Down", "difficulty", "interested", "the strength of all its true spirit and essence of where I" have "and" no "this idea of" dualism "[ 2] characteristics. Although some people will say, this is to take the routine of Western philosophy to fetter the charm of ancient thought, would cause confusion in the philosophy, but I think from a unique perspective to think, to discover that our ancestors left us thinking heritage for future generations, itself a remarkable achievement.

[Keywords:]: dualism inaction is born, whether with students


[Body]
I handed down writings << morality by "two very important concepts, one called" The Road "Second," no ", this is the first time in the history of Chinese philosophy, Zhuangzi Zhuangzi • world "philosophy of evaluation I said:" often built with no, the Lord of Ether-a table to moisten weak Humility, emptiness does not ruin things for the real "[3], Zhuangzi also used "too" ("Road" To sum up the philosophy of Lao Tzu. Therefore, in order to really understand the philosophy of Lao Tzu, from these two start because of the "Road" I philosophy of the soul, in order to to discuss the "no" and the "not open around the" Road ", so start from Lao Tzu's" Tao ".

What is the "Road"?

I did not give an exact definition on the Road ", but" unknown "," Park "," no sign "," invisible ", and" like-like "," things like "word generation Road is a "hybrid" thing, is congenitally born with the words of Lao Tzu, is "independent do not change, instead of weeks with the Scots, mother for the world" Tao Te Ching (<< >> twentieth Chapter 115). I there, "Tao" specific law of the three meanings - World origin, existence and development of things. [4] Later, Wang Bi moral to I << >> do note that:
"So-called Road - invisible nameless things were ... listen to is not the availability of news, as not Ke Deer Chang, the body of the availability of know the taste of the availability of taste." [5] "Road" no shape, no name, it exists as a fundamental of all things, so nothing unreasonable, nothing is to.

What is a "no"?

I << Te Ching, a total of 80 chapter, which refers to "no" up Sishi Zhang as much, "explained in" Ci Hai >>: refers to things does not exist, invisible, unknown , nothingness justice. [6] I, where "no" is a metaphysical emptiness, is illusory.

What is it?

<< Shuo Wen Jie Zi >> "" interpreted as: not there that this is improper and known extension therefore abandoned where there is known, where the Spring and Autumn book by both the original meaning of the word. [7] "a" in "Ci Hai >> explanation: refers to the existence of things, tangible, well-known, indeed, such as justice. [8] I where" refers to a physical real real.

I directly said: "all things are born, not born." (Sishi Zhang) its meaning is to say, "yes" is the origin of the heavens and the earth, "no" is "the origin of , "is the source of origin, is to produce a" spirit of the primitive. Mr. Ren Jiyu << I unravel read >> a book's foreword, said, "no" is "Road" in its "Road" is "no". [9] both are metaphysical emptiness, is illusory. "no" is often used to refer to the highest body of the "Road" features, which is the << moral by >> most common usage. [10], such as moral << by >> of 12 chapters, said: "Road, often nameless, Park, small, world Mo Yoshiomi 37 Zhang said:" The road often doing nothing, and everything.

In general, the history of Western philosophy, "the highest principle, and" no "is always seen as second-class, derived, negative (negative," "higher than" no " better than "no" [11]. I << Te Ching "," yes "and" no "relationship is not fixed, << Dao De Jing Zhang >> (" There are know that America is the US-Sri Lanka evil have known good as good, Sri Lanka poor already. Therefore, whether with students, difficulty complementary to each other, the length compared to the compete phase tilting Sound, before and after hand in hand. "clearly stated whether the students, "yes" and "no" against each other and students, both against each other, they complement each other. << Tao Te Ching, in the >> Chapter 40 ("all things are born, not born. make something from nothing, [12], all things are generated from a "yes" and "there" from "None". [13] This coincided with the Western philosophy Chong concept of suppression without On the contrary. From this point can also be seen << Te Ching >> only 5,000 statements were made, but not the power of the moment, I "<<" no "relationship before and after the change can also expose" I night would make moral by >> the legend.

In the discussion on the "yes" and "non-specific relationship, many scholars have confused I << Te Ching Chapter 40 of the >> second half of" something from nothing "view, most of them think that this contradictory views with the first chapter of "whether or not students", said Mr. Chen Ku-: now this was born, "said, obviously Chapter 1," unknown heaven and earth, the mother of the famous things not correspond to Chapter 1, "", "" yes "with synonyms" alleged Road. [14] but we should see people's thoughts in the continuous development of change, we should use the development of look upon the idea of ​​the I can not stay in a rut, but can not beaten track.

Therefore, in this will be "no" and "a" binary dialectical relationship to be discussed in detail, and explain the specific differences with Western philosophy, the desire presents a more clear I thinking of the essence.

"Specific relationship can be divided into two phases, the first stage is" whether or not students "stage, second stage is" something from nothing "stage." Yes "and" no " subtle changes in the relationship, and reflects not only I thought changing, but also implies the I to the world (that is, I call heaven and earth or natural rational understanding.

(A first stage - whether with students

"Whether or not students" found in I << moral >> Chapter II ("the world know that beauty Gomez evil have known good as good, poor Sri Lanka has. Therefore, whether with students, difficulty complementary to each other, the length of more, high and phase tilting Sound phase and before and after hand in hand. "as the subsequent few relationships," and "no" against each other, Aioi go hand in hand, generated and conflicting Health can generate none, "no" can also produce "two equal status, but must be noted that two other generated should be on the same level of the cyclical process.

I << moral by the second sentence of the first chapter of the >> opening Zeyue:

Unknown world of the beginning of the famous mother of all things. "
"None" is at the beginning of heaven and earth, the same concept as the "Road" is one of the things generated or existence of the root. Agree here "Heaven and Earth" and "all things" should be a different word, refer to heaven and earth creatures of all things. However, what is the mother? << Shuo Wen Jie Zi >> on the interpretation of the "mother" interpretation of the text fill: >> according to << Book of Rites, its meaning prohibit its Yanyue to the mother but also the ancient universal-free , poetry are free persons, wedding, and so dedicated mother of disobedience, without the classical mother is a classical ceremony for the Jinwen ceremony for the mother, where the mother of the case are from the mother. [15] I << Te Ching ">> Chapter 25 things hybrid, the first heaven and earth born silence Xi Liao Xi, independence does not change, week OK but not the Scots, as the world mother" I "Road", explains Mother, Shang Gong Zhang Note: "Mother, this is also." [16] I << moral by >> Chapter 52, "the world beginning that the world is the mother acquired his mother, knows his own child; both know the sub-complex to keep his mother, no body will not be threatened. "Wei dynasty Wang Bi note, saying:" Mother, this is also sub at the end also have to know at the end, give up-by the end. "[17] thus, the "before" and "mother" are the fundamental origin of the meaning of "no" and "" are to produce the origin of the heavens and the earth.

I << Te Ching >> eleventh chapter, said: "Gems of thought when it is no use of the device. The chisel households Shuyou think that room, its room with it is the thought that Lee, no thought to use
Said Wei dynasty Wang Bi Note: The reason why IDS, all depends on no longer use it as [18], according to Wang Bi, this one is the emphasis on "no" fundamental role, but here also implies " a premise. Mr. Chen Guying said here the level of the phenomenal world to talk about whether the interdependence to be the relationship between the beginning of the unknown world, the famous mother of all things is to talk about the ontological level from the Road whether the Aioi complementary relationship. [19] "" "" profit "is to rely on the" no ", and" no "role play, have to rely on" convenience both depend on each other, the Aioi complementary relationship.

All in all, at this stage, "None" and "" are dualistic relationship between the "yes" and "no" to the formation of complementary relationship. "Whether students" from the opposite and complementary view, indirect showing the overall concept of the I and Harmony. [20]
Below, we will enter a "born" at this stage, further discussion of the "yes" and "no" relationship.

(Phase II - was born without

I << moral by >> the second half of the local say:

"All things are born, not born." (Sishi Zhang
Wang Bi note, saying: "Tianxiazhiwu, tailor living of the beginning of a non-oriented, For all anti-free also. [21] heavens and the earth are the tangible things started. tangible things the existence of heaven and earth, and perceived by virtue of and carrier (such as the human body is a tangible thing, belonging to the "" category), and tangible things from the invisible things out. intangibles is the essence of the purpose and significance of the presence of visible, tangible things origin (such as the soul is the invisible things, are areas of "no"). soul to rely on the body, however, the body has a soul would not be changed meaningful to borrow Aristotle's point of view, the situation with the content (the material compared to the situation is even more important, the form is to determine certain things have become the basis of this things. [22] tangible things that content (material, invisible material that form, no content (material) form, as the soul of the body, nothing to rely on forms of content (material such as a river without water, without trees, loss of the existence of the basis.

"Is the origin of the heavens and the earth," "" "origin," None "is the source of origin, give rise to" the spirit of originality, the myriad forms of existence as a tangible thing I thought according to Thus, at this stage, "no" is higher than the "a", "No" has become the highest principle. References << Dictionary of Philosophy >> say, I think, "(name "than" ("to better reflect the nature of the" Road ". [23]
"None" as the most fundamental areas of Laozi, the most obvious is that I greatly respected "inaction" At this stage I the idea is to Chong suppressing some (and Western Philosophy Chong have suppression of the opposite sense, and I on the "inaction" and "aggressive" attitude can glimpse evident.

Next, we turn to the discussion on I "Inaction" shown at this stage I from the side to see "the non-suppression" thinking more in-depth explanation.

What is "inaction"? Before talking about "inaction", the first to talk about "as".
"As the word explained as follows: >> << Shuo Wen Jie Zi also females, extension therefore abandoned where the change said as. [24] is to say, "is to cause things change behavior. Mr. Ren Jiyu said," has a "do not have" actual existence ", known as the" no "is not empty, In conclusion Wan characteristics. [25] Thus, "no" is not negative the existence of Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching >> "None" not only has the function of everyday life, but also the guidance of political life and interpersonal principle.

"Inaction" << Cihai >> explanation is this: I think the root of everything in the universe is the "Road" and "Road" is "inaction" and "natural" to emulate "Road" shall also be Inaction "mainly to adapt to natural changes. I" inaction "is a departure from the" Tao ", and thus its Confucius" inaction and rule. "different men. [26] shows that I" inaction "is in line with "Tao" to adapt to natural changes.

In my opinion, I "inaction" refers not to do nothing, but to not recklessly, do not misbehave. Not only to adapt to natural changes, but also the premise of compliance with the law of development of things, understanding of the law, the use of the law, for to enhance human well-being of things make a difference. In other words, "doing nothing" is not nothing as it is to have as rulers as beyond the rules of development, in general, or from "Road" starting "Road" on the basis of a difference.

I said by >> << moral:

Inaction, no where he died. "(Chapter
If human behavior is motivated by the "inaction", there is no governance not only the ruler in accordance with the laws of nature to do something in order to control the world that is advocated "inaction" [27], is to make in accordance with own regulations and the development of it in the Road natural state, is not improper interference. things biochemical Road in accordance with certain rules in the show itself, to view itself, but all things eventually be reverted to the Promise ". [28] I teach we should be doing nothing in a natural-based rather than indulging. Therefore, I << moral said by the thirty-eighth chapter: "on Germany inaction without thought, under the German worth and thought." owns " on Germany ", the noble thoughts (sage, often" inaction "is nothing to performance, not for performance and performance

Again, he said:

Road often inaction, and everything. "(Ch. 37.

Road often is "inaction", it is always in harmony with nature, the heavens and the earth are all generated by the "is" inaction "to everything, in order to give birth to the heavens and the earth not only conform to the natural, the Emptiness tranquil, Road to Heaven is so , and the personnel is also true. [29] Therefore, I say:
"Therefore, saint cloud, I am doing nothing while people since, I'm so calm, but the people of themselves, my good people of themselves rich, I desire the people from the Park." (Chapter 17
Note Wei dynasty Wang Bi said, these four (the "inaction" "quiet," "nothing" "no desire", Sung to the interest rate at the end [30].
Only to the "inaction", the "rulers" to do "inaction", people can get enlightenment. I recommend the rulers to heed their opinions can not be selfish and abandon the public expense.

"The wise are doing nothing, hence there is no failure, no enforcement, so no loss." (Chapter 64
In this "inaction" simultaneously with the "executive" and Lao Sze-kwong that contains the meaning of "inaction" broader and should include "executive" in the conscious mind's inaction was nothing executive, want nothing . [31] in order to become a saint, it is necessary by constantly correcting itself, lead by example, "are already things in themselves" to do so, though the initiative to obtain the world, the world is Mo can belong, and the world will be self-attributed to Inaction by.

All in all, from the philosophical categories of "inaction", the more clearly peep I respected at this stage, "no" the supreme principle of this philosophy.

At this stage I in the philosophy of "no" and the "yes" "no" above "," "from" None "," "up to the Lao Tzu up to the origin of "inaction" has also become rulers, including all of the rules of conduct and do things the specification. If, from the first stage, "None" with "slight similarity, such as Fudan University's Niezhong Qing Road is a "no" "unity, with both at a philosophical level, that is, from the primitive of the universe, the body of the metaphysical level interpretation of" Road ", from another perspective," None " that is "yes"; "There is no" both "differences with that," [32] In this second stage, "None" and "there" is fundamentally different Nie teacher's approach is too extreme, undesirable also.

[Conclusion]

In summary, can be seen from the "yes" and "no" relationship between the philosophy of the I is not static, but as time goes on constantly developing in the first stage ("whether or not students "," "and" no "relationship of equality," and "no" the formation of each other, complement each other in the second stage ("something from nothing", "" subordinate, rooted in no "," "generated from" None "," no "better" than "higher than" yes ", which coincided with the Western philosophical tradition Chong suppression without Contrary to popular belief.

"Yes" and "no" relationship between the change and development tells us that: use a developmental perspective to look at the philosophy of Lao Tzu, the only way, we can be perfectly normal paths paved road I constantly move forward.


References

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1 I ((of Wei Wangbi (Note building strong (school release << I morality by Note >> [M].
First edition. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, January 2011
②. Ren Jiyu. << I unravel reading >> [M] first edition, Beijing: Beijing Library Press, December 2006
③. Louth light. New first edition of the History of Chinese Philosophy >> [M]. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, 2005 in October
④ The (Song Fan Ying Yuan (), Huang Shuhui (school << I moral Ancient Annotations >> [M].

First edition, Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, March 2010

⑤. Zhang Shiying. Introduction to Philosophy >> (revised edition [M]. The second edition, Beijing: Peking University Press, June 2008
⑥ The. (The U.S. SEStumpf J.Fieser, (with Peter macro, Deng Xiaomang (translation << History of Western Philosophy - From Socrates to Sartre and its after >> (revised eighth edition [first edition. Beijing: World Publishing Company, February 2009 Share Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
⑦. << Cihai >> [M] in 1979, Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House, 1979
⑧. Xushen (and essays) << Shuo Wen Jie Zi Duan (Note) >> [M] first edition, Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing, October 1981
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(11) Zhuangzi (Fang Yong (Note the translation of the << the Zhuangzi >> [M]. First edition. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, June 2010

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1 Ren Jiyu. I the simple dialectic thinking >> [J]. << Teaching and Research, 1962 2
②. Teng complex. >> << Huang-Lao philosophy transformation and development of the "Tao" I [J]. << Philosophy >> 9, 1986
③. Zhao Wenjuan I philosophy of "no" "[J]. << Search", 2005 2
④. Chen Ku-ying. << I the presence or absence of movement and body concept >> [J]. << Central China Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences)
2005 6
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Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1999.
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⑦. Hu Qian. "Inaction" is not "not" - as I "inaction" of the defense of ideas >> [J]. << Legal system and society 7, 2007
⑧. Zhaoyan Ting, << Heaven inaction humanitarian inaction "[J]. >> << COMMITTEE OF THE CPC of 2009, two
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Humanities magazine >> 3, 2008


⑩. Niezhong Qing,. Debate was born without ">> [J]. << Seeking Journal >> 6, 2003
[1] Mr. Ren Jiyu simple dialectic thinking >> text << I said, I the philosophy is idealism or materialism, the philosophical community have different views, As for the philosophy of Lao Tzu, the dialectics of thinking, then there is no controversy. I simple dialectic thinking is late Spring and Autumn class contradictions in philosophical thinking deeply reflect the system to reveal the things in the world is not isolated, but interdependent.

[2] the so-called "dualism" entails the existence of two separate, incommensurable entities, such as mind and body, the concept of the spiritual world and the visible material world, or between good and evil forces opposed to monism and pluralism. (see << history of Western philosophy - from Socrates to Sartre and its after >> (revised eighth edition of the 457 "dualism, the concept is also a recent history of Western philosophy, the most typical French philosopher Rene Descartes, "thinking of extension.

[3] See the Sun through the sea (Annotation) << the Zhuangzi >> a book 377

[4] See Teng complex with the Huang-Lao philosophy of transformation and development of "Tao" I >>, in his view, the origin of the world level, "Road" means the beginning of the material world, of all things produce roots and primordial level view of the world's existence, "Road" is the world's existence itself, the level of the law of development of things, I "Road" means the internal order of the world biochemical and inevitable contact.

[5] See written by Wei dynasty Wang Bi << I moral Note >> 202 of the book. I in the Tao Te Ching >> fourteenth chapter, said: "as
But not the fine-sounding name Yi, listen to well-known saying Xi, stroke shall Dubbed the micro. These three can not be caused scold, it is mixed for one. "

[6] seen in the Shanghai Dictionary Publishing House << Cihai 1979 315

[7] seen in the Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing (the Han Xushen essays (Qing Duan Note << Shuo Wen Jie Zi >> October 1981 the first edition of 146

[8] found in the Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House published << Cihai 1979 version of 315

[9] << I found in Mr. Ren Jiyu unravel read >> a book foreword 6

[10] << I found in Beijing Normal University, School of Philosophy and Sociology Zhao Wenjuan philosophy of "no" >>

[11] found in the book of Mr. Zhang Shiying << >> 95 101 Introduction to Philosophy
>> << I morality by injection [12] in his book (p. 113, Wang Bi Wei dynasty Note said: Tianxiazhiwu, begin living. The
The beginning of a non-oriented. For full, anti-free also.

[13] Song Chaofan Ancient Annotations >> << I moral (73-74 sentence be interpreted as "all things are born

Shape, and tangible was born invisible. Avenue invisible, moving the biological ...... except to know that things are born, while I do not know is born, neglect review
Fundamental changes in Eph-hole, how can virtual pass derived old's living so long zai? "At this point, Mr. Fan Yingyuan" "" no "truth

Solution of the tangible and intangible, "Boulevard" is invisible, only familiar with the I "born" in order to understand the root of the Road

The lies, ripped through the changes in all things.
[14] from the Chen Ku-ying Mr. << Guodian Bamboo Slips of this the I Shangren and keep thinking >> in a text is worth mentioning is the author of this article not intended to deny previous view, but raised from another angle to think.

[15] Shuo Wen Jie Zi from << >> 626

[16] from << I moral Shang Gong Zhang Ju >> body of the second page.
[17] See I ((Wei Wangbi (Note building strong (school release << I moral Note >> [M]. First edition, Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, January 2011, page 143. Wang Bi The contents of the "house", building strong, Mr. university release said: "homes" "homes, abandoned also.

[18] See I () (Weiwang Bi (Note building strong (school release << I moral Note >> [M]. First edition, Beijing:

Chinese bookstores in January 2011, 29


[19] from Mr. Chen Guying << I in the presence or absence of movement and body concept >>
[20] Ibid.
[21] See I ((Wei Wangbi (Note building strong (school release the first edition of the I moral Note >> [M]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, January 2011, 113
[22] (U.S. SEStumpf, J.Fieser (Peter macro Deng Xiaomang (translated as "Western history of philosophy - from Socrates to Sartre >> (revised eighth edition [M] of the first edition. Beijing: World Publishing Company, February 2009, 73
[23] found in Feng Qi editor << Dictionary of Philosophy >> 42.
[24] See Xu Shen (essays) Duan (Note) "Shuo Wen Jie Zi >> [M] first edition, Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1981, in October
419
[25] found in Mr. Ren Jiyu << milestone of the history of Chinese philosophy - I of the "no" >>

[26] found in section 113 of << Cihai >>

[27] found in the Wuhan University School of Philosophy Hu Qian << "inaction" is not "not" - as I "inaction" defense of the ideas of "

[28] found in the the Guanghui book << "Doing Nothing" How likely? - I Thought of Doing Nothing new >>

[29] found in Zhao Yanting book << Heaven inaction humanitarian inaction >>

[30] See I ((Wei Wangbi (Note building strong (the first edition of the school release << I moral Note >> [M], Beijing: Zhonghua, January 2011, 154
[31] seen in the Mr. Louth light, "New History of Chinese Philosophy >> (vol. 179
[32] in the Niezhong Qing written << "something from nothing" >> Share Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

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