Abstract: Zhu Xi emphasis on people's livelihood, the people at court, bureaucrats, landlords squeezing Zhu offered is Jun, Governance Officer, An Min ideological objective to promote the development of the Chinese People thought at the same time, Zhu Xi's thought of the people on the Zhu Xi, who, especially of Fujian Zhu Xi, who had a profound influence, they proposed a series of reform measures, the voices of the people and the reality of social problems and the lower trace of respite to get people under the yoke of the feudal society.
The Keywords: Zhu Xi; Zhuism; thought of the people
Abstract: ZhuXi emphasized on the peoples \ 'livelihood. As to the oppression from the royals, the bureaucrats, andthe landlords at that time, ZhuXi proposed the thought that could constraint the king, governance the officials andstable people, which objectivelypromoted the developmentofChinese people- oriented though.t Meanwhile, ithad adeep influence on Zhu Zis \ 'scholar, especially to thosewho lived in Fujian Province. They put forward a series of re-formsmeasures andmade the lower-class people live betterunder the feudal society.
Keywords:: ZhuX; i Zhu Zis \ 'scholar; people-oriented thought
Most of the time in the life of Zhu Xi (1130-1200) are engaged in educational work, Zhu Xi's thought of the people the of its wake Chucians successor have broad impact, Zhu Xi, who become the spokesperson of the livelihood of the people thought.
A positive monarch as governance, the people of your Monarch
Zhu Xi lifetime and lower people a long time to spend together, he has a deep understanding of and sympathy for ordinary "little people", his master Zhang Guojun love to raise people's strength, kept the shirt people reduce their exploitation, in order to achieve the force gather in harvest Welfare purposes. In order to achieve true for the governance of the body, Zhu Xi Confucian Jun Germany developed into a limited monarch significance Jun said, arbitrary dictatorship against the monarch, he told Zhao proposed expansion emperor, to prevent the monarch dogmatic advocate: "and where the orders of the Chi Zhang, talent of retreat, the First Committee of the twenty-three minister repeated trials, do not many have suggested has been to see, as appropriate, to the verdict, outs and line batch aimed Nobuyuki, not to be played the complex but did not make the chancery Province purposes, the first sent after Province trial complex, improperly limit line will pay to the date of the split as more suspect, Chao Minister payment or rejection officer the night the Korean Negotiable on each other on the difficult choosing the good, said the system provisional decision. " but so offended the emperor lost the qualifications to do" imperial division.
That the national people-oriented, boat people and established the survival of the country, the severity of the monarch status and consolidate it or not, are decided by the people of Zhu Xi Zhu offered: "The ruler is that the political people. " in Four Books << Annotations >> explained:" Venturi people, the peoples of the field, to humble also. obtaining the heart, the world is normalized. emperor to honor also derives its heart, but princes ears, China for heavy also. " Chronicles of Zhu Xi, inherit and carry forward the thought of Zhu Xi is Jun Zhongmin complete the unpaired manuscript for Zhu Xi Cai Shen, legalistic Zheng Jun philosophy of Zhu Xi Cai Shen Zizhong the inks, No. Jiufeng, he is the most accomplished of Zhu Xi disciples, he sympathized with people's lives, and hope that the monarch can charity benefit people's livelihood. >> << book by the set pass sequence, he wrote: "Two to Dili three kings of the root of the problem on the road, the Two Emperors Three Kings of the Road this in mind, obtaining the heart Norimichi governance solid Ke Deer words carry. whichever? Seiichi executive, Yao and Shun-phase grant the miscellaneous and also; Jianzhong built supplier Tang Zhouwu According to legend, the Heart also said Germany, said Ren, said King, said Cheng, the statements were made, although special reason is a nothing more than so wonderful to understand this heart day As for the words, then the words heart from out words China, honor its heart are run facilities; Rites and Music, the heart of the hair also; judgments thing, the heart of the book; house Qi governance and world level, the heart of the push also; heart of Germany, Sheng carry almost? " in here Cai Shen reached a monarch of the people," obtaining the heart "is" the world is flat "fundamental thesis.
Zhu Xi, who really Dexiu (1178-1235) the word real husband No. Xishan, he is Zhu Xi Sishudizai, long-term students taught by Zhu Xi Zhan body benevolence. Really Dexiu hope monarch Darren to achieve Yao Shun Rende, the realm Desire He said: "And on the bit higher the Department of the joys and sorrows of the people by the greater fat a cruel heart, Simin established was the poison of victimized, hair a break up grams of heart Simin Li soo stripping spreading to other places. The ...... and have For Habitat homes is undue concern for the people, has desire Fung Choi, China's fiscal improper Jun Gu Yue: have behaved, do not impose on others.
Its name, saying I am afraid the holy doors. Strong Mian line can cause benevolent love of education can not be slow, especially when Simin haggard, stroke.  true Germany show to justice in the name of and elucidates Shiren Zheng promote The livelihood of the people thought that the monarch with the public and discuss national affairs, reward and punishment, so that government of the people food and clothing, he << memorials >> comes to the world of things non-one of the private HE Xi and all the other stars. The ... court of in the world, when heaven and earth in all things, the cultivation overturning, paid unintentional, can make every cent selfish in the meantime, holy. " Zhang Yue, Ming Zhu Xi, who stressed that the monarch must obey the people, and take advantage of the catastrophe to warn the emperor, in order to achieve positive your thoughts, the purpose of promoting people's livelihood, he said the "emperors moves when Shun God concept of providence experience of people's minds. illegal ....... His Majesty why bother Zhongzhi to whisk providence almost? ...... emperor Kershaw almost, heaven and earth to it certainly Catastrophist to contingent told.
Not Shutoku to back their anger row and the death of the men. Now fierce shortage relative still the thieves flooded earthquake in the next, on a Longdou in its Yijing quit His Majesty by Zhiyi. " Li Guangdi early Qing the master of Chucians Li Guangdi think the support of the people to be feared, as a monarch to be concerned about the poor people, the only popular resentment back to Destiny solid rule the world, he said: "The poor victims than widowed, help is not scarcity but uneven distribution also ....... world-chiao Thailand, the world cross is governance. heaven and earth is not General occlusion made winter carry, the width of the feelings of the monarch and his subjects absolutely world without states carry. " Li Guangdi encourages States to China as the foundation of a country thought deep deep influence of Emperor Kangxi of the rule of Western Ontario.
, Correctional greedy people, incorruptible diligent
Zhu Xi Yumin wealthy and the biggest obstacle is from the despotic landlord collusion with corrupt officials, advocates to extort money corrupt officials to crack down on nuisance, judges should do a clean automorphic.
Zhu Xi taught disciples also reveal the official to civil for thought: "Shouling is civil for the second is the military and political, most people do not bother." , the so-called " civil "," people-oriented ", to act for the people wholeheartedly. Zhu Xi concerned about the livelihood of the people, opposition officials greedy evil, Yonekura wall Tongan official poem as he and the officials' Creed:" metric selfless the catholic Cunxin greed proud of what poor? see if teaching I Zhuang Zhou, sectional to pay an empty bucket in addition to balance. " the Chunxi years, Zhu Xi Ren the eastern Zhejiang Changping tea salt official, his six impeach Taizhou corrupt Tang Zhongyou plead for the people, has been praised by local people.
Zhu Xi also strict requirements Zhu descendants if politics must be people-oriented, non-Bribery Danian Village in Wuyishan Star towns, more than 20 families still living, they are lineal descendants of Zhu Xi, the village the Zhuzi Ancestral Hall, Wall on still retain the ban bribe monument left by the Qianlong period, the inscription states Zhushi the descendants officer if there official attitude to influence generation after generation of Zhu Xi, who Bribery behavior after death shall not enter into the of Zhu Jiazu grave. Zhu Xi.
The yellow dry (1152-1221), Zhu Xi, one of the four disciples, he revealed in Jiaxing, Zhejiang the Shihmen wine library any the Kuli the profiteers public made bootlegger; Jiading five yellow dry, memorialized discovered in Jiangxi Xingan magistrate any county clerks collusion civilian post Tian as Guantian sell, "occasioned twelve hundred hundred stone post fields, once the best change for Tamida ho."  Zhu Xi, who really Dexiu attaches great importance to the people's livelihood proposed official to lead by example, to pass the lower levels, he said: "a willing and colleagues four beam Zimian, people go to their ten victims.
What four things, "said the law has to Ren Lian, Fumin, deliberately in public hand-thing to Peregrine also.
What ten victims? Said Judge injustice flooded extension prisoners Department of atrocious torture flooding chasing call, luring divisions pry to overlapping reminders tax, corrective penalty to take fiscal longitudinal Officials countryside, cheap buy also. " really Dexiu as local officials can think of these rare valuable.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
Really Dexiu that the official deliberately to, he said: "China anchoret Pro Guards reason to violate the law of the land, almost at peace of mind? The Thunder spirits of punish Jinke Yu strip this ban, its almost negligible? Therefore willing to colleagues to public The heart held justice not confused in the affair, not flexible in private please, perhaps that is really regrettable straight appropriate without injustice suppression uneven sigh. " Li Guangdi official results of significant financial period, no private Ye, swayed not in cahoots with corrupt officials, he had impeachment administrative commissioner's Zhang Lin, Yunnan assumptions edict, traders vend Private Salt, the silver one hundred two of more than 600,000, results of the court Zhang Lin, On the chopping Li Guangdi I was able incorruptible caring well received by the local people love, people lined the streets to bid farewell to the outgoing Quanzhou. Kangxi once said: Li Guangdi himself Zhili governor since annual rain smooth transfer, bumper harvest, officials soldiers and the people are all convinced. " Third, the provincial Fu Xu Min, concern for people suffering One, Zhu Xi advocated thin to take on China. Southern Song Dynasty was a period exactions of the late feudal society in China, Zhu Xi "rich people" Jun Fu ", put forward a series of remedial ideas and measures for all the disadvantages of the ruling class in the tax aspects of.
Zhu Xi Ying Zhao sealed things << Boxer >> proposition: "in the nation's large great at Xumin; Xumin of reality Province Fu; Province, Fu really in the military; Ruofu running the army Province Fu thought Xumin This, in Mrs. Jun is their intention to stand Gangji just carry on. " Shaoxing 23 years (1153), Zhu Xi went on the the Tong'an main book any, he is on the court were attacked by the total system QIAOQUHAODUO he said via the total braking money is "the people of improper input official by improper was the system of free arts, taken from nameless."  Zhu Xi know Nankang Army arrival will be announced in the first annunciation a wide financial resources of the people, customs, Nathan, the Tobe Saxophone three policy outline, people Shiren Zheng, in addition to the Fan tax to solve the people's strength day storm a serious social problem in the first place, and cut taxes for Xingzi County has eight letter.
Secondly, Zhu Xi emphasis on disaster relief Disadvantaged in case of famine times, and Zhu Xi advocate ho home common surname meters deposit shirt and aid to the tenant, so that poor households did not flow to shift the blight of hunger. Xiaozong roads for three years (1167) autumn , Sung flood, the Zhu Xi Feng House Xi visited the disaster area, disaster relief through a variety of ways to actively famine, but also on the part of bureaucrats relief dissatisfied with the weak, he said: "Today, meat eaters, indifference does not intend to China, straight is difficult to Figure thing. " he first Garners by state and local governments to come forward in lean, Boli lend to the hungry, and from loan-sharking and other exploits.
Chun Xi 2009 (1182), the lower reaches of the Yangtze River severe drought, the 53-year-old Zhu Xi Ren the Zhedong Changping so braved scorching heat to her mission to the disaster, Zhu Xi, Zhu Xi despite fatigue, night drafting << outs Taizhou Free the Nadine silk Tax >> five Road memorial to the disaster and the suffering of the people in Taizhou truthfully to the Emperor made a report, I urge the court to reduce the burden of Taizhou People, to these compassionate memorial eventually impress the Xiaozong of the emperor agreed to the requirements of the the Zhu Xi memorial exempt Taizhou taxes.
Zhu Xi know Nankang Army disaster relief efforts, to put the tax and dial meters charge rations in relief like >> << begging on the court, and ultimately make the court more in the Nankang seized Fangmiao meters eighth, a total of seven thousand 34,000 stone multi-to attract other gun ship passenger traffickers meters Nankang sell rice to alleviate the disaster. Zhu Xi in the relief efforts "where live the hungry one hundred twenty-seven thousand six hundred seventy adults and children with ninety thousand two hundred seventy-six.  of Zhu Xi Province endowed Jimin ideological influences Chronicles of Zhu Xi, yellow dry followed Zhu Xi more than twenty years, Zhu Xi moral knowledge are very respected, Zhu Xi's personality as the ideal personality he said "heart of fair Zhengda Mr., resolute Mr. Yong decision, gas, Mr. Yan Wei Yan Ke Yung, deep Bo Kwong Mr.."  Zhu Xi to go after the death of Wong Kin continue to carry forward the changes in society populist style. August Jiading 2008 (1215), Wong Kin ordered to know Hubei Hanyang Army, when the Hubei number of county severe drought, into to Hanyang military staggering "rural Caomin are dig grassroots to eat."  Supervision Department of the one people seem to be asking drought, the people took the lives of countless the yellow dry force anti Division, devote social relief, to try to raise the rice seven thousand stone from around half the market price to sell the victims from Jiading the winter solstice Jiading 2009 2008 spring, yellow dry field displaced persons received a total of $ 700. are issued Normal Granary Relief. He also released a letter the Caojing Division advocates the Hubei states were in the possession of Fish Lake, the lesson Lee received, utterly Remission, while the production and fisheries mussels the case, listen to the poor will take ....... the poor may adopt fish for food, to degrees famine. " Zhen Dexiu thought legalistic for Zhu Zhu Xi's thought of the people and carry forward, eventually becoming a feudal society in rare political thinker concerned about the livelihood of the people. official twenty years, enjoying Quan said: "Western Hills looking straight following dark Weng."  True Dexiu in the when Ren Jiangdong transit Fushi, drought, locust extremely serious, its affiliated Pacific, particularly Guangde states, he and left behind Kenji speak Famine Administration, personally famine Guangde, Pacific states, sent a petition Relief to the referees do not care about the sufferings of the people of corrupt officials. known Quanzhou, Zhen Dexiu sympathy for the people's plight establishment Huimin positions, the Garners, Ci Youtian and set justice field, so that people can get lean and famine relief.
Cai Qingsheng in next, Takemune Masanori three (1508), is a typical representative of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Xi, who the life calendar Ministry of Rites offering principal, Nanjing anthology herbalist, Jiangxi mentioning learn Fushi other duties, the Qing Emperor Yongzheng 2002 (1724) years from worship Confucius Temple in the official time concerned about the sufferings of the people against the despotic landlord annexation of land for the land at the time, Choi Ching mergers serious, people displaced by the horrors of the letter to the court: "The People's Idea of the poor will almost deprived of accommodation, and the eunuch Yang toilet to residential homes intends to princes, gold and silver moving to the tens of thousands, than all the people and Crafts also paste blood.  "Ai Om dense Proverbs >> official who own principles:" a Lee without seeking also benefit the world by seeking the; temporary interests without seeking also, and to Jesus Christ who seek the " in order to get his livelihood thinking achieve Choy Ching development of Zhu Xi Province Fu ideological Cai clear understanding of the seriousness of the annexation of land to the despotic landlord, proposed Granting Land minus temple excess Rebellion points to the poor for the industry and other measures to improve the claims of the peasantry in China, he said, "I Criminal Conviction overnight tired bones had no middle class Zhuo cone Ho limit! throughout the no levy Tian grain sprinkled send poor how can limit! " Lin Xi Yuan, famous Confucian scholar of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Xi thought a staunch defender of his life to care about people suffering to its relief thinking summarize written as << shortage Zheng Cong words >> advocated emergency distribution of relief food in the relief of the poor households for special payment of relief funds and the general poor households, on the life of a little needy households to be low-interest or interest-free loans, and get the court adopted the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Xi, Zhou Ying raised in politics to love to teach dedicated line for large Road more important than love official.
"Political good and evil, and the Anmin for the good governance; law no when whether convenience for good law."  Zhu Xi, Li Guangdi to the Emperor Kangxi mention the many positive livelihood recommendations, and led to the formation of Emperor Kangxi populist policies he care about public distress, any Zhili governor, the emperor often travel their land, many followers, local people overburdened Li Guangdi request leniency derogation to ease the financial resources of the people was serious, Zhanghe Yongding River flooding, the people who suffer, Li Guangdi memorialized the emperor funding governance several times, and personally oversee construction in progress, one year is completed, a scourge of the local people to solve. addition, he recommended to relax the ban on maritime trade, the coastal people, especially fishermen have a chance of survival.
Had any of five local officials the Zhu Xi major political affairs one is to believe in Confucian thought, in order to safeguard the long-term peace and stability of the feudal dynasties. Zhu Xi's thought of the people have played a positive role in the development of Chinese history, influenced a generation of after generation the Zhuzi successor. Chronicles of Zhu Xi, who is mostly to Zhu Xi thought of the people Fan: official, upright and incorruptible, compassionate people suffering; Weimin, legalistic Zhu Xue, plead for the people. Zhu Xi and Zhu Xi, the people's livelihood practice far-reaching impact in the feudal society of late, still shining gleaming and shining.
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