Abstract: With the deepening ecological crisis, as well as human self-consciousness, ecological ethics has become a popular subject.
Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Chinese Philosophy Papers
Post Time:2012-6-8 11:43:00
People more and more interested in the thinking of eco-ethics theory and practice of traditional Chinese Time rich and profound ecological ethics, good inheritance, development and promotion for the protection of the environment, kind to nature and restore harmony to their homes will play an active role.
Paper Keywords: eco-ethics, Heaven, Imitation of Nature, animism
Since the 20th century, environmental problems because of its huge destructive caused by the world's attention no longer rational to treat their own attitudes and behavior of natural, human survival and development and even the earth there will be a problem. To this end, the countries have formulated various environmental regulations, norms of human attitudes and behavior of people from their own historical traditions, cultural development and civilization heritage point of view to discover the history of outstanding ecological ethical thought, and the modernization of the absorption, transformation and utilization, to protect the fragile natural environment, in the depths of our crisis and rebuilding the human and nature harmonious new order. the Chinese nation is a wise nation, our ancestors at a very early ecological ethical thought, although these ethical thinking does not achieve the degree of systematic and theoretical, but its content is very rich and profound interpretation of the ecological thinking of the Chinese civilization, we practice ecological and moral civilization, to build harmony between man and nature is not enlightenment.
A Confucian Thought of Ecological Ethics (A Heaven.
Thinking of "Heaven" is not a Confucian proprietary Confucian, but their development to make an important contribution to the "Heaven" is a philosophical proposition, as an eco-ethical principles, which focuses Reflections on the relationship between man and nature here, "Heaven" refers to the natural day, "person" means a natural person, they belong to nature, to the same consistency. << Book of Changes >> that heaven, earth, people three is a unified whole. people are a natural part of people to transform nature, more in harmony with nature. Mencius described the concept of "honesty" of Heaven and Human, he said: "sincerity itself a proper way, unknown almost good, not The sincerity of their body men. Therefore, sincerity, the way of heaven, Si Cheng, eye for an eye also. "<< Mencius Lou >>" honesty "as the point of Heaven theory, asking someone to "sincerity" to moral cultivation to achieve "Heaven". Han Dynasty the Zhongshu once said: "Heaven on the occasion, into one." << Chun Qiu Fan Lu deep observation name >> the first to propose "days one proposition is Zhang Zai, he said: "Confucian Hetuvidya honor, said the TrendChip, it is Heaven." << is Mongolia · dry >> "sincerity" here refers to Heaven, to "sincerity" of Heaven, that the day is real and has a certain regularity. "understanding of the world day and people are real, day and people are unified in Zhang Zai view later Wang Fu-chih, Dai Zhen, who are further elaborated the idea of "Heaven" "Heaven" ecological thinking from several angles to interpret the first man and all things homogeneous homologous. "heaven and earth" Heaven and gas, everything self "<< Book of Changes copulative >> everything is life and the natural ecological function, and human beings a part of nature. Dade said students from the ontology man and all things homogeneous homologous in the universe must be in accordance with the laws of nature to act, otherwise it will make their in danger. Second, and the natural world are brothers and friends, love for each other. Confucius believed that "day" is a natural day. He said: "days how words zai? four o'clock line Yan soaring raw Yan, days how words Kazuya?" "The Analects of Confucius · Yang goods >> he advocated respect day law day, Zhang Zai is pointed out:" China I compatriots, things I said >> that all people are my countrymen, the things in the world is my friend, you should take good care of each other, especially should the S & P love beings. << is Mongolia · dry universal love all things. Third, in harmony with nature, transform nature, the pursuit of harmony between man and nature. << Book of Changes pass >> proposition: "CONCEPTION, auxiliary of heaven and earth should", "scope of heaven and earth for the sake of, however, song instead of left into things. "stressed the need to adjust the natural, human development aspirations of Zhang Zai claims," This Heaven ", << is Mongolia · Taihe days" with "people" "unify. (B Renai things, cherish life.
Confucius advocated "Benevolence" is mainly to explore the interpersonal and moral, but it is not limited to, the Confucian "benevolence" of morality extended the Tao of life and nature, stressing that "Jen" "love objects" Confucius once said: "off a tree, killing a beast, not its non-filial" >> << The Book of Rites sacrifice justice. Mencius believed, could not bear to see the animals were slaughtered, there is a moral the performance he said: "A noble beast also reflected in its raw, can not bear to see death; heard and could not bear to eat its meat is a gentleman far Paochu." >> << Mencius · King Hui of Liang Dong Zhongshu "love objects" seen as an important content of "benevolence", he said: "quality in Edmonton, following The birds and animals insects did not dare to love do not love, Xi foot man?" << Chun Qiu Fan Lu · Renyi law >>. (C rational use of resources, protection of flora and fauna.
Mencius advocated the conservation of flora and fauna, opposed to profit-oriented use of biological resources, advocates will combine the use and conservation, he said: "Gou lent their support, and nothing, Gou missing the raise, no matter of course. "<< Mencius Gaozi >> the Xunzi inherit and carry forward this idea, and discusses how to go to the maintenance and use of resources. he said without losing the day, the next without losing the location, losing and can produce a lot of food and other agricultural products. Otherwise, it will lead to "Ao natural world, if the burn if the focus" << Xunzi rich >> the consequences.
Two Taoist Thought of Ecological Ethics (An Imitation of Nature.
"Nature" is a Taoist philosophical point of view, contains a wealth of ecological and ethical thought. I said: << Dao De Jing "," personal law to the law of days, Heaven Road, Road Law natural. "means the people to rule, to days for the rule, Tao law, said its own nature as a rule." Road "I seems, it is that it is first in the world, is the world's the basic law of all things running, but also the human pursuit of the highest state. Road is a comfortable self as it can be do not do likewise, but no Act only according to its own nature, to follow naturally, doing nothing and all for the law, so that the "Imitation of Nature." Share the free paper download center http://eng.hi138.com
Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi said: At first, the Road and the people in the primeval chaos, the unity, Tao, heaven, earth people blend by Germany showed an inaction, tranquil, simple natural nature, which is an affirmation of the person's own later Road and separation, alienation heavens and the earth, began his love of red tape. pursuit of the flashy virtual text, whitewash, greedy multi-Works have power struggles, materialistic and intrigues, and even killing each other harm inherent in the people's own natural nature is lost. This is the Zhuangzi hated human civilization after the real world. It is the denial of human nature, then is through the earth toward the Road back toward the reversion of their own natures, people return to the natural inaction, Happy no pending process to achieve "World and I, and Health all things with me, but for "<< Zhuangzi Equality of Things >> the realm of man and the Road and a new unified at a higher level." nature "has its negative side, arguing that people should abandon subjective purpose, desire and will, in a natural in front of inaction, passive obedience naturally but today, when the expansion in a natural in front of the will, do whatever it likes, it overcoming human conceited, arrogant, no respect for the natural thought it has a positive tendency significance. (Two materialism of temperance, prudence resources.
Many of the ancient Chinese thinkers have advocated abstinence, this kind of thinking objectively conducive to environmental protection section of resources is the traditional Chinese virtues, and oppose extravagance, throwaway, is the consensus of the ancient thinkers. aspects of Taoism less optimistic view of certain people, humanity and social ideals, it is strongly advocated temperance material things, sections with the resources I << moral >> said: "is not Shangxian, China indisputable, not your valuable goods, China is not stolen; but not desirable, so that the people do not mess. "where there is likely to cause material desires began to moderation. In addition, I added:" I have three treasures, holding and security. compassion. The second is frugal, the third is unimportance. "Elmer Fung of these scholars in Taiwan," Sambo "interpretation" can be said that the environmental ethics of the three - one is compassion on behalf of the care of all life, the second is frugal , on behalf of a variety of energy conservation, the third is unimportance, but also represent could not prevail over all things living beings. "Zhuangzi also advocated moderation in his opinion, temperance materialism is not a contempt for life, on the contrary, despise material interests emphasis on the original meaning of life, the "rebirth of light." << Zhuang Zi Wang >>.
(Three things equally important theory of the moral equality of Taoism from the "Tao" proposed "things equally important," the proposition that the status and role of all things in front of "morality" is uniform, the realm of "ethics" is actually a kinds of undifferentiated state, is a selfless and objective realm of all things non-discriminatory, "the Road by Road, Virtue is the same in Germany, lost by the same as loss." << I >> Chapter 23 the standpoint of Taoist, equally important things. "<< Zhuangzi Autumn >> standing" Road ", the world of all things without distinction or distinction, and the nature of the relationship is an equal relationship.
Three Buddhist Thought of Ecological Ethics Buddhism as a religion itself is not ecology, but implies extremely rich eco-ethical thought.
Main aspects. First, animism, all things have Buddha nature has intrinsic value. Buddhists believe that a landscape vegetation, the earth, including the Buddha, Zen stressed that "the depressed yellow Wisdom is nothing more than the clear green bamboo are bodies of law," the plants and trees of nature are Buddha nature, the embodiment of all contain infinite Zen have equal intrinsic value. Second, egalitarianism, respect for life view of life. Buddhist beings equality is not only different individuals and ethnic equality, but beyond the scope of the equality of all life in the universe, including flora and fauna. Under this premise, the Buddhist is further proposed to respect life, cherish the idea of life. Buddhist proposed in this paper do not kill "commandment to become the first ring of the constraints Buddhist. "Which Zhu crime, all power which does not kill the first" << Dazhi degree On 13 Third, the pursuit of the ideal of "nirvana" Pure Land Pure Land, is the home of Buddhism, that Buddhism Acts pursuit of clean premises. To this end, Buddhists like hut built temples built between the mountains and create a favorable environment for Kiyonaga in harmony with nature, with nature, grow flowers and plant trees, pity life, beautify themselves and the surrounding environment. This is for promoting environmental protection, beautifying the home has a profound inspiration.
Of course, the thinking of a variety of traditional Chinese ethics, in addition to Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism the three major eco-ethical thinking, eco-ethical thought of other thinkers of the same profound, worthy of our inheritance and development of no wonder that some Western scholars studying the ecological ethics of the East a number of ancient civilizations After thinking, marvel at the great value of the charm of Traditional Ecological Ethics implies, that if we can be reasonably heritage, use and promotion, this will play an active role in protecting the environment, kind to nature and the reconstruction of a harmonious home. turn posted in Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com