Chinese philosophy and Significance discuss

Ⅰ, Executive Summary

"Philosophy is the highest achievements of the human spirit, that best reflects the social attitude and mental outlook of the era." (Hut, Qi Shirong editor << World History Ancient History Volume >> Code · Chinese philosophy is the philosophy of the world the essence of human beings for the twenty-first century, the Chicken Soup Chinese philosophical system is closely rich connotation of Chinese philosophy to explore and cognitive role in promoting the spirit of faith, not only for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and help to promote peace and development of the contemporary world, to provide powerful spiritual motivation to support the creation of the world civilization and prosperity. This paper attempts to Chinese philosophy, the basic spirit of the Exploratory, which leads to the era of the Chinese philosophy of meaning, in order to be able to Chinese philosophy of contributing to the development of the contemporary world slightly.

II, keyword

Chinese philosophy, the basic spirit of the times meaning

III, the body of paper

Philosophy is a high-level overview of the science. Philosophy and mission is to seek the days eye for an eye, through the internal nursed back to health and Zhiyong external construction of a series of self-cultivation in order to achieve the positioning of individuals in the social world, and ultimately enhance the realm of the self, the wisdom of nourishment . Chinese philosophy, is an outstanding representative of the philosophy.

Every kind of philosophy, are trying to explore and answer the problems of life, the world and the universe, the Chinese philosophy is no exception. Major, fundamental difference between Chinese philosophy and other philosophical. Two thousand years ago, the ancient Greeks in the Aegean Sea coast the relationship between thinking man and God, in the Indian subcontinent, the ancient Indian thinking about the relationship between man and nature, while the ancient Chinese people think about relationships between people in China on the land, therefore, Chinese philosophy has always been different from other philosophical. it is a human-centered philosophy of the various relationships from the value of the people to think the world outlook of the Chinese philosophy and cosmology also penetrate the spirit of Chinese philosophy of our ancestors occurred in the thinking of the universe, change, development process problems, and not to God or other external images of the point of view to think, but to think to themselves, of course, is not to say there is no God in the Chinese philosophy, religious factors, but that This God, the religious factor is not the dominant position which is an important concept in exploring the basic issues of Chinese philosophy can not be ignored.

1 Variation of the road, the yin and yang, the origin of

Formation of any philosophy, has its occurrence, development and maturing process. Where is the source of Chinese philosophy? Is generally believed that the Chinese philosophical thought should sprout on the occasion of the Shang and Zhou. Most representative of the writings of this era philosophy, that is, << easy >>. Divided into << easy >> << Book of Changes >> << Yi Chuan >> two parts. Academia is generally believed that << Ching >> Shang and Zhou on the occasion of works << Yi Chuan >> (also known as the "Ten Wings" is the work of the late Warring States period, we do not pay more discourse. For convenience, the two together called the "<< easy >> or << the Zhouyi >>" can be said that << easy to >> the source of Chinese philosophy. << easy >> is not only the group after the first ", and" group by the beginning of the << easy >> The basic idea and spirit throughout the whole of Chinese philosophy the development process.

Worldview, cosmology, the << easy >> one of the most basic and most fundamental concepts - Tai Chi. "Easy to tai chi, two appearances. Astrotech born four images, four images and raw gossip." ( the << Yizhuan >> on copulative) What is Tai Chi? Tai Chi, is the total source of all things, or that the fundamental things in the world, so I speak: "Tao gave birth to one, one two, two three, whose son all things. "(moral << 42 >> Tai Chi itself in the event of changes, the result of changes in chemical and biological weapons of yin and yang." metaplasia "and" two "is different in nature." Tai Chi two appearances, but can not say, "Tai Chi divided into two appearances. What is Health? students, is metaplasia, is endless. only endless, things will have a dynamic, will be varied in order to further forward to give birth to a child by the parent of the body in the process of internal consistency, daughter and mother, therefore, the result of metaplasia of the "integration", "Harmony and it could be the harmonic (<< tube, art of war >>). metaplasia formed by a centripetal force, a kind of cohesion, it can be united, rallying public support so as to achieve pro-and people, Harmonizing the realm, while the sub is what? points is, respectively, separation, respectively. will estrangement, separation, will generate opposition to such a step by step more points down, it will form the centrifugal force, dispersion force, and ultimately lose morale, their own ways in the sub-process, there will be new conflicts continue to produce even intensification of conflict is inevitable. "Tai Chi two appearances, two appearances is the yin and yang, so I say:" Everything negative yin and yang, red gas thought. "Tao Te Ching (<< 42> > This is one of the fundamental difference between Chinese and Western philosophy. Chinese people pay attention to the restrained, while foreigners pay attention to foreign expansion. the introverted value orientation to teach us to Slim Qijia, the value orientation of the outer expansion is to teach people expansion possession of an inward and an outward, the result is very different - we together, while the Westerners main points.

Yin and yang, Tai Chi in the metaplasia, ie, they are one, therefore, speak of yin and yang can not be separated in terms of yin and yang interaction, changes in the entire Tai Chi in the yin and yang, everything can be nourished. Yin and yang is always one Once separated, the yin and yang, no longer exists. << easy >> greatness lies in the "Yin Yang" and "Tai Chi", the "yin and yang is called Tao (<< copulative Yizhuan, the on >> the yin and yang, not only one, and endless changes. yin and yang, if not interactive, does not change, then it is impossible to produce things, "life and life that" (Yi Chuan copulative Biography> >). "easy" the meaning itself will have easy, change is not easy, "this triple connotation, and therefore known as" easy to have Sanyi ". change, change point of view, is the whole << easy >>" one to penetration of "the concept of yin and yang is the change means that the sun can shade, overcast can also be positive, yin yang, yin yang, the two must exist, while owned by the silence, and the two position are equal. look at Tai Chi Figure know, very yin and yang in the Diagram of the "equal shares", "solitary Yin Health, alone Yang" (<< young learn Chiunglin >>. relative presence of yin and yang, the two intermetallic alternate in order to going. in the Tai Chi diagram, we can know, yin and yang is a circle that is tai chi into this circle represent? represent the movement changes, on behalf of tact mellow. only round instead of square or other the shape of the can continue to change campaign, so you can tact mellow, but regardless of the round how changes in the inner yin and yang is always a phase of health, relative and exist in a relatively constant, which is China person's philosophy - "within the cylindrical side", so "easy Sanyi," two is easy: one for "change", an "easy", seemingly contradictory, but in reality the opposite complementary to each other, so-called "whether with students difficulty complementary to each other, the length of the dwarf, compete phase tilting Sound and around hand in hand "(<< moral Cap." this movement of yin and yang in Tai Chi, also known as "soft on the outside inside. Yang, clever also. "" overcast, the water south of the north of the mountain. "(Xushen << Shuo Wen Jie Zi >>" yin and yang, Heaven and Earth. the parents of all things discipline, change, life and death of the beginning of the government of the gods. Seng, the yin and yang. "(<< Huang Di Nei Jing Su Q >> yin and yang, is not the root of all things?
Chinese philosophy is the philosophy of people-oriented. "Yin and yang" of such a concept, but also come from the people themselves. Ancients did not have too many state-of-the-art scientific knowledge, but "all things are prepared in Me" (<< Mencius, Vila, "as long as careful observation of all things and people to be thinking, can be realized that from the wisdom of the universe and life. visible, knowledge and wisdom does not necessarily contact, knowledge does not equal wisdom. "judging from astronomy, in order to detect, change, judging from humanities, into the world. "(<< Yizhuan hog pass >> days for the sun, for the overcast day as the sun, the night is overcast, male Yang and female Yin, Yang palm, back of the hand are negative, but Note: First, the yin and yang is relative. days is positive, there is no ground, the day also do not exist; Second, the unity of yin and yang, there is no absolute distinction between day sun, the night is overcast, but regardless of day and night into day or night, are gradual process, there is no absolute distinction between the third equality of yin and yang, yin and yang combination in order to metaplasia of all things male Yang and female Yin, but the equality between men and women only men or only women, the world will be doom. Therefore, men and women combined, is a "good" - on behalf of men, both pictographic that the male genitalia, but also in the abstract that the temperament and characteristics of men with positive, with - on behalf of women, both pictographic said that female genital mutilation, and abstract that women have the temperament and characteristics of the Yin. combination of men and women, gender lover, yin and yang to each other in order to nourish the genesis of all things. so we see the hexagram-shaped Kangua know, - the male Yang - as the vulva, this diagram is exactly the image of men and women intercourse in gossip among Kangua on behalf of the water, and water, just to have "lost time, day and night" (<< the characteristics of the Analects · Zi Han >>) water is always moving, stream, they are not to become a backwater. "Q clear expectations, for there is water flowing." (Zhu Xi << Overview of the book felt >> so You see, Chinese people, "Yang Guan astronomy down at geographic the Zhongzhi personnel". "life on the ground, suspended life in the day, Heaven and gas, life, called the people should be four o'clock, whom heaven and earth their parents. "(<< Huang Di Nei Jing >>" When a man cloth five elements million class transport, Lin Wuchang to five internal organs, Meridian House Yu, Yin and Yang will pass, Xuanming renaissance men, the changes difficult to pole. "(Zhongjing < <Febrile Diseases >> this, have a great impact on our whole traditional culture and the essence of Chinese medicine, which is the "yin and yang". Qu Yuan in << Sao >> say: "Heaven and Earth Come Yebisu, and The sun and the moon Come homogeneous light. "Our personnel is always inseparable from the day do day thing and personnel coexistence of yin and yang metaplasia, which is" Heaven ".

2, nature and man, the things I assimilate


Famous literary scholar Qian Mu's opinion, the highest realm of the Chinese philosophy of "Heaven." I say: "to personal law, the law of days, Heaven Road, Imitation of Nature." Tao Te Ching (<< twenty five chapters >> Zhuangzi said: "The World and I, and gave birth to all things with me." (<< Zhuangzi Equality of Things "Heaven relations, human subject, the sky is the object, in this artificial sun, the day Yin, "one can Hiromichi, non Michihiro" (<< Analects Duke Ling of Wei ", so to be positive and promising, to master the natural changes in the law of development, in management relations sense, is overcast day is positive. "Sishengyouming Fortune is in Heaven" (The Analects · Yan Yuan >>, so in harmony with nature to achieve harmony with nature "things the same realm of knowledge of personnel, that is, know the day things things, including myself, not diametrically opposed but complementary relationship, together with one heart. "Formerly, Zhuang Zhou dream butterfly, butterfly, Xuxu then, I do not know the week. suddenly feel, then suddenly sudden Zhou also do not know Zhou dream butterfly with? Butterfly Dream for the week? "(Zhuangzi · Equality of Things << >>" Dreaming, "in a dream, Zhuang Zhou and the Butterfly to the situation of things assimilation" in the ordinary view, but a simple dream fills in the eyes of Chuang Tzu, have a philosophical and aesthetic significance. he is from this departure, write "empty talk without facts Wenze ocean provision of the whole family, graceful" (Lu Xun << Chinese Literature Outline of History (outside a >> prose, the highest literary quality and aesthetic qualities of the Early Qin nature is human nature, human nature is nature, nature and man, to the natural and human unity, the spiritual world high degree of harmony with the external natural environment. Zhuangzi's words, is to "forget themselves in the shadows" "two forget but of co-channel (master >> << Zhuangzi. that people are pleased to aspire to the realm of called "independence and the spirit world in contact with (<< Zhuangzi world >>
Everything the fact that after the concept of the idea of ​​"Heaven", although as early as the Qin Dynasty will be budding and to develop, but did not put forward the concept of "Harmony" really made this glorious proposition to the Northern Song Dynasty Neo-Confucian Zhang Zai: TrendChip, it is Heaven. To learn Hetuvidya honor can be sanctified, get the day might come left. "said (<< Mongolia · dry >>) >> << West Ming, he further elaborated: "dry, parent-kun said the mother, I hereby Miao Yan, is mixed and then at heaven and earth plug, I its body; commander of heaven and earth, I their compatriots in China I, I thing also. "Heaven, things assimilation, is the same close relationship. reason why we used to great lengths to illustrate the yin and yang of the truth, that is, In order to understand the Chinese philosophy the basic connotation. yin and yang, have organs, have four seasons, have four limbs, the days of the five elements, have five internal organs, land the rivers have, people have meridians, The Chinese call it "Heaven corresponding fact, it is Chinese philosophy, different manifestations in specific scientific fields, in essence, both are interlinked. correspondence between man and heaven and man-phase induction, adapt, adaptation, Heaven, is the day of the combination, phase compounds, Hop-phase natural parents of the human, we humans are the descendants of the nature, "the people of affinity with the world should love each other, rather than hatred of phase relative to hate. visible Heaven things assimilation has a triple meaning: purification and sublimation of the human heart, the second is the nature itself of the operation and change, three days with people changing interaction and mutual penetration of integration to achieve the things assimilation "realm, Chuang Tzu's words, "outside of and is not based (<< Zhuangzi know trip to the North >> because we Chinese people attach so much importance to the harmonious relationship of man and our philosophy so to explore the man and symbiotic symbiotic relationship, so we believe that the cosmos itself is valuable, the reality is real and can be perceived, therefore the world is worthy of us to cherish, it is worth to be discovered, it is worth the world to pursue in order to achieve personal value of life, do not aspire to heaven or the Holy Land, as long as the secular universe, you can "worlds" (Journal of the Book of Rites "" a true man of broad weather, but in their own life through consistent universe of all efforts to achievements the universe and all life, which is the value of human life and ultimate destination. "(Dainian, Fang Keli editor of Introduction to Chinese Culture" Heaven fundamental relationship, but the value of individual lives. to complete the upgrade of the realm of personality. "benevolent heavens and the earth as a whole, benevolence, have become a personal life can take the initiative to grasp the dynamic force. Although the world of great beauty do not speak the four seasons successful method do not debate. The success of all things does not talk "(" Zhuangzi know >> of the trip to the North, but it is in this "Speechless", spiritual rhinoceros phase, the phase sense of the corresponding process, we really realized that a life in the universe the importance of the individual value of life, the universe and toward fullness, the mystery of the universe Promise due to be revealed.

3, Palit same body, the perfect man harmony


Chinese philosophy of yin and yang "and" Heaven "view, expounded the" German body, the perfect man and harmony, "the premise and foundation. What is the" Palit same body "? In my opinion, the German with the body, means human moral code of conduct coincide with Heaven. German with the body, is a large realm of Chinese philosophy. Modern philosophy master lan in one of the "Sadamoto six books" << new Yuanren "four realm of life: natural realm, the realm of utilitarian moral realm, heaven and earth realm. At the same time, Mr. Fung Yu-lan also proposed the concept of "Awareness" of a sleep solution extent, determines the level of his realm in which the natural realm is the easiest, most basic human actions and complete sleep solution; in utilitarian realm, he has done in the motivation for himself, but there are a certain amount of sleep solutions, the moral realm, his actions are a moral significance, and thus gives rise to moral values In other words, in the moral realm, truly feel the solution of the relationship between man and society, to observe that the human person, the role and value of his entire social life, and thus the moral values ​​from the inside hair to lend its support to complete the career and work, given his behavior in the earth realm to the moral significance of his actions are the cosmic significance of, and thus gives rise to the cosmic value or amoral value. feel real solution the universe and human relationship, deeply aware of the status and value as one of the universe has, he has done is the experience of the value of the amoral universe of ultimate concern. concerns and express life in the universe, not only the unique care and direction of Chinese philosophy, but also one of the core values ​​of Chinese culture. a person's life style, to enhance the dialogue with the universe, a high degree of interest in the world, then his individual life will not just belong to him personally, and not just confined to the society and state, but as the member of one of the cosmos. "I'm good in cultivating my Noble Spirit (<< Mencius · Gongsun Chou >>," Noble Spirit " what is it? Mencius also said, "is hard to say," Mencius then described to us "Noble Spirit": "Tai Shigo, a straight raise and harmless, tucked in between heaven and earth for gas with righteousness with the Tao. no will be weakened. is a righteousness born of non-meaning of the passage take the form not contented heart, hungry men. "In other words, although we can not give the" Noble Spirit "to clarify definition, but it is the "greatest Shigo, filling in between heaven and earth, our individual existence is always kept its heart, the raising of their sexual, so do the heavens" (<< Mencius, Vila >> , and therefore insist on self-cultivation, self, is to strive to create their own mental world. this self spiritual world, is connected with the world of gas and as long as we can based on the present, starting from the side of a little thing strive to improve themselves, "Gassy forget food, music at heart" (<< >> Analects of Confucius described the purification of the inner self and create the nature of things with me was, "I" of individual life found among the vast world based on the fundamental, the limited life connected with the infinite universe of time and space, to reach the realm of eternal assimilation. "Ruofu multiplication of heaven and earth are of the six elements identified in Imperial, excursion into the infinite, he and the evil almost to be counseled? ">> (<< Zhuangzi Getaway external confusion, anxiety and distress, they do not make my heart a change, so benevolent with all creatures" (<< two-way book volume 12 >>, individual temperament, also in this all-round upgrade.

German with the body, is a concrete manifestation of the Chinese philosophy of relationship between human, Chinese philosophy is the philosophy of the people with brilliant ideas, the Chinese philosophers Thoughts on the relationship of Heaven, the ultimate aim is to shape a high degree of harmony and unity of Sound of Music personality, with free will. Therefore, the "Perfect Human Harmony" Chinese philosophy, the basic meaning of one of the "perfect man has no self, God reactive saint unknown" (Zhuangzi Getaway >> Chinese philosophy is the cross-phase induction in the day with people, the intermetallic agree the process, gave birth to the idea of ​​"harmony". gentleman and different villain the same without. "(<< Analects · Zi Lu >>" ceremony with and the kings of the Road, Sri Lanka for the United States. small-large from which some can not. know but not to the etiquette of not feasible. "(<< Analects learn >> and, it is ritual core of civilization. "and" inclusive "and" they are able to be tolerant to diversity, "and" they are able to Unity in Diversity. "days than location, location is as good as people." (Mencius << · Gongsun Chou >> and our nation to be absorbing each other and blend together the spirit of the source of the same time, it is this harmonious thoughts, allows us to further development of the Heaven relations "Harmony" philosophy, making the days and reached a high degree of harmony and unity.

The basic spirit of Chinese philosophy

The spirit of philosophy is the philosophy of the soul and the spirit of Chinese philosophy, Chinese philosophy, metaphysical philosophy, is the most important key in learning and research into Chinese philosophy.

A people-oriented, state one

People-oriented, the basic spirit of the Chinese philosophy of Xunzi said: "The (human not as cattle, do not go if the horse, and oxen and horses for the use of, and why? Said: people group, he can not also." Human beings are superior the most expensive world also "(<< Xunzi North Song >> Chinese philosophy has no religious emotion and function of Chinese philosophy and Chinese culture adhere to the humanistic rather than God humanism, and thus the Chinese philosophy, Chinese culture is also philosophy and culture, a secular rather than myth or religion. yin and yang and heaven, in the final analysis, human services, talent is the Heaven of the ancient Chinese thought with God, "said that the days of genius. places to only on my mind, people have talent, while, the people with God, its core is the person who is benevolent, benevolent, a good friend duo, two of a good friend, is the yin and yang. Therefore, the heavens and the earth's aura The party made, is the essence of heaven and earth, of all things primate you see the three poets of the Tang Dynasty: The Poem of Li Bai, Du Fu, Wang Wei, Li Bai, elegant natural genius, the poetry of Du Fu, the obsession with worry people, to make, Wang Wei of the poems, poetry and painting matched talent for one said, "Shixian Road, called" the great poet, "Confucianism, one said," Poetry Buddha ", is a release. three powers of Heaven, Earth, co-Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, Datang romantic, they do this.

People-oriented efforts to play people as heaven and earth, the main body of the initiative, and actively practice the promise of individual lives. "People can Hiromichi, non-Tao Hong person" in Chinese philosophy Confucian especially great importance to human values. Confucius' ideal was old Ann, a friend's trust, less pregnant "(<< Analects Gongye Chang, bath xi, the wind almost rain altars, Wing and go home" (<< Analects advanced "is jealousy forgot to eat. sorrows I do not know old age is coming cloud Fall "(Analects of Confucius described, << and >>. In short, with the same music in a harmonious interpersonal relationships, self-perfect" (Peng Bao Shan How to Make >> << Confucius is because Confucius with the idea of ​​such a people-oriented, so when the stable was burned in the fire, just ask "wounding an absolute necessity", but "do not ask the horse" (<< Analects Township >> party, the value of human life to give a high degree of respect, seasonal Lu asked Confucius otherworldly matters, Confucius replied: "failed to do, how can he do a ghost?" (<< Analects advanced >> the real world, and fully affirmed the enthusiastic state of mind to give high praise. "gentlemen's Samuel Wells Williams: fear of fate, fear of adults, fear the words of the saints." (<< Analects Jishi "days of man's parents, it is worth awe, adults, sage, among men, should also be awe behind the fear is reflected in the value of life, the life of faith, respect and praise. "has been Master said: 'can not not Hony. a long way to go. Ren responsibility, which is not also Down? dying day, not a long? '"(<< Analects Taber >>" benevolence as its mission "the most important to grasp the the power of "people" and also to grasp the "benevolence" can achieve sexual, they can achieve the purpose of the "rule of flat world" of, so, people - oriented and "home and country one" is the same of. That is people-oriented, so we philosophy of secular philosophy is the philosophy of the human, precisely because of this secular tendency, so we Chinese philosophy focus on the value of the real world, rather than indifference, longing for the afterlife or the illusion of the world focus on real-world results, Chinese philosophy cast a strong "home countries in one" secular color.

Home countries in one pattern, the result of the development of the Chinese history itself. Other civilizations in the world, mostly based on the country in the form of slavery instead of a patriarchal society and clan kinship relations into the civilization reflected in the the end of primitive society, and regional relations as the core of social organization system instead of the system of kinship as the core of social organization, the nation instead of the clan. the development of ancient Greek history, that is, a strong business culture as the support, the formation of to the relationship between geographic and property-based city-state society, as a typical representative of Western civilization, the development of Chinese history has its own characteristics and road. Chinese philosophy with the concept of home countries in one, that is, by the history of China geographical factors. role in the decision of the historical and geographical factors, resulting in the Chinese society into civilization from the primitive society, and not completely out of clan kinship Vasubandhu, but in large part to maintain this the relationship between the formation of a typical representative of the patriarchal system and the patriarchal society. Western Zhou Dynasty, is the patriarchal society of the seal states the founding of ritual music is the use of a set of patriarchal clan system, making the home country is isomorphic to maintain their rule by blood and affinity country, the country is one of the home and country, home to reduce the enlarged family. isomorphism of state and family, the home state with the body, so Confucian speak Xiu Qi Zhiping, requiring people to "self the Qijia" to "the country level a concrete manifestation of the world ", is the" home countries in one of this concept in Chinese philosophy, the house, and internal consistency. family development of the clan, the clan and then coalesce into the country. Confucius say: "Jun-Jun, Chen Chen , the father father and the son son. "(<< Analects · Yan Yuan >> both" regulating the family emphasis on ethics, but also "running the country" to comply with Tsunatsune Mencius also says: "Gouneng charge enough to ensure universally, otherwise would charge the not enough to his parents. "(<< Mencius Gongsun Chou on >> one of the manifestations of" protect the world "with his parents and mention is also the home countries in one" historical and geographical characteristics of Chinese society, but also determines the This "home countries in one" concept can be stored for a long, deep-rooted and deeply reflect the Chinese philosophy, the basic spirit of Chinese philosophy.

Your monks, seeking common ground while reserving differences

Chinese philosophy in Heaven relations tend to unity, and this "integration", that is, "and" connotation one. Chinese philosophy emphasizes the Harmony Road, the basic meaning there are three: First, in harmony with the day. First, interpersonal harmony, one man and inner harmony. Harmony between man and days can be harmony between man and nature, to preserve the ecological balance, interpersonal harmony, you can utter sincerity, maintain social stability and inner harmony, we can enrich the heart, to achieve personal happiness. Mandarin Zheng language> >: "and real life, with not following the.", with different concepts, emphasizing the Unity in Diversity, not only colorful, but also a high degree of Concord, is to stress the other I am no different from attributed to one thing. Visible, and, under the premise that to maintain the individual values ​​and personality characteristics, the results of integration to innovation and development of many individual things, "but" the achievements of the righteous. This not only focus on the individual, but also focus on groups and trying to strike a balance between individual and group approach is the "golden mean". "emotions hair that hair-all section that sum also, the world of Big Ben, and who , the world is up to. Chih, day status Yan, everything sterile Yan. (<< Book of Mean >> moderation, is not extreme emphasis on the Concorde. "shall not be the Bank of China and with it will Arrogance almost mad by aggressive, timid who do certain things. "(The Analects · Zi Lu, << >> Division also had, the providers and not too far." (advanced >> << Analects because "too far only need to "Bank of China and with it". your monk, in fact, complement each other and with the yin and yang and is yin, yang, and the Shaolin martial arts, for the Tai Chi Wen soft, two who match exactly can be achieved "Harmonizing" the (<< chancery Yaodian >> purpose. Thus, the concept of "yin and yang" << easy >> Chinese philosophy is how deep.

Your monk, is the "scale" and "for the purpose, under the guidance of this concept, the Chinese philosophy developed the idea of" seeking common ground while reserving differences "since it is diverse and unified, then in order to to maintain unity, we must "seek with a variety above, in order to maintain the diverse unification, it must be ground while reserving differences" with different, that is, yin and yang, the same as the overcast, differences for Yang Yang as a guide, so you "with" have a unified banner, in order to unite toward a common goal, Yin To tie in with, so "different" have a different color, to the colorful, blooming effect of the virtual and real. monk, seeking common ground while reserving differences, in itself is a yin and yang relationship of yin and yang consistency, virtual and real, and the Chinese Communist economy, the similarities and differences co-exist, "To the majority do subtle, extremely sophisticated and Road moderation. (<< Book of Mean >> before the basic spirit of Chinese philosophy.

3, the energetic self, and enthusiastic


Man is the crown of creation with proactive internal and external to explore desire. Chinese philosophy under the domination of the "people-oriented" concept, seeks to explore the mental outlook of the people should have in the inward and outward Thirty, to further enrich the basic spirit of the system of Chinese philosophy.

"Heaven, self-improvement, terrain-kun, gentleman Houdezaiwu. (<< Yizhuan hog pass >> days for the roads, is the sun, on behalf of and enthusiastic, so the quality of the day is" revolves , and days, the gentleman to be "self-reliance for the Kun Tao is overcast, on behalf of steady holding to the quality of the ground potential Kun, people corresponding to a gentleman" great virtue ". both the days of "self" and "Virtue" Road gentleman, "Sancai both" will be able to indomitable spirit, in order to achieve the aspirations of life. Chinese philosophy of this vigorous self-reliance, and enthusiastic spirit can ancient and inspired numerous people with lofty ideals in the history of fighting for. Confucius said: "silent and knowledge of the insatiable, indefatigable, and where in my holy?" (<< Analects of Confucius described >> Zeng stresses: care six feet of the solitary, you can send the life of a hundred miles, the Pro section can not be won. gentleman people? gentleman. "(<< Taber >> Mencius, Analects of Confucius say:" days to drop any so people, we must first suffer their aspirations, the workers of their bones, their body skin hunger, depletion of their body line fu chaos, so tempted Ren Xing, who benefits they can not. "(<< Mencius Gaozi> >) "wealth can not be obscene, humble can not be moved, powerful and can bend." >> (<< Mencius · Tengwen Gong, energetic self-reliance, and enthusiastic spirit, deeply into the flesh and blood of our nation. more hardships, more setbacks, more protest, more unyielding, "know they are impossible" (<< Analects constitutional asked, "It is due to the external manifestations of the spiritual quality inherent in Chinese Philosophy , because of the people-oriented, so life between heaven and earth, which must create a world of personality and unremitting efforts to achieve this moral and ideal positive and promising attitude towards life in Chinese philosophy has always been dominated, so that the Chinese philosophy become more practical, with a very strong pragmatic color. Confucius said: "gentlemen's words lifts, do not waste words." (<< Analects Duke Ling of Wei "is to emphasize the importance of" pragmatic "to self- have to, it is necessary and pragmatic, get down to doing things in order to truly achieve the ideal realm of personality. "erudite, interrogation of, deliberation, and discernment, Dusing." (Book of Mean >> flashy, exaggerated Zijin, are undesirable attitude towards the value of the pragmatic spirit of Chinese philosophy, there is indeed a superb practical.

Third, the Chinese philosophy meaning of the times

The world today is in the tide of globalization, globalization is the inevitable result of social and historical development, it causes the flow of capital, technology, population, services and knowledge on a global scale, driven by global economic growth and development, while also led to a series of global issues, reflected in the material aspects such as global warming, ecological degradation consequences of the negative aspects of the material aspects of the spiritual life, and caused a crisis of personal faith, spiritual and moral, and social relations. Someone once summed up the absurdity of the situation of contemporary people: "on, not days, the next are not land, not outside people, not in my" How to correctly handle the issue of this series among the general trend of globalization, the Chinese philosophy of the new century be one of the opportunities for development is also in the process to solve these problems, the successful completion of the Chinese philosophy of the modern transformation of the way. Share Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

individual life value and the group interests of the

Qian Wenyi said many times, Chinese philosophy has a unique concept of humanism, but people are not isolated individuals, human, is that he is the soul of the soul of the universe and all things different? Difference is, only animal bestiality, not only as a natural part of the animal has biological significance but also as a member of society, but also the sociological sense of humanity, and therefore is always in the society, interpersonal a concrete manifestation of contacts in a variety of relationships, that is, social relations necessarily to work with others, resulting in the concept and essence of the group, which in personal values ​​among the groups. talk about humanism, but also inseparable from the value of individual life and interest of groups of content in this layer.

Built by the value of individual life and group interests, the different schools of Chinese philosophy, there is a big difference. Overall, the Confucian emphasis on group interests, and the Taoist pay more attention to individual value. Does not mean that the Confucian do not pay attention to individual value, not the Taoist emphasis on group interests, the two just to emphasize a different focus, there is no real opposition. they are thinking from the perspective of human values, but in the long historical development, the traditional choice Confucian-oriented, Taoism as a complementary theory of ideology. This choice is inevitable or accidental? I think that is inevitable in the study and research the History and Philosophy doctrine theory, I personally attach great importance to ecological and cultural base to seek ideas and concepts from the perspective of history and geography in this specific issue, I quite agree with the Nanjing University MO Li Feng, professor of view: "We are in the Yellow River, in this depth of soil thickness, climate is not very warm place, and surging rivers governance, where he died of, then there will be flooding. the Chinese nation, if it is too emphasis on the individual lives while ignoring the interests of the group, not conducive to our nation to survive and multiply, Confucianism, Confucius and Mencius as the representative of this ethics, moral ideals, history to be selected as the core spirit of our culture. " "This is a natural choice." (Mo Lifeng << Du Fu's poetry Lectures >>) is the relative isolation and internal hardship nature of Chinese history and geography, which makes our civilization based on agriculture of this, we The national spirit more than a sense of urgency, "Hardships for the worst" ("the Mencius Gaozi next >>, left today an invaluable legacy of ideas is the Chinese philosophy.

We said, "and" triple connotation: First day with people, one people, and first, and inner harmony between man and nature, man and days, and

individual life value and the group interests of the

people. Confucius say: "Gentlemen introspection, the villain seeking Morohito." (<< the Analects Duke Ling of Wei >>) emphasis on the interpersonal to the self- more reflection, those who seek me (<< Mencius, Vila >> the main body of ethical practice self, so in order to implement righteousness, and shaping the personality, it is necessary to start from the self reflexive and Cheng Yue remarkable achievement. "(>> << Mencius, Vila emphasized it is self-behavior constraints. On this basis, the greater respect for the wishes of others to achieve personal ideals, and to seek the road of" adult ". it is necessary to have所不欲,勿施于人"(<<论语·卫灵公>>,又要"得天下英才而教育之"(<<孟子·尽心上>>,在群己关系的处理过程中,要努力做到"择其善者而从之,其不善者而改之"(<<论语·述而>>.既要"成己",又要"成人",在"成人"的过程中"成己",在群体价值的构建中追求个人价值.最后的结果,便是"四海之内皆兄弟也"(<<论语·颜渊>>.在"大我"与"小我"之中,寻求中庸的切合点.以和为贵,努力实现个体生命价值与群体利益的相融相成,逐渐形成中国哲学中的责任感——"以天下为己任".这一责任感的形成,是与中国哲学"以人为本,家国一体"的意识密切相关的.孟子说:"穷则独善其身,达则兼济天下."(<<孟子·尽心上>>发展到后世,就有了范仲淹"先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐"(范仲淹<<岳阳楼记>>的主张,有了陆游"位卑未敢忘忧国"(陆游<<病起书怀>>的疾呼,有了顾炎武"天下兴亡,匹夫有责"(顾炎武<<天下郡国利病书>>的呐喊……这些往圣先哲的思想,毫无疑问地对中国哲学之精神的普及与深入,起了至关重要的作用.

与儒家主张不同,道家则更多地关注于个人的价值,更加注重个人的自我认同."知人者智,自知者明.胜人者有力,自明者强."(<<道德经·三十三章>>主张以实现自我认同作为人生准则.庄子则进一步阐明了对个体生命与自由的尊重:"凫胫虽短,续之则忧,鹤胫虽长,断之则悲."(<<庄子·骈拇>>"适来,夫子时也,适去,夫子顺也.安时而处顺,哀乐不能人也,古者谓师帝之悬解."(<<庄子·养生主>>一字一句,都在告诉人们要顺应自然,顺应本心,顺应自我,循天道,求自我.在我们这个以群体利益为本体的国家中,注重个体价值的道家思想,实在是一种必要的补充.因为我们在强调群体利益时,往往会忽视甚至践踏个体价值.对于个体价值的尊重,对于个体人性的追求,是我们中国哲学中较为缺乏的东西.中国哲学要想在新的时代背景下对世界有所贡献,应当在群己关系上给予进一步的定位.个体与群体的关系,是一个问题的两个方面.一个问题,亦即如何正确处理人际关系,两个方面,亦即究竟以群体利益为重,还是以个体价值为重.群与己,同样是阴与阳的关系.阴阳是相对的,因此当群体为阳的时候,个体就是阴,我们需要集思广益,共同创造,个体生命价值应当尽力服从群体利益,当个体为阳的时候,群体就是阴,我们需要维护个人权利,实现个性的多样化发展,群体利益的构建要更多地倾向于对个体生命价值的理解与尊重.尊重是理解的基础,理解是尊重的保障.这两个方面,是紧密结合、二位一体、不可分割的.在这一点上,中国哲学应当有所贡献.

2、义与利、理与欲的价值取向

义利之辩、理欲之争是中国哲学的一个基本问题.这一问题的实质,是对人应有的价值取向展开讨论与探索.孔子讲:"君子喻于义,小人喻于利."(<<论语·里仁>>墨子也讲:"万事莫贵于义."(<<墨子·贵义>>孟子更是强调:"生,亦我所欲也,义,亦我所欲也.二者不可得兼,舍身而取义者也."(<<孟子·告子上>>但是应当注意,儒墨两家讲"义",但并不反对"利".当冉有问孔子"既庶矣,又何加焉?"时,孔子明确表示:"富之"(<<论语·子路>>.墨子则进一步明确表示:"义,利也."(<<墨子·经上>>只不过在儒家那里,强调的是"不义而富且贵,于我如浮云"(<<论语·述而>>,符合道义、正当的利,是可以也是应该追求的.而在墨家那里,强调的是"利人者,人亦从而利之"(<<墨子·兼爱中>>,认为利要符合双方的需求,对社会关系中的双方都要有合理性.在先秦的儒墨两家之中,义与利,不仅不矛盾,反而相反相成.义利之辩,同样是"小我"与"大我"之辩,义亦即利,当"利"能为"大我"所用时,"利",便具有了"义"的意义.

当然,在先秦诸子之中,也不乏有将义利之辩推向极端的代表,韩非及法家就是其中之一.在韩非和法家那里,义并不重要,甚至不存在.人与人之间,完全是赤裸裸的利益关系."不养恩爱之心,而增威严之势."(<<韩非子·六反>>"夫言行者,以功用为之的彀者也."(<<韩非子·问辩>>"臣尽死力以与君,君垂爵禄以与臣市.君臣之际,非父子之亲也,计数之所出也."(<<韩非子·难一>>在韩非的眼中,君臣、父子、夫妻、兄弟、朋友等各种社会关系,全是由毫无遮掩的利益来维系的.他还举例说,父母生了儿子,就会高兴,生了女儿,就会懊悔.因为男孩子是"劳动力",女孩子是"赔钱货".父母子女之间,根本没有什么恩情义可言,父母生育子女,也是为了利益.人与人之间,是一种算计与被算计的关系.也就是说,人,不过是实现功利目的的工具罢了.必须指出的是,韩非及其所代表的法家,是站在君主的立场上为君王谋划的谋士,他们的理论是为君王掌握生杀二柄而准备的.换言之,如果我们站在君主的角度去看这些言论的话,是没有什么问题的.所谓"事在四方,要在中央,圣人执要,四方来效"(<<韩非子·扬权>>就是如此.但是君主的时代已经过去,君主的那一套专制理论也早为历史所抛弃,韩非把人与人的关系彻底功利化的做法,显然不符合历史与实际,是应当予以批驳的.然而我们对历史上的哲学乃至哲学家们的思想,须有一种灵活的思辨态度.韩非将人与人的社会关系定位为利之维系所生,当然是不对的,但这也恰好从反面证明,中国哲学不是一味地反对利的.相反,它在某些时候、某些流派中,还特别注重利的价值.这是十分值得注意的思想.

"义利之辩",主要是在先秦时代,而"理欲之争",主要是在两宋时期."理欲之争"的实质,是对"义利之辩"的引申与发展,因此,二者绝不是两个不同的事物,它们具有内在逻辑上的一致性与外在形式下的继承性.孔子讲:"志于道,据于德,行于仁,游于艺."(<<论语·述而>>追求的是集义所生的道德境界."一箪食,一瓢饮,在陋巷.人不堪其忧,回也不改其乐.贤哉,回也!"(<<论语·雍也>>"孔颜之乐",并不因外在的物质贫乏而感到忧伤,反而因内在精神上的超越本体而感到高兴.理学家所津津乐道的,就是这种"孔颜之乐".然而这套理论一旦为统治者所利用,"存天理,灭人欲"也就变了味.理学家的本来用意,是要摒除自我内心的私欲杂念,达到"穷天理、明人道"的境地,亦即张载所说的"为天地立心,为生民立命,为往圣继绝学,为万世开太平"的理想.但是我们务必注意,哲学一旦为现实政治服务,失去了学术的独立性之时,学术就只是政治的附庸,所以务必要注意"学术独立,思想自由"的主张.学术可以为政治提供借鉴,却不能仅仅为政治服务,更不能为了政治而服务.失去了独立自由之精神的学术,是无法正常发展下去的.这一点,是我们学习和研讨中国哲学时必须注意的.

义利之辩、理欲之争,最终在中国哲学的整体意识形态中,是形成了"重义轻利""存天理,灭人欲"的观念.这其中,当然有其历史的局限性.但是并不是说,它们对于当今时代已经失去了意义.当代社会中诚信的危机,人际关系的冷漠,不正是需要这种"重义轻利",以"天理"灭人之"私欲"的精神么?中国哲学的现代意义,或许正在于此.

3、内圣外王与逍遥境界

除了义利之辩、理欲之争,中国哲学还十分推崇"内圣外王"之道.什么是"内圣外王"呢?这个词出自<<庄子·天下>>:"是故内圣外王之道,暗而不明,郁而不发,天下之人,各为其所欲焉,以自为方."<<大学>>讲"格物致知诚意正心修身齐家治国平天下"八条目,"格物致知诚意正心修身"就是"内圣"之业,"齐家治国平天下"即是"外王"之业.孟子讲:"穷则独善其身,达则兼济天下.""独善其身"是"内圣","兼济天下"是"外王".由此可见,"内圣"与"外王"仍然是阴与阳的关系.那么,内圣与外王,哪个是阴,哪个是阳?答案是:外王是阴,内圣才是阳.为什么呢?<<大学>>讲:"自天子至于庶人,壹是皆以修身为本."修身,就是内圣.换言之,只有达到了内圣之境,外王之道才可能到达.内圣,就是要不断完善自己的道德修养,培养仁义礼智信的美好品质,重视人伦关系的构建,在此基础上才能追求外王之道,"经纬天地""裁空万物"(<<荀子>>.但是,内圣始终是"本",外王只是"末".这在理学中表现尤为明显.心学强调的,正是"吾心即是宇宙,宇宙即是吾心"(<<杂说>>.我们认为,"内圣外王"之道是中国哲学的精髓所在,它进一步强调了哲学对于人身的意义.走进内圣之道,也就是君子成仁之道,内圣外王之道的根本,是提高个人修养,强调个体生命价值实现的重要途径.

"内圣外王"主要是中国哲学中儒家的思想,而"逍遥"主要是中国哲学中道家的思想.儒家重群,道家重己,因此儒家在"内圣"之外还有"外王",而道家更多地关注个人的"逍遥"境界.庄子在<<逍遥游>>中开篇就讲:"北冥有鱼,其名为鲲.鲲之大,不知其几千里也.化而为鸟,其名为鹏.鹏之背,不知其几千里也.怒而飞,其翼若垂天之云.是鸟也,海运则将徙于南冥.""鹏之徙于南冥也,水击三千里,抟扶摇而上者九万里,去以六月息者也."庄子在这里运用了极其诙谐浪漫的手法,将深奥的哲理如泼墨山水画卷般展现于我们眼前.在庄子看来,逍遥是人生的最高境界.逍遥,就要"无所待",达到坐化两忘、"形如槁木,心如死灰"(<<庄子·齐物论>>的地步.人格要与天道相通,内外兼修,天人合一,最终结果是"独与天地精神相往来"(<<庄子·天下>>.这种"澄心万虑忘"、物我同化的境界,不正是深处喧闹繁华的现代社会中的我们所需要的吗?我们终日为世俗之事而操劳奔波,话不出自真心,行不出自本真,身心俱疲,最终造成了诸多关系的紧张与对立.中国哲学中"内圣外王"与"逍遥"之境,正是解决当代人精神困惑的一剂良方.

4、走向世界的民族哲学

"哲学史展现的正是高尚心灵的更迭,思想英雄的较量.""哲学家们为解决哲学问题而提出的论辩证明至今给人以启发,成为人类精神的宝贵财富.从哲学史的观点看问题,问题的提出比答案更有意义,解决问题的过程比达到的结论更有价值.学习哲学史是培养创造性思维的训练方式,也是启迪批判性思维的实验过程."(赵敦华<<西方哲学简史·前言>>学习中国哲学史的过程,就是这样一个激发思维活力、寻求生命灵光的过程.中国哲学中有其独特的思维方式与价值系统,阴阳、变易、中庸、和谐、以人为本、天人合一、刚健有为等一系列思想与精神,是始终贯穿于中国哲学的发展过程之中的.中国哲学深深扎根于中国文化的土壤之中,并为中国文化的发展注入了源源不断的的活力,并通过这些熠熠生辉的思想与精神,内化于中华民族的一言一行之中,在不经意间外化为中华民族的气质与秉性.近代以降,中华民族一直致力于寻求强国御侮、繁荣富强之道,不断地对包括中国哲学在内的中华文化进行反思与追问.无论是鸦片战争之后的"开眼看世界",还是戊戌变法时的"百日维新",无论是"五四"前后的新文化热潮,还是二十世纪八十年代的文化反思,都在努力探索着中国哲学乃至中华文化的现代化转型之路.需要指出的是,西方文明的涌入与冲击,其实并没有割裂我们与传统的关系.我们始终是过去的子孙,我们始终是传统所培育出的后代.无论新文化和"五四"运动乃至"文革"如何批驳和推倒传统,都未能从根本上割裂我们与传统的这种血脉相连的关系.只不过,在这种强有力的社会思潮的冲击之下,我们忘却了传统,泯灭了对于传统的认知与认同,外在的形式几乎全部被"西化"了.但是我们的哲学还在,我们的文明还在,我们的根基还在,甚至从某种意义上讲,"五四"前后对于传统文化的抨击与批判,正是寻求中国哲学乃至中华文化现代化转型之路的一种方式.当思想界处于万马齐喑、死气沉沉、萎靡不振的时候,正是有了这样一群先进的中国人,站在时代的前列,为民族的哲学与文化寻求新时代的发展之路.正是因为他们了解我们的哲学,熟知我们的传统,关切我们的文化,才能真正地从中西方两个文明的角度加以比较和对照,发现了我们哲学乃至文化中所具有的不足与缺陷,并身体力行地去完善与改造我们的哲学与文化,让它走上现代化之路.一个民族的哲学乃至文化只有在世界的"大我"与民族的"小我"之中,才能真正体悟到人与世界的关系.只有透过世界的视角,以一种宏观而又理性的态度来对待我们的哲学与文化,我们的哲学与文化才会不断地富有生机,得到进一步发展的机遇.

阴与阳,物与我,同与异,己与群,内与外,既是中国哲学的精神所在,也是中国哲学与整个世界所具备的联系.中国哲学所具有的基本思想与精神,只有在走向世界的过程中不断实现现代化转型,才能在"成人"的过程中完成"成己"的使命.富有民族特色的哲学,是中华民族得以实现伟大复兴的精神食粮,走向世界的中国哲学,是当代中国实现现代化发展的不竭动力.让中国哲学走向世界,在全球化的大背景之下发挥其应有的作用,并在解决问题的实践之中实现中国哲学的现代化转型,是我们当代人尤其是青年人所面临的重大时代课题.转贴于 免费论文下载中心 http://eng.hi138.com

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