Explore the causes of gender barriers for

Paper to write network: Abstract: With the continuous economic and social development, gender equality has become a historical necessity, but still the real world there are different degrees of inequality. Invisible gender barrier for women is still more widespread areas of Author from the profound social and historical roots and path dependence of the complex reality of widespread critical aspects of the invisible barriers of gender-depth analysis of the causes, trying to help women break through the invisible barriers to effective means of seeking to build the best way to a harmonious society sexes.

Paper Keywords: gender barriers, gender expectations, ethical reflection, equal


With the different periods of social change and development of ideas, women's self-awareness has awakened, social status has also been more profound understanding, with the further development of feminism, women win the right to vote, education and employment has also been achieved great achievements, and institutional and legal form has been established, such as: After the founding of the People's Republic abolished all forms of discrimination, women bound reactionary laws in the Constitution and relevant electoral, labor, education, marriage, family and inheritance, a series of laws and regulations are clearly embodies the spirit of complete equality between the sexes. However, the law of equality is not equivalent to substantive equality, in the real world there are still many areas that hinder women's access to higher positions or higher salaries invisible barriers. 'Glass ceiling' phenomenon is one of the typical.

A high-level women leading to the invisible barriers - the 'glass ceiling'

'Glass ceiling' (Glass Ceiling is a metaphor, referring to set an invisible, artificial difficulties to hinder some eligible people (especially women in the organization up to a certain position. That some of the Women no way promoted to senior business or organization is not because they lack the ability or experience, or do not want their jobs, but for women's advancement, the organization seems to set a barrier layer, this layer of barriers and sometimes do not see it there is now a 'glass ceiling' has become a common expression, used to refer to women in the top few institutions [1]. the invisible barriers for women are reflected in various fields, mainly in the political, scientific, economic and other fields.

In the political field, a very low level of female participation in politics in the long Chinese history, only a female emperor - Empress Wu the new China was founded, the level of political participation of Chinese women progress in leaps and bounds, but because of historical and practical factors , politics still exist the phenomenon of men stronger than women, according to statistics, 128 provincial and ministerial leadership in the four groups, seven females, of which five provinces (City Committee Chairman, a President of the Legislative Council of Macao, a governor of the 25 current members of the Central Political Bureau, only one woman [2] .656 cities, the chief only 31 mayors in the grass-roots mass self-organization, the power allocation of resources also appeared gender imbalance in the situation in the rural village as the village head in only 1% of women [3] Thus, the Chinese women's leadership in the government sector was significantly lower and the higher level, the proportion of the more is low.

In science, the history of scientific development is a full history of masculinity, women scientists seem to have been walking in a supporting role as the edge of science, though Madame Curie, Mrs. Meyer has made such remarkable women scientists of achievements gained recognition throughout the international community, but such women are rare. awarded the Nobel Prize since 1901, has been recognized by the world's most prestigious awards in its six awards in physics, chemistry and medicine (or physiology prize is especially noteworthy, according to statistics, the Nobel Prize, established in 100 years (1901 and 2008, the men who won the Nobel Prize scientists 446 times, won the Nobel Prize for women scientists only 13 people, of which women in the field of physics winners of 2 people, 3 times the field of chemistry, physical medicine 8 times [4]. the reality of such an embarrassing reflection of women scientists in the fields of science and the men suffered a different scientists and other treatment, and male scientists with their unequal status.

In the economic sphere, women in employment, promotion opportunities than men, etc., laid off, unemployment risk is greater than the male, female employment is difficult, promotion and other issues highlight the small space even more women in a number of recognized areas of expertise, the real to be successful or mostly men, such as: cooks, usually cook mostly women, but often get a variety of chefs are men of honor; beauty salons, mostly engaged in this industry are women, but to obtain international and domestic awards often male, which is indeed worthy of our reflection.

Second, the invisible Causes of gender barriers

(A profound social and historical roots

In the long class society, men become the possessor of production, while women become men's appendages To cure such a model, resulting in a corresponding moral standards, make long-term ideological enslavement of women from birth we must accept that she is inferior to men. 'secondary' in subtle. so in the nineteenth century Europe, especially in China's feudal era.

In Europe, the development of European civilization, played a crucial role in the moral values ??of Christianity is full of mysticism and anti-feminist spirit. <<The Bible>> through the mouth of God, the woman said: 'I will add a lot of you are pregnant by the pain, you produce more children will be suffering, you crushes your husband and your husband to govern you. '[5] medieval monks philosophy deepened the traditional male discrimination against women who take the trouble of warning people physically the risk of temptation until the Renaissance and Reformation Europe, humiliating position of women began to ease, but still retains the traditional patriarchal down. even the bourgeois revolution of the greatest prophet Rousseau also believes that women are of little value of individuals.

In China, the feudal traditional social restraints that women's development: from the political status of women, the feudal right of political participation of women did not. The roots of troubles, says that the woman's participation in both social and political life directly, or indirectly participate in social and political life, will met with strong opposition from the economic status of women, in the feudal family, control over all property management and home of the central control of both parents in the hands of men from the women's educational status, the Confucian education to maintain male rule, so 'natural' the woman turned away, the woman's right to education was limited restrictions, but also lost the opportunity to enter school, at home to accept only a limited education is different from men, from the traditional Cai concept is to promote 'is the only virtuous man, is a woman's virtue.' are taught from birth do not need to learn something new, just need to know how to please a man, the man should respect, worship and obedience, dependence on men to obtain resources to survive, and so on, weaving a number of reasons for the women detained in a small private space, deprived of personal freedom, thinking began brutally detained, they have become invisible barriers to the historical roots.

(B path-dependent widespread

Path dependence (Path-Dependence refers to the evolution of human society, technology or system changes are similar to the physics of inertia, which enters a path (whether it is 'good' or 'bad' could produce such a path dependence in the 'invisible barriers to women's upward' path dependence in the problem exists in many areas:
1, path dependence determines the gender groups on gender expectations because of female long-term social, political and economic life in the absence of role, so that people form an opinion: that women are not aggressive and social responsibility, can only be seen as the vase. The idea to form a specific gender expectations. this particular portrayal of gender expectations for the professional men, and men who are suitable for occupation, the women may be very low expectations of success, so when in employment many women set the threshold, or arrange for women to the edge position, thus limiting women's opportunities for development.

2, path dependence resulting from the presence of gender inequality between groups share capital due to non-governmental 'Biography male' inheritance system continue to exist, resulting in a family of men and women share capital, share educational resources, social capital possession, etc. of inequality. 'men outside, women inside,' 'women should not show their faces,' the cultural tradition may enable women to own and their families expect them to be little relationship between the difference in the community [6] Therefore, women often social capital, the possession and use is not enough. Possession of resources weaknesses hinder the further development of women, the women's room for growth has been limited. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

(three complex reality of the decisive

1, the current level of productive forces of the invisible barriers continue to exist


The current overall level of productivity is not high enough, and uneven development in this case, male physical advantage - the advantage of strong physical impact of the continued existence, which determines the possibility of substantial inequalities continue to exist the same time, strong and male physical cause of its weakness is a psychological incentive, no matter what form they are strong women is hard to accept, the fear in the heart, just as Lauren Sidi Rodriguez said, 'a man of fragile in its appearance of strength, a woman's strength lies in its appearance of the weak. '

2, the household division of labor also hinder women's unreasonable increase of the important reasons


By the impact of traditional, men outside, women, women often bear the heavy, unpaid housework, such as cooking and cleaning, education, children, etc. Women are also involved in contemporary social work, but not from home labor freed, on the contrary, by the dual work and family from exploitation, but man's time and energy are limited, when the separation of most of the housework, while women's energy, ability to work will be constrained and restrictions, which hinder women's development.

3, the specific sex education, resulting in the alienation of women, gender awareness


Long-term male-dominant society, formed a set of ancient times has changed very little sex education model, such as: newborn babies, according to their reproductive organs on different clothes to wear different colors, different toys to play, choose a different playmates, etc. to the girls tend to choose red, yellow clothes, and to the boys to choose blue, green clothes; girls playing with dolls, but let the boy play pistol, cars and other toys, praise is often the girl's words, 'beautiful', praised the boys tend to be 'smart.' initial direct impact on the boys and girls education in the late character, ways of thinking of the formation. the scientific community had been decided, the color of the people has a direct impact on the psychological effect - red, yellow makes people more enthusiastic, lively , emotional, blue, green people more calm, restrained, rational, and the doll of choice is to let the girl know the United States since childhood, as a 'vase' image basis, and let the young girl began to accept maternal education for the future virtuous Shukutoku, paving the way for a wife, mother of the female image.

This mode of education and the environment, making the women's self-perception of alienation also occurred due to information from various sources by the constant, repetitive indoctrination, women often psychologically to accept women from the outside evaluation, unconscious and will move closer to that direction, but also have some thinking together criteria, such as: I am a woman, my thinking is emotional, I do not expect too much rational thought suitable for the professional field; woman does not work line , to give birth to a boy, and so must be ridiculous idea. Surprisingly, some women are enslaving male-centered society after the system becomes a school of economists Douglass North used in the 'path dependence exists' in the monkey experiments, not only completed the self-concept of inequality strengthened, but also always to maintain this concept, as disseminators of this moral standard, hands-on children to instill the idea around a direct impact on several generations. child is a white, acquired education, the environment influence to shape her into people.

These are confirmed as one of the founders of the feminist de Beauvoir's words, 'a woman is not gifted, but rather is evolving.' Thus, the generation of invisible barriers of gender is a social and cultural construction the results.

In short, the existence of the invisible barriers of unequal gender relations between men and women reflect the position of the center of the socialist concept of justice requires - equal rights for self-development is only a good ideal, not a reality. 'Ethics of equality before the' sentence it is doubtful, where 'everyone' is not a society for all, but ethical needs of people. As a woman, past, present and future experience, or will go through many injustices, many reasons for this is the result of common work, but also contrary to the principle of justice and ethics, conflict. Between men and women of the ethical relationship between human freedom is directly related to the comprehensive development and social progress, to break the 'glass ceiling', help women break through the invisible barriers of gender and social development will be inevitable. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

Chinese Philosophy Papers