Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Chinese Philosophy Papers
Post Time:2011-12-9 10:04:00
Abstract: The philosophy of pragmatism is the philosophical schools of modern Western philosophy of the most influential faction in one of emphasis on action, practice, focusing on the effectiveness of its salient features, pragmatism as a philosophy major schools of empiricism in philosophy have a huge impact , but also to social, political and economic life has brought great harm to this article from different angles Analysis of pragmatic history and evolution in which there is discussion of the theory of defects and their pragmatism pragmatism in a market economy to the social impact , we must adhere to Marx, Lenin, Mao Zedong Thought to resist the vulgar pragmatism thinking, and thus to better build a harmonious society.
Paper Keywords: pragmatism, practice, experience, efficiency
First, the historical origins and evolution of pragmatism
Pragmatism comes from the Greek word 'action' (action, by the practice (praction) and actual (pratical) evolved into a pragma (philosophy of action), eventually become pragmatism in the 1870s, the United States. Pragmatism meant that knowledge from the 'activities', know from 'experience' and 'practice.' But they say the practice is certainly not a man to understand and transform the world of objective activity. but a priori inner experience as a important philosophical factions, out of idealism and pragmatism metaphysical source of the negative and it stands for 'practical,' 'practical,' 'effective use' of the philosophy, the ancient Greek historian waves than ah, in his discussion of the history of The works had its own history will view as 'practical.' European Renaissance, the Italian thinker Machiavelli that 'the legitimate purpose of description means' principle in the 18th century French Enlightenment scholar Voltaire, Montesquieu Dove and others in the course of history with a causal explanation, the only motive to explain with the idea failed to find the source of political and economic thinking behind, and thus no real history to reveal the true development of the law. Pragmatism flourished in the late 1890s.
Pragmatism as a philosophical schools, originating turn of the century. First widely circulated in the capitalist countries, then stretch around the world. Pierce, founder of the United States .1871-1974 years, the formation of a Harvard University academic community called 'metaphysical club' .1872 year, Pierce made a report at the club, for the first time expressed his basic principles of pragmatism: the contents of any and all of a concept significance is the effect it can lead to .1901, he formally proposed 'pragmatism' of the term. Since then, a series of representative, such as: Charles Peirce, William James, John Dewey and Hu, who are pursuing a 'utility theory', that 'to meet my needs' 'useful' Truth is its central area is the 'efficiency', 'utility', which advocates individualism, egoism World War II, pragmatism and logical positivism semantic philosophy with the flow, the main representatives of the American philosopher Lewis, sodium Siegel, Morris, etc. Lewis created a 'concept pragmatism ', concepts and categories that are congenital thing. The key lies in their usefulness. Nagel that pragmatism and positivism only in the use of words express things in different ways. Morris founded semantics philosophy, advocating 'semiotics', one-sided exaggeration of man-made symbol in the language environment, the role of the system, to promote the truth is in accordance with the needs of people in different ways specific.
Pragmatism spread to China in the '54' period, when the schools of philosophy are the same as with the schools of Marxist philosophy in China, the rapid spread of the earth, when, Dewey and Hu Shih theory was all the rage in the land of China, especially in the intellectual and educational , in the emancipation of their doctrines, spreading democracy and freedom, advocates of this idea, focusing on practice and experiments, particularly in inspiration Chinese educated youth, who play a role. After the liberation, due to the 'leftist' ideas and doctrines the impact of doctrine, we have unfairly, in interpreting the non-scientific pragmatism of John Dewey and Hu Shih, in carrying out an extensive critique of the intellectual movement.
Second, as a philosophical theory, pragmatic theory a lot of deficiencies (I denied knowing of materialism, to promote understanding of transcendentalism.
Dialectical materialist understanding of the dynamic theory of reflection, adhere to the basic practice is the primary point of view, that practice is the source of knowledge, is to recognize the driving force for development, practice is the truth The only standard is the purpose of understanding, while the pragmatic idealism of transcendentalism insisted, advocates felt before experience, denying the material primary, secondary materialist spirit of the principle, though pragmatism about the practice, but also that the practice The theme is human, material object is the object of practice. but put aside the social attributes, leaving aside the relationship between man and society, while the single person as 'pure nature of the organism,' but simply to adapt to nature, and not to transform the nature of human social relations of people with the same time they stressed that person as an organism is different from animals, but different from the general nature of the object. stressed that people have emotions, will, in accordance with the wishes of the individual to adapt to environmental change environment, so people will have the initiative, so a pragmatic view of practice is emphasized individualism as the central concept of the practice, only a single emotion, will, according to the individual needs of nature to change the environment, completely ignoring the people with people, man and nature, human and social relations practice. only emphasized individualism practice, so practice is a pragmatic individual-centered view of practice. (Two terms associated with its practice in truth, the pragmatism of the basic formula is 'useful, that is the truth.
' Although the pragmatists, in describing the usefulness of this truth when that truth is not so direct and explicit, but no doubt they advocate 'truth effect', 'interests of truth', especially the new pragmatism, they think 'the truth must be useful', 'useful is the truth,' the eyes of truth is a pragmatist in the new 'tool.' Lenin said: 'know the truth as a tool, which is actually to agnosticism, too, is to leave the materialistic ...'  In their view only socially useful is the truth, and truth and is that people discover and created, but in testing the truth of the issue, the new pragmatism 'moment regarding' type, rigid, freezing, mechanical theory of practice instead of development, change and view the practice of living. pragmatism fragmented understanding is a cyclical process of progressive development, that the only correct understanding of it has value, false knowledge does not have any sense they do not know how to go through a correct understanding of the numerous times from practice to knowledge, from knowledge to practice cyclical process, through the practice of understanding right and wrong, in order to ultimately discover the truth for human use, they only from the 'effectiveness, success, point of interest to examine the truth of the objective content, as James said:' If new ideas it can most successfully do double features to meet our needs, that is really the best. ' Obviously, in pragmatism, where to meet individual needs and desires as a measure of standard of truth, and not from the intrinsic truth of the objective content to interpret the truth, so there can be said that in pragmatism is the idea of ??simply 'useful that is the truth.' Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
(three pragmatism in of people, people and the understanding of social relations, on the materialist conception of history as to avoid materialism, idealism opposition and controversy. but people have to face the idea of ??social reality and social change all the status quo. highlighted indulgent, break the routine, not conservative, advocating personal and work hard to forge ahead. only the emphasis on individual freedom and democracy, emphasizing respect for human personality against personality depression, it is more emphasis on the philosophy should be based on real life as the highest goal to obtain results . Thus, from an axiological point of view of the real world for the comments, so pragmatic, 'the object of philosophy and scientific research is limited to people's real lives and experiences of the scope.'  From the above basic ideas of pragmatism and ideas we can see that pragmatism is the subjective idealism, it ignores the laws of the outside world of objective things and characteristics that concepts, science, theory is not a reflection of objective reality, but only to help people organize experience, tools and adapt to the environment means so that the philosophy of pragmatism in its application, the nature may easily be abused vulgar pragmatism. linked to the background of China's socialist market economy, some issues must be thought and attention.
Third, under the conditions of the socialist market economy and its impact on the performance of today's pragmatism
With China's rapid development of the socialist market economy as individuals who are part of the socialist market economy, especially in the development of market economy and gradual improvement in the process. In order to provide each individual space for the development , subject to market conditions, while the 'economic' impact to each individual's development has brought a great sense of uncertainty and crisis. People should always be subject to economic, cultural, technological change, rapid washing the face of reality but fast-paced modern lifestyle, making the economic tide of the times people have to 'recharge' come and meet the challenges of rapid development of society, face a series of powerful such as: living, learning, housing, medical insurance and other life pressure and a sense of crisis in the interests of market economy principles and believe in the principle of equivalent exchange, so it is natural first to consider is the reality of survival in the practice of this principle of pragmatism, to achieve a personal goal is realistic pressing the hidden. starting from the individual self-interest, to the practical needs of specific actions as the primary means to achieve the most practical, the practical effect as the most realistic ultimate goal, therefore, some advocates of pragmatism in the wave of market economy naturally accepted and recognized by people. Especially in the current younger generation, the personal status in the first place.
Blind pursuit of 'actual', 'pragmatic', the focus fell on frivolous returns on short-term material interests and, although they may not be 'pragmatic' philosophy, a deep understanding of the system, but they are 'practical', 'pragmatic' , but is there an indisputable fact. now in the market economy under the conditions of the people, the stresses practical, about income, about returns, about the actual effect is indisputable social reality of the facts and contacts between people good way of doing things. Therefore, in the socialist market economy context.
Practical philosophy is not short of popular fashion style, but has an objective, real social basis of this, we should be given the right to judge and grasp and correct guidance. neither blind, artificial cut-off, can not be allowed to develop, because there is a fatal flaw of philosophy of pragmatism, it is easy in a market economy in the context of the vulgar pragmatism 'practical', 'short-sighted,' 'speculative,' 'selfish', 'funeral Germany' and shown as mentioned above, pragmatism in the developed capitalist countries have the U.S. system of philosophy in its development process, from early Charles Peirce, William James and then to Dewey, including the introduction of the Chinese scholar Hu spread of pragmatism, although both the expression of the philosophy of pragmatism slightly different focus, but the basic core of ideological pragmatism is the same, that is avoiding the basic questions of philosophy, emphasizing the practical , efficacy, personal goal to achieve, but unscrupulous. Hu Shih had a famous saying that 'less about some doctrine, some more research into the problem.'  Thus, as a philosophy of pragmatism in the real world, once used, is turned into vulgar pragmatism and people agree to follow. Once this vulgar pragmatism and interests under the conditions of market economy principles, the combination of the equivalence principle. People in social production, the communication process will be a 'practical', ' short-sighted, '' funeral Germany 'and the blind pursuit of personal interests in the emergence of the socialist modernization drive counterfeiting and Fan Jia, swindling, drug trafficking, prostitution, bribery and other social vices phenomenon, which can not be said that under the influence of the philosophy of pragmatism brought about by the vicious consequences.
Fourth, we must adhere to resist the vulgar Marxist philosophy, philosophy of pragmatism By contrast, in the popular style of vulgar pragmatism under the impact of Marxist and communist ideals such sentiments gradually been ignored.
Selfless, self-sacrifice, mutual respect and mutual love, honesty and trustworthiness of the morality of the people gradually abandonment be seen, pragmatic philosophy and world outlook and methodology is fundamentally antagonistic to the scientific world view of Marxism, but also, and socialism 'Eight Honors and Eight Shames' contrary to the social concept of honor. In this regard, in the socialist modernization and rapid economic development of the market today, we must take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thinking of Three Represents and the scientific concept of development. They should see the market economy brought great results and benefits, but also see the market economy has a negative effect. but also to see the context of market economy, the reality of the popular philosophy of pragmatism and vulgar pragmatism caused confusion to the people and their morality on the distortion and confusion. face the reality, we must strengthen the position of Marxism in the opinion of the commander in chief position, and vigorously promote Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thinking of Three Represents. promote the socialist and communist morality, to strengthen the 'Eight Honors and Eight Shames' moral values publicity and education, and consciously resist the vulgar pragmatism in social life, adverse effects and only then can we resist the pragmatism, so that the socialist material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization, the simultaneous development of moral civilization, to a significant overall national socialism , thereby to better build a harmonious society. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com