Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Chinese Culture Papers
Post Time:2011-6-21 16:27:00
[Abstract] Tseng Kuo-fan in the family inherited the traditional Chinese ethical thinking, based on the traditional family-depth interpretation of the theory of enlightenment, his family as the basis for ethical enlightenment, proposed to notice of and to teach the child into one, knowledge and charm to Germany and with training, and strive to self-reliance and hard and soft, and will conduct and unity of self-cultivation.
[Paper Keywords] Zeng family enlightenment ethics
In traditional Chinese family ethics, the emphasis on 'enlightenment' is an important feature in the "teaching" and "of" between "teaching" is an external indoctrination, "'is an inner hard, "teaching" through "transformation" in order to demonstrate its capabilities, "of" must also be "teaching" in order to show its purpose. Zeng inherited the traditional Chinese family ethics, with particular emphasis tutoring, and spare no effort. Tsang fan that "whether the children of the Yin, the sixth in a natural, a quarter as tutor." "He will train the children of the family as a base, so that no notice of and to teach the child combined with each other. Zeng tutor Ethics may be the lesson of the Department by a lot of this On the.
Eighteen handed down, in addition to inert proud ring
Xianfeng eleven years (1861) on March 10, i, Zeng critical occasion in the war to his son to write a letter similar to the wills of the letter, three generations have been tutor to the law are summarized and concluded, Star Gang grandfather public is "do not believe in character three," the father of public bamboo pavilion is "designed Shigetaka word," he is "eight three-induced Cheung." law of three generations of statesmen, each with its own characteristics, but also reflects the three generations of notice of the different focus plane. Zeng Gang on the public's notice of his grandfather sing very respected law can be said Tseng Kuo-fan of the "eight three-induced Cheung" in their grandfather's tradition, "do not believe in character three," Tseng Kuo-fan wrote home several times to explain: "notice of the road, all to the public for the French Star Gang," "brother, nephew after our home, always to abide by the star Gang of Shengmo as to the public."
Gang Zeng public by satellite from his grandfather's notice of the law, brothers and nephews at home repeatedly stressed to maintain and execute the letter, because it seems to Tseng Kuo-fan, this two "eight" two "three" is their family prosperity is an important theoretical basis and practical summary. It is precisely because the character of their grandfather, their family, three non-messenger has been considerable development and prosperity, but also precisely because of their constant Fulfillment of this character, only prosperity of the house because of Tsang family for the essence of their home training can be handed down, abide Bumiu, especially after he Tseng Kuo-fan generation to flourish again, but words and deeds for the younger nephew, diligent teaching and supervision, so Tseng Kuo-fan can not even "pass the examination" became high officials or border province court has home can also be considered a relatively well-off homes the right way of plowing. Tseng Kuo-fan to eight words for the church by eight to star Gang of eight public as the weft, warp and weft coherent, they form a notice of the theoretical system.
In order to teach the brothers to do this two nephews, "eight" two "three", Tseng Kuo-fan on this basis, required in addition to brothers and nephews proud ring lazy. Xianfeng eleven years (1861) in July, he wrote four brothers Huang said the country's letter: "home gardener has come to Changsha, whether employed? vegetables flourish not? various arrogance has no nephew? proud of fierce German, inert gas is bad, Both Prodigal way, Caution nurturing lazy to get up early, quit proud Zuojiao less nurturing than walk, look younger brother exemplary care, such as smell proud of my lazy place, also wrote to persuade. "
Tseng Kuo-fan's view, "eight character" and the ring is closely related to the pride ring inert, because the former are the foundation of the road home, which is "to protect the family way also."
Second, know the moral implications, and as a minor
Tseng Kuo-fan who read the letter usually feel: do Zeng difficult, more difficult to do Tseng Kuo-fan brother nephew and he is such a brother and father Peter: profound erudition, far-reaching insight, experience-rich, high position , demanding that he put all the experience, wisdom, ideals, has become the ambition, the unfinished business of all the pressure came to the brothers and nephews of course, Tseng Kuo-fan is lucky, do Tseng Kuo-fan brother nephew is lucky, He put all his knowledge, experience and wisdom to impart to the brothers and nephews without reservation.
Tseng Kuo-fan's notice of thought, he hoped that the brothers and nephews are the traditional self-study and self-motivation through tutoring, as one of high moral character, physical and mental health, wisdom, Minda, who know how to live good lives, with the now language to express, is a comprehensive development of people and he is the children reading, writing are of great concern to do, of course, Zeng particular attention to moral education and training.
Tseng Kuo-fan that, in Lide, meritorious service, Liyan among Lide difficult and it can not see the day successful, long-term training needs of the process, although Rucker hardest, but always rewarding, as long as "each think carefully on the words and deeds of the errors, in order to constantly watch and Ti "," German industry has increased, "" furniture from the date of "the purpose or expected to achieve.
Tseng Kuo-fan said: "The mortal one, only 'rehabilitation Qian Shan' four-character, reliable, mortal one, and only 'school of virtue' reliable four-character This character who can make a point, one point must celebrate, not the one points, there must be a calamity per its or Xiujiu the contrary, must of which are not sincere, and those so-called turn over virtue, not the quality of various spirits also. I and Zhu Di's and Mian Mian, a view of the real good and promising, not My great-grandfather's home so the accumulation of high self-brothers and stripping funeral, this is more than lucky people. "
Turn over virtue, for good pragmatic, Tseng Kuo-fan is always thinking, he has a famous article, that is <<a gentleman Cautious on>> that he believes that "independence" is that all people shared things, but different people in the face of "independence", when the effect is not the same, it is necessary to "Maintenance", which is "into the German's side."
Indeed an important virtue, as a full person, then we must have high moral, but also have some skills and a healthy body, therefore, Zeng stressed the importance of four aspects to his diary and wrote the book home said: "is a thought to the ancient work, the effect of the particular author, about four-terminal: the heart of Thailand on Cautiousness, King is on the main body is strong, then one day Qiu Ren Yue, Japanese Chin Si-cheng is God." has Kuo-fan required is a comprehensive development of future generations, he believes that only a minor in German intellectual, moral character, hard hands, so whether it is or is living in prosperity in troubled times, are both self-preservation, they can benefit others. Third, self-reliance.
Hardness with softness
Tseng Kuo-fan by the influence of Confucianism, he not only has the classy side, but also has Qiangyi tough even stubborn stubborn side, he did not himself bear to create a cowardly nerd, did not confuse himself subservient to the feudal bureaucracy , so every edge of the brokers. All of this depends on the orientation of his life and character design, he chose the path inside and outside alike, Chishen to positive life skills to side, while in distress to save trapped Zhigui from hexane and Masato, the notice of the country, so in his possession, while the concept of "saints," "Hero" two personality characteristics, he sought the two complement each other, perfection, so when the person was rated as the "holy phase." Zeng emphasized self-reliance, he believes that "strong" character is a major achievement of the first pass, is the so-called "strong" character is the foundation of the First, "strong" has strong meaning, "Since ancient times Yingjie, there is a strong non- of the gas, must not do great things also. "Suo Secondly, the" strong "implies a stubborn and resolute, Zeng advocate man must be" stubborn "quality and" Qiangyi "spirit, to give completely accurate in his poem said: "The inner should be stubborn, Wu Dao have barriers." In another poem, said: "My husband Shoushen to be stubborn, difficult Eritrea without worry only guess." in the <<nine poems>> said: " your stubborn husband. "Tseng Kuo-fan here referred to the" stubborn "is not the kind of stubborn, opinionated, but a" Qiangyi "spirit. with Zeng's words, is the painstaking, brave , "the hard-working tireless and strong, that strong also." is not used to exercise and "the strength of the Chen-heng, the Yi people." In other words, everything is hard to force yourself, dare to difficulties, perseverance, that is "Qiangyi," that is "strong." Zeng also called for self-reliance, there is another layer of meaning, that is "strong as strong as" that is, he often said, "barely.
" According to his explanation, "reluctant" is the "best, fate." Zeng often use the word education, younger brother, encouraging his men, but also encourage their own. He carefully concluded that "Utilitarian's into any human living Third, destiny home of their seven." "Articles of as not, the knowledge ranking of its three-day quality of living of its seven." "Destiny," "Heaven quality" is not to people's will, but the "human", "knowledge" is that people's self in Zeng's view, "force" the essence is twofold: First, is to develop their own quality, and establish self-confidence and self-esteem, no self-esteem. Zeng said that the "regardless of the life and death to the self-proclaimed, rather when asked honor killing more!" Second, is to "know they are impossible." is generally the cause of National Cheng Kung University who start a business will encounter many obstacles, from the situation at the time, very slim hope of success, if so discouraged, give up, I am afraid there is no history of so many unnamed hero, history will also be tedious. Tseng Kuo-fan's self-reliance, there is a "very strong natural Teli imperial meaning fear.
" Zeng order to remain resilient for the conduct of the first year so he wen (1861) of May to Guoquan The letter said: "ancient emperors, no one could not help to make self-reliance, is the saints who have their own road to self-reliance, independence of fear it could, indeed do not pull. Xi in Beijing than in previous years, good and There are various big name for cases of revenge, nor beginning and no transgression is not very strong contingent Trinidad imperial meaning. "Zeng revealed to his brother's state of mind that is both self-reputation, but also an education, is both a stand, is a theory. In addition, Zeng also stressed that people should self-improvement, but can not go to the extreme.
"Stubborn" or "barely" or "hard words", or should not be "cross-Pa Man", that should not be "opinionated", he sent this letter Guoquan were clearly defined, he said: "As Qiangyi of the gas must not be free, then Qiangyi and wayward are different." from the understanding, Tseng Kuo-fan can clearly see that "Qiangyi" and "wayward" difference between the two, however, in practice, to properly grasp the difference between the two, was not so easy in the long-term practice and continue to the summary, Tseng Kuo-fan proposed, in order to avoid the "wayward", it should be remedied by other means, and regulation of which the secret is the "soft system just for that reinforcement." In order to correct the "strong" word of the disadvantages, Zeng also often "out", "strong" words together to say.
That is smart, clever, it represents a person's knowledge, insight, wisdom, and if see something understand that vision, always able to identify right and wrong, coupled with Qiangyi spirit, will be able to navigate correctly and if the ignorant stupid and "strong" word combination can only lead to Hu wrapped around pretty disturbing, self-willed. Links to Papers download http://eng.hi138.comFourth, to mark the conduct.
the resting body
Tseng Kuo-fan as a master of traditional Chinese culture and Confucian orthodoxy of the person in charge, not only for the "Chi" has the meaning and role of personal experiences, and their energies determined at the same time, the family repeated their discipline. Tseng Kuo-fan of "determined" as the personal conduct business relations.
Zeng asked the brothers determined, because he is fully aware of "people with lofty ideals, is a way," the truth, and he himself set an example, determined immutability. Daoguang 24 years (1844) September, he wrote a letter four brothers, asking them to be self-determined by Yields, time is not wasted youth. "Gouneng self-determined people, the saints hero, not to what is going on? Why help of people! "I want to, Adams Ren Zhiyi. 'I prefer to give Confucius and Mencius, diligently day and night, but Confucius and Mencius is science, people who I was and the Royal Kazuya? if they are not determined, although the day and then Yao and Shun Yu Tang live, he has since he and I carry themselves, how and in my chai?. "
He believed that man can be determined if, he thought that saints can do hero, nothing can not be done, if a person is not ambition, so although the hero every day, together with the saints, but in the end, after all, may still be saints saints, hero hero after all, he is still himself, will "has nothing to do with their system."
In a letter addressed to friends Liu Rong, Zeng more clearly expressed his ambition: "Kuo-fan only after from a gentleman, and heard the end of theory, shallow rustic capital, and addicted to China algae, good Benedict Sima Qian, the same class, Du Fu, Han Yu, Wang's article, day and night to recite the tire also. Therefore, any servant of the blog, its big to cover like the line benevolence in the world, so all things all-win points, while those who want their small too few bodies, track in his wife, not contrary to the words of legislation to Chuijiao in Hsiang-tang clan its has become and, as I grow wherever complete its nothing into and, as I grow wherever complete. thickest known disgrace, Noir is not ashamed to spit the words, non-passers and definitely dare to run endlessly so also. "Clearly, Tseng Kuo-fan the legislation of the" chi "is its large, that is" like the line benevolence in the world, so all things all-win points ", but do not give up its small, that is Qijia Wang family. Throughout Tseng Kuo-fan's life, he did make it up the" chi "." rather further up, into things beyond the world ", has Kuo-fan with this belief, coupled with his own hard work, perseverance and the airplane, so that became the Qing Zeng "resurgence of the Hill."
Tseng Kuo-fan's view, "determined" or "bones" of the "Dan", as God is extremely efficacious drugs, the average person can make a reborn into another ambitious person. Since the "determined" that is, "Dan," then, "Dan" and "the main drugs" what is it? Zeng believes that "the main drug" is reading. reading can increase knowledge, increase knowledge in order to make their own personality and character be enhanced. But all Youyi determined based on the same time, higher is better to aspire to so-called study can raise air, is the truth, so Zeng's own reading perseverance, brothers and nephews have such requirements, he said: "I do not look too rich from generation to generation, I hope there are scholar from generation to generation. scholar who read the seeds, the signs are family, propriety and justice of the flag also." In other words, Tseng Kuo-fan seems to be determined, Li ambition, reading is the best way is through education itself, but also determined, he said: "The study covers ten, the first to be interested, the second should have the insight, the third must be constant. interested, then off unwilling to dirty there knowledge is infinite knowledge to know, not the gains and self-sufficiency, such as Rehoboth's view of the sea, such as Jingwa the glimpse of day, are those who have no knowledge. immutability is not a matter of absolutely no This lack of a three not. Zhudi not know at this time only a few at first, as interested, exercise and just this Zhudi mien. " Variable fan that ambition was forlorn, but the "blog" can not be changed.
's Ambition is not decided by one will be able to stand. Because a person to be standing ambition, is a process, human aspirations may vary depending on different conditions and environment to adjust, but everyone will have a basic aspirations, regardless of the environment, how to change the conditions, this basic general ambition will not waver, this ambition is the blog. Throughout the life of Tseng Kuo-fan, we can see, almost all the time he was determined, or determined to Tak Yip amazing, or determined to succeed, or determined to neutralize the "Hongyang." But He "affinity with the people, Saint and King" this blog has not changed, is staunch.
Tseng Kuo-fan that can move the recounts, and to persevere as successful as an important manifestation of free and he wrote home to teach self-critical manner nephew, said: "Yu Shengping take no constant of the disadvantages, everything is not as De nowhere, nowhere industry, already carry deep shame. catch for the military, since the vector extravagant him in the middle of this blog changes, especially those without large constant used as the internal shame. Seoul For a little success, to be the word from the exercise and start. "'Tseng Kuo-fan to the" Chi "changes to" in shame. "In fact, Tseng Kuo-fan does not really change his" saint outside the King "and" the blog "because he was young Woo is determined to become a spectacular "lone Phoenix", ride the sky to become a "dragon", in some spectacular big business in here, Zeng stressed that he changed the blog is not the issue, but stressed to be "determined immutability." He said: "Health and mechanics are made from time-honored, so the ancients in order to exercise and to make holy the base. over the last decade, also forces keep a 'constant' word." curriculum twelve of his own self- , was committed to this twelve is: Lord King, sit, get up early, reading Fuji, reading history, Jin-Yan, Yang Qi, how to protect yourself, nothing to die day, month, can not forget, for the words, do not go out the night. Tseng Kuo-fan's life-line of his craft here. In addition, he scheduled himself a self-study course: Those who study the experience, and human experience, their training, the creation of poetry, who did not were recorded and these record is divided into five categories, named: "Chayu even talk," "over gap Shadow", "feed the poor food", "Poetry Wenchao", "Poetry article." have experience, Tseng Kuo-fan to consciously record he was nineteen years from dynasty (1839) began to write a poem Wenchao, and began a diary, and later basic interruption. Eight years from Xianfeng (1858) in June, it is never interrupted a day, whether it is marching to fight, or sick in bed, he still photos recorded until the day before his death, only this connection at one end, we can see that once Kuo-fan perseverance.
Tseng Kuo-fan that the "static" and "Chi" has a very close relationship, he proposed, there is no "chi", the heart would be no "orientation", the heart does not "directed", it would not "static", not "static "can not" security "," its roots only in the annals. "Therefore, Tseng Kuo-fan of the Lord's" quiet ", to a greater extent, is a road to self-cultivation, as a good health, Tseng Kuo-fan there are "sit," the idea, but it is not dominant. Zeng been practitioners in their own process, but also the "main static" concept of home, pass, but he was the master of Tseng Kuo-fan "quiet" and Fochan the "man-" to distinguish. He said the "quiet" is not Fochan inaction, lifeless sit or Jizhao, but pregnant with life and development of "quiet.
" He stressed the importance of heart to experience "quiet" in the "action", called a Yang first motion, all this growth, we can say very quiet, yet germinal emotions can be said, is silenced not move the body. Otherwise, blindly seeking quiet, Xinrusihui, since that is quiet, in fact, physiological functions are lost, this is not called static, if in case of external interference, the heart will start floating up. "Static" is an effort, seemingly static, but which gave birth to all things life, which is to appreciate in order to feel through carefully.
For static and dynamic relationship, Zeng also made a deep thinking, he believes that because of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ and restrain himself from, so that in to the realm of quiet, no bias, yet the heart of ethics, it reached the "in" the realm of heaven and earth which upright, this looks like endless rain is moving, but to quiet the while from the "Maintenance" and refined, resulting in minimal errors in the attitude, not inappropriate, not the right place, then reached "and" realm, all things south of this genesis, the silence of the elephant, from static to dynamic from static to dynamic, where God presided over the slave to the quiet, ghosts where police Division, dynamic and static between this cycle, by "King" to be run through.
Movement can be transformed into each other, Tseng Kuo-fan of the movement which is a philosophical speculation, it is with this speculation, Tseng Kuo-fan a good grasp of the relationship between movement, moving in a static, static in creating motion , between his ease movement from the actual people doing things in mind, Zeng Jing to do that, first of all things to bearish. quiet indifferent to, the things in the world, especially the heart of fame and fortune aside, in order to escape the shackles of all the troubles was able to swim Happy Life, told brothers sons, wealth and fame, be chosen by the day, not reluctantly, to "forget the Yigai light." Although the main to the note from the Secretary of spirits by God, Tseng Kuo-fan showing a "fate," "destiny" idea, however, static and dynamic interactive view of wealth and fame do not over-valued ideas, or has a rational core.
Tseng Kuo-fan of "quiet" as raising the heart of an important means and methods, but also to maintain it as a body is an important way in this regard, he believes that "calm wins geniuses." Of course to "to mark the handsome, to resting the body," Executive of the quiet, self-cultivation and health can have both. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com