Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Chinese Culture Papers
Post Time:2011-6-13 11:02:00
Paper Keywords: social ethics, family ethics Zeng Xiaodi
Abstract: Tseng Ming-home ideas and the traditional Hunan culture, inherited and developed in house training on the basis of Zeng, the formation of a "Xiaodi" as the core of the family ethic tolerance think, "benevolence, propriety, Cheng, melancholy "as the standard of social ethics. Guofan Ethics in today's society when the building of family relations and social relationships have a certain reference.
First, the source of ethics Zeng One thought is the formation and development of interaction between objective and subjective factors in the results.
Zeng ethics both the formation and development of its deep history, but also by the Hunan Provincial Culture and Zeng family culture.
(A) the impact of traditional Confucian
Zeng off the studious life, living in traditional Chinese culture to the dominant deep study of Confucianism, Confucian Thought and the saint inside Kings benevolence, courtesy, forgiveness, moderation and other important concepts are their ethics have a great impact. Saint and Emperor is not only the traditional Confucian self-cultivation is the highest ideal of government, but also the ideal of moral personality. AEROSPACE ENGINEERING repair within the meaning holy minds, the king of the administration of exogenous or foreign social Feats. Tseng grew by by the typical Confucian education through life is also a typical saint inside out by the king of the road. early human capital, when he first had at the time the famous Neo Tang Jian, Zun-Jen Lo under the influence study guide and Song Ming Confucianism, Neo-accepted moral principles of life science, in strict accordance with the requirements of self-cultivation of Science, achievements saints personality, outside the King for the future laid a solid foundation Feat. He later by Wang Fu-chih of statecraft, to join in the cause of the country and people to save the world. "Benevolence" is the core concept of Confucianism of Confucius, one of "propriety" are the Confucian order of human relations focus on the principles of thought and relationships expression. Zeng attached great importance to rituals, things that all economic Zhiyong, both virtue and morality, or political war service, in fact, are the rituals. He said: "The reason to do ancient gentleman of its heart, keep their sexual who do not see Ke Deer. its self-cultivation, regulating the family, ruling the state and the world, is in good peaceful ceremony. from the inner Yan those words, the House ceremony thing as a moral; Yan those words from the outside, rounded ceremony affairs does not matter. " In Tseng's view, "Li" or "reason", "li" regulating relations within the ruling class, is the "truth" of the external performance. in personnel, we should maintain a "gift" as the main content of the feudal Tsunatsune ; in politics to maintain a "gift" as the core of the feudal ceremony of governance. So he said: "Good words Qiu Ren Zhong Ni, and elegant language execution ceremony, Ren and Li Meng is also claimed. cover sage so I'm feeling flat objects, The information world of the dispute, within the great benevolence, Mo rush outside the ceremony. In fact, Zeng's "Propriety" in "the kernel" and "outside the ceremony" continues to emphasize the relationship between "the benevolence" as The "outside the ceremony" for the use. If "outside the ceremony" is the word of living water, "the kernel" is the source, when ordinary people should be taught "in benevolence" and "outside the ceremony," the practice both, the two can not be biased , the only way to maintain "kiss", "Respect" in the feudal hierarchy and to family relations. In addition, Confucianism self-improvement, vigorous and promising and positive spirit of this world "as the heart of heaven and earth stand for Shengmin destiny, as Following his secrets to the holy, for peace for future generations, "the social responsibility and historic mission, also deeply infected and lead Zeng's life, his ethics and then to become an important nutrients, affecting his family and the education and training flexible use. if he only asked the children determined to Qingyuan, self-improvement, there are people with whom the amount of cellular material, Saint and Emperor of Chi, the heart of the people Guoyou excellent, but also taking into account the spirit of Confucian died. Zeng world with the ambition of Confucianism heart to ask the children of their own is also "self-cultivation, regulating the family, ruling the state and the world" practitioner of creed. He also may be taken into account in official circles there is a conflict with the fame and fortune, therefore, "and the official handover, neither hard nor soft , carries forward a belly anachronistic, so unwelcome, simply blindly with muddy, never hair smells, the heart of compromises with the saints. "Court which is also reflected his use of the Confucian doctrine of the mean.
(B) the influence of Hunan Culture A person living in the environment for survival and the formation of his thought plays a subtle role.
Zeng fall Hunan, in its growth process by the Hunan culture. Hunan Chinese culture is a very large number of regional culture characteristics and impact of a wonderful work. It features a large extent and impact are derived from the Confucian statecraft, the political core rule the world. ancient sages always as high-ranking official of Hunan, Bing Dazheng as its implementation The vision of the country the most important way to save the world. Zeng, in practice, also focus on implementing the ideas of statecraft, he set about establishing Translation House, the introduction of Western science and technology. His passion for science and technology and promoting the Westernization Movement, the idea of In the spirit of science and technology and not very advances of science in modern China is undoubtedly the Progressive era, fit the requirements of the times, Zeng is the embodiment of Confucian Ideology. justice and interest in the traditional debate, the Hunan seldom "benefit" to the right place, they always choose the traditional sense of "justice", while ignoring real "profit." Zeng also to some extent by the impact of Hunan Righteousness and Profit, is an important sense Lee's boss light.
(C) of the Tsang family inheritance and development of training
Zeng family motto is passed down from grandfather Zeng house rules family tradition, is the dominant frame of reference as the value of Confucianism, and its main contents of Confucianism with a clear color. Zeng stressed Fucizixiao house training, seniority, Xiongyoudigong of family ethics, emphasizing respect and care for the young, the lower Sincerely love the concept of ethics to enlarge the family reflects the socialization of family relationships. Tseng was born in ancient time of great importance to the family, had family filial piety and family motto pass character family traditions to form a good style of study of Tseng and mature thinking has important implications. "filial piety pass on" and "filial piety" refers to honor their parents; "friend" means brothers and neighborhood harmony. "character family traditions," the specific content is "book, vegetables, fish, pigs, early, sweep, test, Po." book "is the scholarly study," vegetables "means vegetables," Fishing, pigs "refers to fish and pigs, on behalf of means" cultivation. "Zeng Bing Chenggeng time family tradition, this impact, the cast work hard, life-adhere to a daily habit of reading, although the official to significant bit, still adhere to the person in the garden fertilization in the vegetable. "early, sweep" refers to the early sweep, which is required Tsang family over the years, including the children of the family should do the same to do. "examination" refers to the ritual, intended to forget the teachings of our ancestors. "Bao "means and good neighbor, that is tolerant of others, exercise self-discipline. Zeng Zeng inherit and carry forward the essence of home training and practice with their own insights to build a tradition and the unity of Ethics times. Zeng that read-oriented farming, farming is better than reading official. the traditional family in officialdom and training focused on the moral education, "Livelihood", "practical" aspects of the admonition little farming on farming often contemptuous attitude held; and Zeng, although encouraging children to win fame, but fame in between reading and farming, he also emphasized that the former, "I wish I read it as farming family of filial piety, do not want it for the official career of the family" values, both the importance of the Tsang family tradition of family inheritance, also in "excellent learning official" training in the history of feudal officialdom home with revolutionary ideas. He said: "Amendment of the body, type of at home, will finish with the gentleman of the wind flow Ze, divided into poetry and literature The Ze, comity of Ze, Jia, selection of wall, Jia issued the Zeyou as long. Qijia must be a man of cultivating the wind, especially in the wind, a man of few Jia measures to maintain a long tradition, therefore, attention to farming life, read Zeng , and to his grandfather Gang male star, "I though to a high official in the descendants of the family home in garden waste is not the old industry phrase" as a "fresh holy to the training" for the "eternal law."
Tseng, another important part of home training is the "six mad", specifically refers to the monks, witchcraft and medicine (doctor), to (geomancy), life (fortune telling), and the guests do not go very angry resident, see Tseng family motto opposed to a long family tradition of feudal superstition. Zeng training at home on the basis of inheritance, put forward against the feudal superstition, advocate science of statecraft. Zeng sage sage words and deeds that can be learn, but, the life , Monk, Witch, prayer can not learn, teach children to keep the "six mad" Zuxun, rejection of superstition. He also stressed the importance to apply their knowledge against the arrogant, to promote the children learn scientific knowledge, learn advanced Western technology and culture. He caused his son to them to seriously study the book Astronomy and Mathematics, Astronomy and Mathematics washing they do not understand the "shame." In a letter to his son Li praised the Office of Foreign Affairs was "of the self in China, the Wei Jue Gong."
Second, the main content of Zeng Ethics
(A) family ethics
Ethics in the family, the education of Tseng Kuo-fan to life is more important than our official, which is weak in its promotion of "official", "wealth" of the ethics embodied in the head. Has been a long time at the official, heard and saw official like a battlefield, for power, floating impermanence. Therefore, warned the family to have a weak financial officer. While reading a government official is imperial times the average family could only dream about, but Zeng was not keen, "more than mortal children of the high official Wang Yu do not want to high-ranking official. "" Where the world courtiers, will do more than just a generation to enjoy. The beginning of the proud sons of Lost, then wander about, before the gully, to celebrate a delay, the second generation who rarely carry on. in the family ethics , Zeng that their children not only how to raise the issue only consider more important question is how to educate their children. first and foremost insist is the "Xiaodi", which is home and the party, but also several generations of the family man of Tsang work hard and make remarkable achievements of the ethical principles. Links http://eng.hi138.com
download the free paper on "filial piety", Zeng has his own realization and experience.
filial piety, not the ordinary people understand outside the peace "by heaven, subdivision interests, like the body section by, to foster parents. but it seems these have been enough, he thought should also be at a higher level spiritual care from their parents," Serving Parents in order to get favor-oriented ", so that the spirit of pleasant parents. to achieve the" filial piety ", children must also have a good deal with the problem of personal accomplishment and the ability to form good relationships and prestige, not to insult their parents into trouble. which visible, has a big heart is Xianzu filial piety, fame, Vladimir shame, for their parents proud. On brother, Zeng said: "As for the brothers on the occasion, Wu Yi but love to Germany, do not want to tolerate love.
Teach with diligence, advised the workers to keep learning make love brother to Germany also: Feng Yi food, pitch wishful love brothers tolerate well. palliative love, so that brothers and physically inert, long arrogance, Germany will lose the line, is that the lack of filial piety is also my brothers death, I dare not. "Xiongyoudigong can not just stay in" For the love of the rich, the desire of its pro-expensive ", even more important to German industry persuaded brothers, fault-phase regulation, in order to progress together. he recognized that the strict requirements, not condoned, is the real love. "The more Yin Wang is responsible for the more cut", it is as a brother of the statesman Zeng experience.
In feudal society, family life, Fucizaixiao, Xiongyoudigong the intergenerational family ethics has deepened within the family and the international family, so that China's traditional family cohesion has a stronger and more grandchildren. Had a very life heavy "Xiaodi," one of the purposes is to use "Xiaodi" to maintain harmony within the family, unity and stability, and hope to maintain internal Zeng clan had family wealth and status, stretches later, the Tsang family without falling Britain danger, no destruction of the disaster Zeng Brothers; external back to sober, and into the can do Paul, in Huanhaichenfu can look after each other in mutual help, good luck, good fortune, to form a force, with the breathing , honor and disgrace, with the advance and retreat, a common fate. in order to maintain harmony and unity within the family, had one moment of Ti oath brothers within the family, the friction and conflicts that may arise in case a little bit of lack of unity of the "Mars' rise to "backyard fire" from time to time for everyone to sound the alarm. have warned us in a letter from home: "Recently, foreign aggression after another, over night gingerly, if disaster is imminent, Xiao country to remember their words and deeds, not in local things ... ... the current situation had become acute anxiety, fear for their own safety, fear of the fate of the family, and loneliness; the other hand, are often concerned about the development of family members out potential difficulties and risks, and do everything possible to make use of its status and influence to help his family misfortune and ward off evil. had their own, brother, family, consider not only the Trinidad and Tobago, and very thorough. Zeng Zeng brother married in prior to their earnest instructions; after they married, he still spared no effort to family laws require them to comply with house rules, and give them "thrifty with Honesty, straight and may be able to, celebrate current generations, the light gate first" and other words as a motto. Educate their children and nephew had always advised to "Qin King," the word for the law, warning them to "easily by the extravagance frugal people, by the extravagance frugal back hard", one can frequently be King, although there are thriving weather troubled times. In short, once "Xiaodi" as its own tradition, heirloom, and this carried forward.
His ancestors, "filial piety pass on" the family motto, based on traditional Chinese culture from the Hunan peasant culture and learn similar nutrition through their own understanding, digestion and practice, to form a distinctive "Xiaodi" as the core of family ethics. He not only stressed the parents of their children, siblings of brothers and sisters to love, care; more emphasis on children, their parents , brothers and sisters of siblings to filial respect. Xiaodi is to promote the brothers and sisters and brothers and sisters, parents and children an emotional bond. In Tseng view, to promote harmonious human relations, to promote parent and child must first , the relationship between siblings and the siblings start, which is "Works of this."
(B) Social Ethics
"Ethics" refers to a certain historical stage, based on aspects of life outside the relationship between people, objective, and overall ethical relationship, which includes social morality, professional ethics and so on. In the social ethical relations, had insisted on benevolence, propriety, honesty, anger of the criteria and in which the implementation of the "strict" principle. he is just a generous boss, there is deferential as the lower levels, there are stereotypes but good dealings with colleagues. He cherish Shigeyoshi, Fu Yang set out to save drowning girl critical time and the heavy sense Comfort small profit margins are very appreciated talent. He let go, highly recommended Zuo, and very bloody, Emotion re-defined NORTH PEAK Yulin and friendship between evaluation of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was among the Jun, have shown the character and high knowledge Tseng.
Was that the treatment of men "as used by Wei Li, with the ex than with Jen," a leader must have the ability to control subordinates, but do not use trickery, but rather use the "sincerity" and "sorry" to treat them. "Sincerity" is to faithful friends, is a man's moral character. Under the terms of Zeng reflected everywhere in the treatment of "sincerity", the performance of the two "W": First, tight money, when to chip in with points, would prefer to suffer a little. Second, do not compete with the work under, won the battle, the credit attributed to all men, Paul held the event to do, with the best incentives to win over him. Of course. "Wide" is not no principles, in order to treat people when Similarly to "strict" about the merits of specific performance, subordinate officers and men of all disputes and litigation to Fangguan Min, as appropriate within the scope of its jurisdiction, we must clarify the matter on the merits, without ancestral protection, when the punishment to strict punishment. "strict" also reflects Zeng to treat people, while the use of "ceremony" principle requires men to make Xiangyong dedicated loyalty, loving people to follow the tenets of respect. who also exercise self-discipline, who say their subordinates one point home to the army with money. "Shu" is the first proposed by Confucius, the basic content is required when dealing with interpersonal relationships people want to forgive others for their own strict, honest to others, appreciate others, to "have Yuli written for people, he seeks Daren; have behaved, do not impose on others " Tongzhi years the first month (1871), Zeng is bad disease Cross the old man, then he is still concerned about the men of military discipline.
When they heard rumors of the Yangtze River when the naval soldiers to extortion, the 25th letter to Cheng per two brothers, said in the letter: "Yangtze River Navy, outside Tut have trouble statement. or that the domino people who met, places to get gambling blackmail. have thousands of people are tow client was incensed, not allowed to cover the gun mast However, intervention in legal cases ... ... the two brothers in the province, he also has heard the gossip? such as information as I heard. "Tseng can be seen from the demanding not only for their own, and strict supervision of the brothers, They do not tolerate violation of ethics and discipline matters, the embodiment of the Zeng Cheng and social ethics in the principles of anger.
Third, the evaluation of Zeng Ethics
Zeng methods and principles of ethics, both from the Chinese mass culture, and historical conditions at that time under the new exposition, and to give the new content, reflecting the ancient and modern social life in common or basic human relations and ethical requirements, the Department continues to shine away people, including the factors that have universal value in today's China and the world for the construction of ethical relations are still universal. However, it should see that, because of the subjective and objective conditions, the Ethics has obvious limitations, backward and conservative, such as "One" thinking among the blind loyalty of the feudal remnants still exist.
The current period of social transformation in China's economic changes brought about, so many people trapped in the processing of social relations utilitarian tendencies. In family education, along with the general improvement in living standards, many parents keep light weight education, on cultural knowledge Light and moral education, especially the family kids to child develop a sense of little emperors, self-centered, life of luxury, but not the ritual, there is no cultivation, and even arrogant pretty wild. In response to this situation, critically inherit and carry forward The Ethics Zeng reasonable factors and successful experience in modern life for the improvement of human relations and ease the problems of areas of modern life, the revitalization of ceremonies, democratic governance, have a positive role in building a harmonious society. Links http://eng.hi138.com
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