Papers Category:Philosophy Papers
- Chinese Culture Papers
Post Time:2011-5-15 15:41:00
Paper Keywords: Pre moisten home; Heaven; Heaven Separation; Ecological Ethics
Abstract: Confucian ecological consciousness has been a conscious, an initial understanding of the relationship between organisms and their environment, in the "Separation of Heaven" concept put forward a "system of heaven and with the" play to people's initiative and enthusiasm; in "Heaven" concept that "Jen and love things" and maintain the natural ecological balance, there is no "Separation of Heaven" and "Heaven" is not sound, "Heaven Hop A "and" Separation of Heaven "is a unity of contradictions.
On the modern transformation of traditional Chinese culture is based on the theme of the spirit of the times, and leave the spirit of the times, it does not matter the social value of traditional culture. Ecological ethics as a science from the mid-nineteenth century onwards, along with capitalism, the first the formation of an industrial revolution began, but this does not set accordingly on the ethics of our ancestors no ecological sense. Confucian understanding of the world and transform the world in the struggle, the great attention to summarize the laws of nature, natural resources protection and rational development and sustainable use has accumulated a wealth of experience, until today, there is still reference.
1, the ecological consciousness of Confucianism
Confucian thought has been able to become a modern source of the theory of ecological ethics, a basic reason is that their eco-conscious ethics is based on the ecology on the basis of scientific knowledge.
Confucius recognized the existence of a single species is impossible, the existence and development of biological species must be the way to their natural living systems on the level of awareness of the organization, is to use "class", "group", "domain "and other concepts to express. Long-ju, Levin drowning, radiation and farming, Confucius had it, so hermits Yan .
.. ... granted and stopped working. Zilu line to sue. Master worry then, saying: birds can not be with the same group, Wufei he died, who, while Who with? world tactics, Confucius is not and easy also. "Birds can not be with the same group," said the birds belong to different subgroups.
He also made from ecologically "class" concept. Confucius said: "The hill is also heard, profile tires to kill the unicorn is not to die prematurely rural, fishing is dried dragon dry sub-Ze Yang, destroyed nest eggs of the Fenghuang Cheung is not. What is? gentleman taboo injured his class also. "volume IV Seventeen <<Confucius family>> Xunzi also said:" Things kind of play, there must be the beginning. vegetated domain of Health, animal groups also, the material from The class also. "Xunzi has the plant (vegetation) and animals (animals) in biological systems is divided into two different categories, and recognized the grass to" cluster "in the form of growth, wild beasts to" group "(class) survival mode, which is a common phenomenon. Confucianism to the relationship between organisms and their environment, there is a certain understanding.
"Kawabuchi who Arowana is also the home" "those mountains, birds and animals of the home also" "Kawabuchi is dry to the Arowana, the forest is dangerous to birds The. "These are creatures that can not do without a certain environment, environmental decision biological existence. Confucian concern for the environment at the same time also took note of the biological food chain exists between the relationship." Long Yang, the six domestic animals education ; killing, then the vegetation colonization. "vegetation that provide food for animals, and when the decrease in the number of animals, the plants will grow lush.
In an agricultural society under the conditions of the time structure of Confucianism to the laws of particular importance in the season, they used the "time" to reflect the season and general ecology of law, the formation of a number of important knowledge. "Although the wisdom, as the momentum, although Ziji, it is better to be the time. "This means that, as seasonal conditions and ecological environment, the law of" time "is not exceeded. Therefore, Confucianism to" time "for the media to link man and nature, in human nature of the relationship, asking people to change according to the season to reasonable arrangements for access to natural resources activities. "Kua Chi Yuan marsh Kawasawa, like the time gap, so many and the people more than turtles gifted with it."
2, "Separation of Heaven" - the basis for transformation of nature Human beings can play to their initiative and creativity to participate in the creation and genesis of natural processes, making human life better.
Xunzi calls this initiative and creativity as a "system of Heaven and use it."
Great day and think of them, what animals and objects and rule; from the Song of the day, what with the fate and the use of the system; hope to be the sometimes, what with the seasonal in making it; because of the extra material of, what can and Cheng and of the; thinking of things and things, what with the loss of management objects Erwu; willing to work with physical reason for life, what and why things have become. it is the wrong person and thinking day, then lost all feeling.
In Xunzi's view, instead of shouting "but for the big day" and admired it, as the day as natural substances to control it; its "Heaven", "From Heaven" and praise it, it is better to grasp the laws of nature and use of it; their days waiting for days looking at the gift, it is better to use day whenever necessary; its passively allow things like the natural increase, as people actively display their talents and promote the genesis class breeding material. Therefore, he considered that as long as play "rule of man" role, good management, can improve productivity, increase harvest.
This is the land of the raw grains are, people of good governance, the acres of the number of pots, one year old and the re-of; and melon peach dates Lee a few in pots drums; and meat dishes per sparse to Ze volume; and then the cattle herds, a and Jing car ; hail Loach eels and turtles in the cage when the other one and in groups; and then, if wild birds bright sea smoke; and insects, during which all students can have relative to dietary were innumerable. fu heaven and earth, all students are, more than enough inherent Cannibal carry; Ma Ge silk, feathers, birds and animals have teeth leather, natural people carry more than enough clothes.
Confucian view that, as a day of nature, its existence has its own particular changes in the laws, "high the sky, the stars are far away, Gouqiu why, the thousand years to the day, you can also sit Erzhi" . so-called "it", which means the laws of nature. because nature has "it", the personification of nature can be obtained through some kind of regularity so on, from near and far, from the ancient and the present, more more widely recognized. but in their view, the law of nature is objective, does not depend on human will, "violence of the day, the 10th of the cold, not to students who are" "day trip there often do not save for the Yao, not wood, and death "" day that nobody has dropped out of the chill of winter, to no man evil for widely distant also cease. "objective laws of nature that people only follow it to get good results," The rule will be in Kyrgyzstan ", if contrary to it, would suffer," should be of the order to chaos is fierce. "
3, "Heaven" - maintenance of the ecological basis
Confucius two thousand years ago proposed the harmony between man, balanced and unified "Heaven" thought, and proposed a "Jen and love things" point of view. "Benevolence" is the core concept of Confucianism is the most common human morality, the most basic principle, although it started loving parents, but not finally close, and even to exceed the scope of family to "universal love all", and eventually pushed love and the overwhelming majority of all things. " Jen and love things, "the idea is to apply the ethical concepts of human society to promote the relationship between man and nature, the spirit of benevolence and emotional concentrate on the natural world. Gentleman to things, love Er Fu Yan; to the people also, of benevolence Erfu pro.
Kiss and Jen, Jen and love for things.
Mencius described here, the level of benevolence, that is for the "pro", "Min" and "objects" are three different levels of objects, different levels should take the appropriate attitude - "pro", "benevolence" and "love" , that is, on the family to "pro" on people to "benevolence" of things, to "love." These three steps as a system, is the logic of Confucian thought to start caring. And this is projected onto the human moral sentiments performance of foreign objects, in their view, there are animals similar to the moral and human emotion, all the animals on their own population has a natural emotion, hurt when their companions, they will emit a kind of sympathy, and when their companions die, they will tear the human heart and lung whine issue: All students were between heaven and earth, flesh of the case there must be knowledge, are all working to know the love of his class.
This big birds is loss of husband died of their group match, the more time-months, use a counter along. Off home, use a row irresolute Yan, honk and stick Yan, Na Shu Yan, Yan hesitate, and then can go to the well. Little who is scrambling a forlorn haggard Yan Jue Yan of are then able to go to it.
Animal Shangqie similar misfortune of sorrow and sympathy with, human beings even more consciously against such damage should be the behavior of animals, to ensure the diversity of biological species. Mencius even think that someone as a hidden side of life, love heart: So that the person has a heart can not bear those men suddenly see Ruzi into a well, there are hidden off the side of the heart Ti.
Non so the cross in the Parents Ruzi, non so friends to reputation in the Hsiang-tang, non-evil The sound of the also-ran.
This is known as the "hidden side of the heart" of compassion, not acquired in the minds of income, but innate instinct of the human innate ability of sympathy for life, is the virtue of people being able to pass. "Jen and love objects" is the actual content of the natural protection as an end result.
Confucian long-term production of human life and practice, recognizing that nature is human survival.
Mu of the house, the tree of the mulberry, fifty can carry Yibo; chicken animal dolphin dog Tiger, not missing the time, seventy can carry on meat; acres of fields, not to seize the time, several members of the no hunger can carry home. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
so Tian Zhisuo paper cover, to the set, MO endless the United States, caused by its use, on the decorated virtuous, the next in order to keep and well-being of the people.
Here, Xunzi and Mencius affirmed, "Tian Zhisuo cover, to the definitions of" natural resources are human survival and development of physical infrastructure. And on days of limited natural resources and the unlimited nature of human needs contradiction, from sustainable development, sustainable use principle, the history of Confucianism under the conditions at the time, for the problems, proposed different measures of protection:
Zi Shuo glory when the vegetation is forests axes Nothing, not tender their students, not its length must also; hail tail Loach eel and turtles do when pregnant, Zhou Ze Nothing bitter poison, do not die prematurely of their students, not absolute The length also; spring, Xia Geng, the autumn harvest, winter provisions, when the four lose, so corn is not absolute, but also the people more than food; sewage pool deep marsh Kawasawa, like the time gap, so many turtles in particular, and the people more than use it; cut a long lose their support when cutting, so the mountains are not children, and people are more than material.
Do farm work in the right season, Google can be eaten; few hard not join the pool collapsed, the fish can be eaten; axes to when the mountains, forests and can not win with him; Valley and the fish can be eaten, can not win with wood materials, is to public health is also mourning death of regrets; health mourning death of regrets, Wang is the beginning.
This clearly put forward the Confucian emphasis on protection of natural resources and maintaining ecological balance, the fundamental purpose is to "enrich Quo", even the protection of natural resources linked with the country's political, that this is the benevolent politics, the starting point is the same "health funeral death "is closely related to the event. and in accordance with the rhythm of nature, all things seasonal rhythm of life, that in accordance with the seasons to arrange" the ban "and" relaxation time "is the primary means of protecting natural resources, and recognize that conservation of natural resources is to The persistence and focus on sustainable resource use, that is, "do not die prematurely of their students, without a break its long."
4, "Separation of Heaven" and "Harmony" contradictory unity
"Harmony" and "Separation of Heaven," the value of ecological ethics is that they not only provide the Confucian philosophical basis of ecological ethics, and ethics for the modern ecological framework provides a philosophy - of man and nature , coordinated, consistent thinking and values. This is the modern Western industrial society, the lack of thinking and values of things. "Heaven" and "Separation of Heaven" is not only to overcome the chronic problem of a central theory of human strong medicine, but also from the Ecology Center of the transition to a healthy ecological coordination of the catalyst, the transition from the modern industrial civilization to a post-modern "bridge." In fact, only the "Harmony" and "days Separation of people "complementary together, they could provide for the ecological ethics based on philosophy of science. "Heaven" requirement in dealing with the relationship between humans and the pursuit of a harmonious ecological environment, sleek, unified realm.
Not only with the natural equality, and the seamless and natural. The whole world as an all-encompassing, is the ineffable, inconceivable, which is simply no difference. People and the world of all things, but in a certain level of understanding of differences, and blending with each other at a higher level, not separately, the philosophy of "Pan-Love all things together" and "Heaven" realm.
Confucian view that "all things one of benevolence" and "benevolence" as the moral nature, as the person who has requested, depending on the material as I have to co-inside and outside, to the world's "Kuoran Grand Duke" is to the environment and ideals. A person for each other, both inside and outside of the points, the things I am, cut off from Heaven, the primary concern of others are indifferent, this is "inhumane", that the loss of moral nature, its roots are "private." The behavior of a person affected by the dominance of moral reason for the public, will be able to consciously adjust their own behavior, as an invaluable. All things conducive to the world, was the; who do harm in the world, then discard . This idea is reflected in the relationship between man and nature, the inevitable demand of people for the purpose of overall survival, rather than focus only on individual, local and immediate interests.
However, there is a tendency to "Heaven," lift up higher and higher, the "Separation of Heaven" resigned lower and lower, it seems that "Heaven" is the only way to save the destiny of mankind , and "Separation of Heaven" is the culprit causing ecological crisis. It should be noted, conquering nature and maintaining harmony between man and nature is not confrontational, not conciliatory. Basically, the people and nature relations, the fundamental difference between man and beast is that one can transform nature and animals can not. Mozi said, were "born depends on the force," Xunzi says that people can "Heaven and used the system," can "for the use of oxen and horses," so the world was the most expensive, "the wrong person and think days, the loss of all things love." in a sense, it can be said, that is, transform the nature of the conquest of nature, it can be said to conquer nature is the basis for the development of human civilization, not natural transformation and conquest, there is no human civilization. In fact, both people and nature together side there have been sub-side, there is no "Separation of Heaven" and "Heaven" is not sound, " Man and Nature "and" Separation of Heaven "is a complementary paradox. reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com