Of Western modernity and Western aesthetic interpretation of modernity

Abstract: Since the study concerns the different angles and Western scholars on the characteristics of Western modernity have different interpretations, but they are mainly concerned about their faults, rational and reflective characteristics. Indeed, anti-traditional, rational and reflective is The basic characteristics of Western modernity, they affect modern Western aesthetic ideas and the development of the modern genre Guan Xue and it presents a Western aesthetic tradition rebel against instrumental reason and reflection characteristics of the Western aesthetic limitations.
With modern studies abroad warming, the concept of modernity has also become the focus of academic attention, but the concept itself is a modern covers political, economic, cultural and other areas of the complex, philosophy, sociology, literature, aesthetics and other disciplines are involved in the discussion of this concept, and the formation of a variety of different interpretations. Moreover, the current domestic and international academic concept and no consistent conclusion.

Modern studies with foreign compared to domestic research is much more complicated. Draw directly from abroad led to the understanding of the concept of bias, domestic academic use this concept exist, there have been serious confusion. Demanding conceptual on the clean-up, and then starting from the conceptual analysis of specific phenomena. Actually, this idea is also suitable for including in Wai art, literature and other phenomena, including the study of aesthetic modernity. aesthetic modernity does not have is an important Chinese Modernity components, but also the characterization of Chinese modernity, reflects the development of Chinese modern twists and historical changes in China's own complexity and particularity of modern, aesthetic modernity misreading of these concepts are so China Modern research has shown a greater complexity, ambiguity, therefore, we must get to the root of the clean-up work to do, combing from Western modernity, aesthetic modernity to China's modernity and aesthetic modernity semantics evolve to reached on Chinese modernity, aesthetic modernity profound and comprehensive understanding.

Because of modern, aesthetic complexity of modernity itself, there has been a variety of ideas to understand these issues, coupled with China's modernity, Chinese aesthetic modernity particularity, it is quite a long time to clean up these issues within the Chinese humanities and social Scientific facing an important subject, but also requires a number of disciplines, participation and efforts of many scholars this end, this paper attempts to propose an analytical way of thinking, through an interpretation of Western modernity (ie, from the characteristic angle of interpretation) to reach the Western interpretation of aesthetic modernity.

Generally speaking, in modernity (Western modernity more obvious) the understanding, there are periods (period), characteristics (quality), experience (experience) three basic perspectives, these perspectives is causing ambiguity of modernity main reason for the different point of intervention also led to various disciplines different understanding of the concept of modernity in order to facilitate the analysis, where the selected characteristics (quality) perspective, and analyzed in order to understand such a perspective representation of Western modernity view, and then find the appropriate entry point to analyze the Western Aesthetic Modernity. should be noted that the analysis of these three perspectives are interrelated and, when mainly from one perspective to the study of Western modernity, it is usually possible to cause shelter for other perspectives, and therefore requires a combination of other perspectives from a certain perspective to illustrate the conclusions.

From a feature perspective, modernity has its own prescriptive, but because this perspective is too general, it can be from different angles, discipline problems to explain the characteristics of modernity in Karl Marx (Karl Marx) opinion, the West Modernity is characterized by the emergence and expansion of capital, which led to the traditional, ethics, institutional huge impact, and established a new capitalist system, in Max Weber (Max Web) seems that Western modernity characterized by rational, is instrumental rationality (technological rationality is the main manifestation), the form of rationality on value rationality, extrusion and substantive rationality replaced, forming a "cage of modernity," Simmel (Simmel) is considered modernity is the objective culture, material culture on subjective culture, individual culture of repression. Jurgen Habermas (Jugen Habermas) inherited the idea of ​​Weber, in his view, from the 18th century, with religion and metaphysics the separation of science, morality and art gradually diverged and developed into an independent field, but duties, "From these ancient worldview legacy problem has been classified for inclusion in the effectiveness of arrangements for special areas: as a problem of knowledge, fairness and ethical issues, as well as interesting problems to deal with. scientific language, moral theory, jurisprudence and art production and criticism were specially set up by people and people can make the culture of each of the areas of culturally career, and cultural issues within the field of specialized expertise to become the object of attention so that experts on the control of the field of culture manifested awareness - tool structure, ethical - practice structure and aesthetic - the performance of the structure, so that Western modernity Western societies linked differentiation while he was still standing in the position of modernity against various post-modernism, characterized as aimed against them a new form of modern conservatism, adhere to modern legal and unfinished nature, and to rely on rational reconstruction.

Zygmunt Bauman (Zygmunt Bauman) of the "contradictions" as characteristic of Western modernity, specifically, the "contradiction" of a "historical period, began in the 17th century in Western Europe a series of profound social structures and Thought Transformation and performance: (1) a cultural planning - along with the development of the Enlightenment, (2) one kind of life form completed by the society - With industrial (capitalist, socialist and later a) the development of society. "In other words, conflict is a specific period Neixi Ou society are manifested in the type of characteristics so ideas, you can also see another contradictory phenomenon, which is Mattei · Card Linneisiku (MatEi Calnescu) said bourgeois modernity and aesthetic modernity contradiction between bourgeois modernity is the "scientific and technological progress, industrial revolution and capitalism overall economic and social changes brought about by the product." from ideas point of view, "it generally continues the early stages of the history of the modern concept of those illustrious tradition. progressive doctrine, I believe that the possibility of science and technology for the benefit of mankind, time concerns the worship of reason, in the framework of abstract humanism been defined by the ideal of freedom, as well as pragmatism and worship action and success orientation. "aesthetic modernity led avant-garde production, since it has been established since Romanticism radical anti-bourgeois attitude. Specifically," It is disgust middle-class values, and through extremely diverse means to express this disgust, from rebellion, anarchy, apocalypse doctrine until the self-exile, therefore, compared with those of its positive aspirations (they tend to vary), and more to show that cultural modernity of the bourgeois public rejection of modernity, as well as its strong negative passion. "In Calinescu opinion, the opposition between them is so incompatible:" One is rationalism, another if not outright irrationalism, but also strongly criticized rational, one is full of confidence and optimism, and the other is a deep suspicion and committed to the faith and optimism of non-mystical, one of cosmopolitanism, and the other One is exclusivism or nationalism.. "In other words, there was a contradiction in any society, but the contradictions of modernity is particularly strong. Moreover, the contradiction is the global, not only manifested in any society collar

Domain, but also in all areas of society and between the fundamental social nature.

In addition, many scholars are very concerned about the reflection characteristic of Western modernity and reflective as the fundamental characteristic of Western modernity, and thus to understand other aspects of modernity. Anthony Giddens (An-thony Giddens) that industry, capitalism, Western modernity are two important dimensions, "the separation of time and space," "off the field (disembeding) mechanisms for development" and "the use of reflective knowledge" is the three main sources of modernity, The "knowledge reflective use of" - "on the social life of the systematic production of knowledge, the reproduction of the social system itself becomes the inner part of the organization, so that the social life from the traditional shackles of constancy freed" - the play irreplaceable role. Though Bowman as the contradictory characteristics of modernity, but he also insight into a reflection on modern society played an important role and established a reflection and an association between modernity: "We can be considered in this period, the (world, human life, the environment, human beings as well as the association between these three) order has been reflection, if it is terminated or the retired, then, it is a thought problems, care issues and an understanding of the self, recognizing that indeed is an intentional practice and practical issues for fear of leaving cracks. "famous sociologist Eisenstadt (Shmuel N.Eisenstadt) believes that modern planning initially in the West occurs, brings a unique system of ideological premise premise and it also brings a person's autonomy and the concept of the future, and led to social order, ontological and political order and its legitimacy questioned the premise that a comprehensive reflection of social consciousness and, modernity reflective consciousness permeates almost every aspect of social life, "modern scenario reflective consciousness, not only focus on one or a few go beyond the popular picture of society and the basic ontological the possibility of different interpretations of the concept above, and to question the kind of picture of the development and the associated system model to qualitatively and it makes people realize that many of these picture and patterns exist, and indeed this type of picture and concepts It can be argued.. "It is this reflective consciousness led to the traditional suspicion of the established institutional models, ideologies, political and cultural factors such as the premise of the question, and explore their possibilities, these reflections are also affect the survival of individuals in Eisenstadt opinion, although the origins of modernity in the West, but it has experienced two world-wide expansion of modernity first round of expansion from the 19th century to the 1960s and 1970s, Since the 20th century to the present is the second round of expansion of modernity in the modern expansion of these two, reflective have played an important role. Eisenstadt explanation makes us feel great role of reflective consciousness and study it in shaping the individual, society and the modernity of modern role.

From the above point of view, Western scholars characteristic of Western modernity explanation is disparate. Interpreters of different angles and different disciplines, different research methods have led to the different characteristics of Western modernity understood. Nevertheless, we still You can find out some of the more consistent understanding.

People of the Western understanding of the basic characteristics of modernity there are significant differences in paper mainly the anti-traditional, rational and reflective as the basic characteristics of modernity, and from these characteristics explain the meaning of Western modernity.

Speaking of modernity, people first thought is probably the tradition, you can also think of some words such as "conservative", "backward", "outdated", "obsolete", "crisis", "feudal" and vocabulary. Conversely, when we talk to the modern, modernity, we might think of "progress", "forward", "innovation", "revolution", "create" and other vocabulary when we talk further the relationship between tradition and modernity, we in the minds of some, such as may be the emergence of a "break", "divide", "fight", "opposition" and other vocabulary for this can be found, we actually have unconsciously put tradition as the antithesis of modernity and barriers want to get rid, although traditionally not as full as we imagine a resistance, it is not like we envisioned to fundamentally eradicate, but in fact, these views have been partly unconscious decision to the traditional fate. Moreover, the development of modern history is the history of the traditional hit from this sense, fracture or anti-tradition is the most important characteristic of modernity, this feature in the history of the development of Western modernity repeatedly revealed. tradition society based primarily on a basic, conventional prescriptive, which provides basic social order, morality binding consanguineous family played a decisive role, the position of the individual in society and members of the community's basic worldview and values while economic development is basically the individual fixed down, but the development of modernity has broken these prescriptive With comprehensive social transformation, first in the economy has undergone major changes, the traditional style of the dependence on the land weakened, on behalf of the business community and the rise of political freedom enhancements, and gave birth to a new form of society. Society weaken these changes have occurred on the basis of the traditional, traditional provisions upon which gradually lost its generation and play a role in the soil. Faced with a new environment, the traditional role of the condition occurs also changed, its influence diminished. pair of individual, economic change individual suffered broken the shackles of the individual to freedom or relatively freely flow, individual choices and opportunities facing both increased, these factors make him realize the traditional decline, adjusted for those not suited to traditional factors of social development, and actively explore the possibilities for their own survival, so that, regardless of social or individuals are subject to the shackles of tradition, especially the traditional to the new form of society, social order, social system, the individual's worldview and values ​​of individual freedom shackles while individuals have begun to question the social and traditional legitimacy, even from the fundamental opposition to the tradition in various fields, which constitutes an important feature of Western modernity Western modernity on traditional social relationships, relationships, family impact, in Tocqueville, Marx, Durkheim and other classical Teng Nice and social scientist's theory have been vividly described and incisive analysis: Tocqueville, modern society is split into the individual "atomic" type of existence, Marx, modern society is full of class conflict and struggle society, it makes "all things have vanished strong" in the Tang Nice view, modern society crushes the traditional society of the "Community", and prompted its collapse, in Durkheim's view, the division of labor tear a complete society, but also weakened the traditional close relationship between people.

Rationalization is another Western modernity basic characteristics. Rational Weber initially described the development of capitalism in use when the concept of Western modernity is his important contribution to the study, after many scholars of the play, becoming the generalization of modern Western characteristics is an important concept. Webb believes that religion can provide meaning to the world, the meaning of life and reasonable explanation, but also a source of meaningful action, therefore, not only plays a decisive religious life beliefs, values ​​and direction of the effect, but also affect the life on the road choice, people's behavior in the real world. modern times, Western society to a "rationalization" of the change, along with the development of capitalism, the decline of religion emerged, the result is that people of faith collapses. "rationalization" process is

"Disenchantment" of the process, the modern society is facing "expert soulless, heartless indulgence by" the embarrassing situation. Webb tradition of social action into action, emotional actions, the actions of reasonable value and purpose of reasonable action 4 types, of which the latter two types of social action in Western society has played an important role in the value of reasonable action type of action itself reflects the significance and value of the ultimate pursuit, with the actors to pursue the purpose of the world and the meaning of life is directly related to the purpose reasonable action just reached H, tools, instruments and intermediaries, the action itself is not linked with the ultimate concern in Western society, the value of reasonable action and purpose reasonable action there is always a conflict between, but with the decline of religion and the significance of the "rationalization" process unfolds, both the question of the division, conflict and contradictions intensified, the result is being squeezed and the exclusion of the former, while the latter occupy a dominant position, difficult to bridge the gap between the two Objective rationality Ⅱ tool can be called the king rationality, instrumental rationality, by the "objective law of cause and effect," the constraints of an objective standard, but worth the lack of objective reasonableness standard, there is a close contact with the subjective rationality. Thus, the people in order to achieve a certain purpose, it will leave no stone unturned, using a variety of means, through calculations to achieve its purpose, and do not shun and beliefs, values, ethics, obligations, responsibilities, ultimate concern, real emotions, etc. These more fundamental factors Weber substantive rationality and rational form of the relationship between rationality and instrumental rationality and value similar to the relationship between the in Weber's view, instrumental rationality of capitalist production and the capitalist system formation process played an irreplaceable role. Moreover, the development of capitalism, the performance of the role of instrumental rationality in science and technology, management and other aspects of society, including in the technology sector was the most obvious, therefore, some scholars have simply technological rationality as tools rational representative, and wine container connected to technological rationality instead of instrumental rationality, in fact, there is a difference between the two is not able to directly equate. instrumental rationality, rational form of uncontrolled development expansion, the results become a kind of oppression of power, led to a value rationality and substantive rationality extrusion and exclusion, and sparked tensions of modern Western society, and ultimately the formation of Weber's "rational cage." Therefore, the development of Western modernity main is "rational" development process, you can put "rational" as characteristic of Western modernity.

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Western modernity third feature is reflexive. Many scholars regard the reflective consciousness as both the characteristics of modernity has actually touched Western modernity and the root of modern Western society: the traditional society not only to the individual fixed at a relatively stable position, but also largely on the individual provisions of the natural, social, moral, others and self-understanding, but modern society the traditional uprooted, blood and the role of morality was an unprecedented challenge, the individual is placed on the intersection of various options, modern society in the expansion of individual freedom, autonomy and initiative, but also makes the individual began to question tradition, both worldview and values , the existing political order and social arrangements, and to reflect its limitations, this is the formation of new values, social forms and institutions of the premise. reflective consciousness small, but promotes the formation of modernity, but also affects the ideology and behavior of modern way. reflective object consciousness mainly in three aspects: first, the traditional reflection, traditional worldview, values, ethics and norms of behavior, the traditional man and nature, society, the relationship between others and self, have been questioned its limitations are manifested, and may lead to drastically break their shackles of ideology and behavior. Secondly, the search for knowledge, reflection, social systems of knowledge production is an integral part of social reproduction and important basis, when such knowledge applied to society, they promote the formation of a new substance, and modernity produced a profound impact on society and the use of system knowledge reflection mainly by "power split", "value effect", "unexpected consequences effects "and other factors. Thirdly, on the order of reflection, order here mainly refers to the order of the world, the human living environment of the order, the order of human beings, as well as the association between these three modern reflection, negative the order of the "otherness" that confusion, uncertainty, illogical, irrational, irreconcilable, etc., to establish a unified, clear and definite order, and the design, management and conquest are essential means, which in the "Enlightenment" was particularly obvious, and has been throughout the modernity evolving.

From the Western perspective of the development of modern concepts, from the feature point of interpretation of modernity very representative can even say that summarizes the main square of Western modernity and, also reveals the importance of Western modernity meaning here the anti- traditional, rational and reflective characteristics as Western modernity, does not mean the exclusion of other features. Conversely, anti-traditional, rational and reflective and other features of Western modernity complement each other, interact and constitute multi-level, multi-dimensional Western modernity as a whole as an integral part of modernity and characterization, aesthetic modernity has an irreplaceable role, but can not do without understanding aesthetic modernity grasp of the whole of modernity, from the modernity to find and analyze the origins and aesthetic characteristics of modernity, therefore, more understanding of Western modernity constitute our analysis of Western aesthetic modernity foundation and prerequisite for our further analysis of the Western aesthetic modernity opens up channels.

If the size of the epitaxial sorted according to the words, modernity, cultural modernity, aesthetic modernity is descending three concepts. Generally speaking, modernity is an include political, economic, cultural and institutional aspects, including complex, cultural modernity just a part of modernity, modernity and aesthetic culture of modernity is only a smaller part of it is included in the modernity and cultural modernity among Thus, modernity is We understand the aesthetic modernity provides a reference and an important prerequisite, it is also shaping the culture of modernity and aesthetic modernity has played a crucial role. Similarly, in our study of Western aesthetic modernity, it also combined with modern Western of features that not only determines the characteristics of aesthetic modernity, content, and determine their specific existing form and we will iconoclastic Western modernity, rationality and reflection characteristics of three starting to analyze them aesthetic modernity of Western influence.

From the perspective of anti-traditional, anti-tradition is not only the basic features of Western modernity, but also the Western aesthetic modernity basic characteristics from the perspective of the development of Western modernity, anti-traditional modernity not only throughout the entire development process, and also reflected in the political, cultural and aesthetic, etc. modernity each side. could even say that anti-traditional Western aesthetic modernity power and the most notable features: anti-tradition not only determines r Western modern aesthetic change of thinking, but also the modern Western aesthetics Trends and an important foundation for replacement schools and manifestations in the development of the Western aesthetic modernity, in the modern Western art specific categories and genres, the anti-tradition has almost become the most adequate their legitimacy only way according to their development , from content to form has been true. Moreover, many modernist literary genre replacement but also for their schools before the negation, continue to deny even developed into a "new to the tradition"

Until generated and there is a considerable distance modernism postmodernism, in fact, postmodern aesthetic ideology is anti-aesthetic modernity natural extension of traditional logic and it was at this point, the Western aesthetic modernity and Western modernity exist the similarities, but it should be clear, the main anti-Western Western modernity traditional political, ethical and other aspects of the system's default, the main opposition aesthetic modernity is realism, naturalism and other aesthetic tradition and modernism established by aesthetic aesthetic oriented paradigm. Moreover, there is still a Western modernity and aesthetic modernity of the question of confrontation, which is the Western aesthetic modernity generated from romanticism when it established the theme, and in the classic modernist aesthetic thoughts the peak, so anti-traditional Western aesthetic modernity power and basic features.

From a rational perspective, the Western aesthetic modernity is rational world revolted against instrumental rationality and alienation of resistance, this resistance is through emotional and irrational to achieve. With the gradual expansion of Western modernity, declining influence of religion, traditional values, ethics are beginning to weaken the influence of faith there is a crisis, Nietzsche with "God is dead" summed up the image when people's mental condition in which a crisis of faith, the aesthetic modernity attempt assume the task of faith, which directly affects the aesthetic characteristics of modernity: "The traditional modernist aesthetics of life trying to prove that instead of religious or moral, is not only creating art, but also truly an art that is a mere Beyond the efforts of man to provide a sense of self, but look back to the art itself, like Nietzsche obviously farmers exposed as the root causes of this find themselves trying to make out of the pursuit of modernist art, towards psychological: that is not to work while is for authors to give up heavy objects and Bian mentality. "Western modernity important feature is rational, rational (especially instrumental rationality) resulted in the expansion of the hegemony of reason, the existence of a threat to value rationality and formed a perceptual irrational squeeze so opposed to rationality (especially instrumental rationality) hegemony, against the oppression of technology on people, society caused by people opposed to the alienation of the Western aesthetic modernity universal aspirations. Romantic aesthetics of natural , the importance of human emotions, the industrial, technological and tired of Western civilization and resistance, both set the tone for the Western aesthetic modernity and thereafter modern Western aesthetic thoughts repeatedly manifested, but also the development of the Western aesthetic modernity the main line at the same time, but also from the Romantic aesthetics, when Western modernity and aesthetic modernity contradiction, confrontation and opposition gradually manifested. This tendency in Romantic literature on performance was very clear: it is "to the past and the utopian , steering subconscious and delusion, steering magical and mystical, steering children and nature, turning dreams and presumptuous, in a word ...... steering can feel them from the failure to extricate all the requirements. "western modern aestheticians right There are many modern Western society summarize: Schiller called schizophrenic modern era, Nietzsche called the "death of God" era, Holderlin called "poverty era", called Heidegger "Homeless", "technology era", "hanging in the era of the abyss," Marcuse called "one-sided" era, Foucault called "the death of man" era, they modern rational world boycott is evident in the rational offside, beliefs collapse world, the West is committed to the ideal of aesthetic modernity's excavations: Schiller to "game impulse" to bridge the emotional and rational modern split Hyde Siegel hopes poets exist "to cover" in order to make "poetic dwelling on the earth," yard Er Kuse hopes fundamentally transform emotional and instinctive "new sensibility", Foucault through his advocacy of the "aesthetics of existence" to get the freedom and conscious life. Indeed, aesthetics generated initial meaning is the "perceptual learning", which emphasizes the emotional status, hopes to curb irrational emotional and trying to establish the emotional and rational Ask harmony. western aesthetic modernity are hoping emotional, irrational uncontrolled expansion for rational revolt. Vladimir Schlegel gave away the secret: "I do not care about all the unseen, I could only interested in smell, to taste, to touch, to stimulate all my senses everything. "Seen in this light, the Western aesthetic modernity has to overcome a crisis of faith as an important task of their own, through the emotional, rational and non-rational to overcome the world, and forming a confrontation with Western modernity, these characteristics throughout the Western aesthetic modernity of the development process, in the genre of modern Western aesthetics on performance was also very obvious.

Reflective consciousness from the perspective of the Western aesthetic modernity is not only an aesthetic reflection and manifestation of the traditional way of limitation, and its various factions within the electricity in a reflective approach to other genres. Asked when the Western aesthetic modernity also strongly to resist Western modernity established order, clarity, unity, planning, and even against all the shackles of Western modernity from romanticism, modernism and postmodernism can be found in the evolution of Western aesthetic modernity these characteristics. Modernism aesthetic reflection of the traditional, and reached the extreme conclusion: the aesthetic as opposed to morality, truth, and raising tool and a mouthpiece, and to flaunt aesthetic separate phase, the relationship between man and society are in conflict, between people the relationship between adherence to the "Hell is other people", the human soul is not an ideal natural habitat is the relationship between man and hypocritical self-antagonistic relationship. Moreover, the Western aesthetic modernity are also within the various schools through reflection ( main rebel strategy) get its legitimacy, development of power and inspiration. modernist aesthetics aesthetics of romanticism pursue organic theory, harmony and emotion of the supremacy of the reflection and rebellion, postmodernism aesthetic reflection and rebelled modernist aesthetics depth model, elite awareness, sense of history, originality and aesthetic forms (especially text) function over the pursuit, showing planarity, popular, consumer, copy, fracture and image consumption Postmodernism has also inherited the modernist reflective consciousness, and to promote awareness of this reflection to the extreme: not only reflect on the limitations of modernist aesthetic, but also reflect the limitations of aesthetic creation, and thus expand its own creation (more mostly experimental). Secondly, the Western aesthetic modernity but also reflection and denied Western modernity pursuit of order, it advocates uncertainty, anti-logic, irrationality, and in the "Enlightenment" in the build up and throughout the modern Western sex among the clear and definite order to confront. modernist aesthetic flow

School very seriously emotional and irrational: the flow of the stream of consciousness on the importance of the unconscious, and spiritual symbolism for the mysterious phenomenon of nature that corresponds to the dig, surreal fantasy through automation committed to writing, recording dreams, psychoanalysis aesthetic importance daydreaming, subconscious manifested authenticity, while the surface of everyday life phenomena is abandoned by those exploring the Western aesthetic modernity for us to show the world the irrational, mysterious, unknowable and uncontrollable side. reflective consciousness from the perspective of the Western aesthetic modernity more demonstrated with the conflict between Western modernity and confrontational.

Western modernity and aesthetic modernity are very complex issues, all kinds of interpretation after another, and with their research, but also may be more, richer interpretation of different methods, discipline, angles may have a different conclusion. article from the Western scholars characteristic of Western modernity different views manpower analysis of Western modernity and Western aesthetic modernity's basic characteristics and specific meaning, hope will help deepen our understanding of them, but also for understanding of China's modernity and aesthetic modernity provide meaningful reference.

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