Mugwort chemical constituents and pharmacological research

[Keywords:] mugwort
        Keywords:: Artemisia; chemical composition; pharmacological effects
        Mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., also known as Artemsia argyi grass, for the perennial wild Asteraceae Artemisia herbs. Mugwort for our traditional Chinese medicine, to leaf medicine, ancient medical books recorded as 'bleeding to drugs', is one of gynecological medicine commonly used. Mugwort has a warm by the bleeding, cold-dispelling pain, regulating menstruation tocolysis, dehumidifying itching, pass through the rolling and other effects [1]. For Shaofu Leng Tong, after cold is not transferred, Gong cold sterility, hematemesis, Nvxue, uterine bleeding by more than the next pregnancy, blood; outside the governance of the skin itching. Although the medicinal plants used in popular habit for thousands of years of history, but the medicinal mugwort composition and use of scientific analysis, then begins in modern times. In recent years, a lot about the mugwort in pharmacognosy, chemical composition, pharmacological effects, clinical application, process and quality control, etc. were reported. This article far as Mugwort in the chemical composition, pharmacological research conditions are summarized below.
        1 Studies on chemical constituents
        The medicinal part is the Artemsia argyi mugwort, a medicinal function Artemsia argyi chemical substances contained in them comes from having studied the chemical constituents of Artemisia are mainly volatile oils, flavonoids, eudesmane, triterpenes and trace chemical elements such as [ 2].
        1.1 Mugwort volatile oil constituents of Artemisia whole plant volatile oil content of 0.20% ~ 0.33% [1]. In 1985 Liang-feng et al [3] first reported the chemical composition of volatile oil from Artemisia to 1,8 - cineole as the main compound of the volatile oil (39.45%) for nearly 40 different compounds, mainly α -orientalis-ene, pinene , camphene, sabinene, 1 - octen -3 - ol, right - cymene, 1,8 - cineole, γ -terpinene, camphor, borneol and so on. GU Jing-wen et al [4] reported mugwort essential oil, the main chemical ingredient 1,8 - Cineole (35.40%), 1,4 - Cineole (4.17%), camphor (5.52%), et al. Mugwort leaves contain volatile oil of about 0.020% [1]. PAN Jiong-ray and so on [5] identified from mugwort leaves 2 - methyl-butanol, 2 - hexenal, tricyclic terpenes, α -alkene such as 60 kinds of oriental arborvitae ingredients. Liu Sheng [6] from the Laoshan Mountain in Shandong production of volatile oil of wild folic artemisiae identified 34 kinds of ingredients, which have higher levels of limonene, α -essential oil composition, α -phellandrene, and lemongrass alcohol. The reports all grass and mugwort mugwort leaf volatile oil content of the main components and there are greater differences, which may be related to plant growth in the region, the environment, climate, and materials acquisition time are closely related.
        1.2 Mugwort flavonoids of Artemisia flavonoids are mainly 5,7-Dihydroxy-6,3,4 - trimethoxy-flavone (eupatilin), 5 - hydroxy -6,7,3,4 tetramethoxytoluene flavonoids , quercetin (quercetin), and naringenin (naringenin), etc. [7].
        1.3 Mugwort eudesmane class constituents of Artemisia eudesmane Class (eudesmane) ingredients are cedar glycol, Artemisia lactones, an oxygen-4β -O-acetyl eucalyptus leaves 2,11 (13)-diene-12,8 β lactone, an oxygen-4α -O-acetyl eucalyptus leaves 2,11 (13)-diene-12,8 β lactone [7].
        1.4 Mugwort study triterpenoid triterpenoid with α and β amyrin, non-custodial terpenes, α and β amyrin of the B ester, Lupine enone (lupenone), sticky mold ketene, fern-ene ketone, 24-methylene Cycloartanyl oxazolidinone, sago cuckoo alcohol 3β -methoxy 9β , 19 Central Wool steroid 23 (E)-ene-25,26-diol, etc. [7].
        1.5 Mugwort trace chemical elements by atomic absorption spectrometry research found Mugwort contains a variety of trace elements such as strontium (Sr), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper ( Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), etc. [8].
        1.6 Other chemical constituents of Artemisia Artemisia of other chemical constituents are mainly β -sitosterol, stigmasterol, palmitic acid ethyl ester, ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate), and trans-benzylidene succinate et al [9].
        2 Pharmacological Research
        2.1 The in vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia anthrax bacillus, hemolytic streptococcus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus, diphtheria bacillus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, etc. are inhibited. Artemsia argyi flooding agents against common pathogenic fungal skin inhibited. Smoked folic artemisiae significant antibacterial effect affected area to reduce the number of colonies in the air, completely inhibited the growth of septic bacteria. Smoked folic artemisiae of adenovirus, rhinovirus, HSV, influenza virus and mumps virus are inhibited in line with civil drug experience [10]. Jiang congruent [11] with folic artemisiae Fumigation rooming disinfect the air can be achieved by the normal parameters of air requirements, but also for maternal, newborn irritation, toxicity. To mugwort and herb or with the iris and realgar or with the herb, realgar, Angelica mixed smoke, against Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus, E. coli, diphtheria bacillus, typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacillus subtilis, Alcaligenes, and have to kill or inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moxa smoke still capable of reducing burn wound bacteria. Tuberculosis in guinea pigs after moxibustion treatment, the disease progress has been slower, mild lesions, especially in the late course of the disease more evident. In addition, can also enhance the phagocytic reticuloendothelial cells in response to [12]. The ancients used Artemsia argyi treatment work and civil use Artemsia argyi evil, which has strong antibacterial effect Artemsia argyi correspond.
        2.2 The anti-cancer effects [10] Artemsia argyi have anti-digestive tract cancer, breast cancer, the role of folic artemisiae oil gavage in mice can enhance the exudation of inflammatory phagocytic cells, can enhance the phagocytic reticuloendothelial cells in response.
        2.3 choleretic effect [10] Artemsia argyi oil suspension, 8 ml / kg, 3 ml / kg duodenal administration, bile flow in normal rats can increase 91.5% and 89%, compared with the previous administration a very significant difference (P <0.001). 0.02 ml / kg dose folic artemisiae oil duodenum, bile flow in normal mice can increase by 20%, indicating that they have significant choleretic effect.
        2.4 antiasthmatic, antitussive, expectorant action of volatile oil from Artemisia asthma has antitussive, expectorant effect, in which the main active ingredient for the Terp enol, directly on the trachea, can be antitussive expectorant asthma, regulating the hub of the Drug-induced asthma significantly protective effect, and can extend the argument of acetylcholine plus histamine whooping incubation period, reducing the number of convulsions animals. Made from mugwort 4 - Terpineol ol 300 mg / kg ig also a significant anti-asthmatic effect. With folic artemisiae oil gavage 0.5 ml / kg, on the acrolein citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs significantly Antitussive effect of volatile oil components 4 - Terpineol ol ig 300 mg / kg there is an apparent Antitussive effect [13 ]. With folic artemisiae oil gavage 1 ml / kg, phenol red method in mice significantly expectorant effect; its volatile oil components 4 - Terpineol ol ig caryophyllene 1ml/kg or intraperitoneal injection of 0.7 ml / kg is also expectorant effect [13]. α terpineol 0.05 ml / kg in guinea pigs fed with inhalation of acetylcholine and histamine-induced asthma that has a protective effect, trans-carveol also the active ingredient asthma [14]. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download
        2.5 hemostatic and anticoagulant effects of Zhangxue Lan et al [15] studied the processing on the role of folic artemisiae the main component and the effects of hemostatic results showed that: folic artemisiae cooked heating were significantly reduced after the volatile components. Fried or baked carbon after clotting and bleeding time in mice have a significant effect, with significant hemostatic effect. Is mainly used for Deficiency bleeding, of which 180 ℃ bake 10 min and 200 ℃ drying the samples 10 min decoction hemostatic effects of the most obvious, and health products group had significant differences. Artemsia argyi alcohol extract of ATP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited. Folic artemisiae made from grain alcohol and 5,7-β 6,3,4 trimethyl-2-hydroxy flavonoids are right there was a significant platelet inhibition [16]. Artemsia argyi pharmacological studies have shown that folic artemisiae by reducing capillary permeability, anti-fibrinolytic effect from bleeding. This ancient use folic artemisiae to treat menorrhagia, uterine bleeding, blood in the stool and many of Blood match.
        2.6 Anti-allergic effects studies have shown that folic artemisiae oil component 2 - Terp ol, caraway alcohol can inhibit the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and 5 - hydroxytryptamine-induced skin vascular permeability increase, inhibit the release of SRS-guinea pig lung tissue A and SRS-A in causing contraction in guinea pig ileum [11]. Trans - caraway alcohol is also on isolated guinea pig trachea Sc-hultz-Dale reaction of inhibition [15].
        2.7 pairs of the role of the nervous system [15] Artemsia argyi oil has a significant sedative effect, can be extended sodium pentobarbital sleep time, but it can speed up the death of strychnine convulsions, it seems there is a certain synergy, in addition, high-dose has inhibitory effect on the heart, and can protect the guinea pig egg albumin caused by anaphylactic shock.
        2.8 External complement the role of [15] will be the hot water extract of folic artemisiae mostly sugar by adding human serum, can decrease the value of serum complement, and prove that this is the result of complement activation. Japanese Mountain Tian also found that hot water extract of folic artemisiae there is a strong complement activity, activity of the main component of acidic polysaccharides. In addition, studies have shown that folic artemisiae water extract in vivo induced interferon.
        2.9 pairs of the role of the cardiovascular system folic artemisiae oil on isolated toad heart, isolated rabbit heart contraction are inhibited Artemsia argyi oil can fight adrenaline and histamine induced contraction. Studies have shown that the concentration of 1:50 folic artemisiae 1 ~ 2 drops of oil can significantly inhibit the heart's contractions, little impact on heart rate, but can cause atrioventricular block phenomena, such as cardiac arrest can increase the concentration of isolated rabbit hearts, Artemsia argyi Oil 1ml (1:150) inhibited cardiac contractility, heart rate and coronary flow also decreased, to raise the degree of rabbit aorta in a tense situation was relaxed role, and can fight against isoproterenol elements of cardiac effects [17].
        2.10 absorption, excretion, toxicity soon after oral administration of folic artemisiae and its preparation by the small intestinal absorption up to the liver, and extended to the body with the blood circulation, 1h in Ai can be found in the urine composition, most of the Reservoir in the body from the urine gradually discharged, or by oxidation, combined with the damage. Artemsia argyi decoction on mice by intraperitoneal injection of LD50 of 23 g crude drug / kg, mouse oral LD50 Artemsia argyi oil for 247ml/kg, intraperitoneal injection of LD50 of 112 ml / kg. It is reported that there is a result of dry clothes is about 100g folic artemisiae one cases of poisoning [18], therefore, 1995 edition of 'Chinese Pharmacopoeia' provisions to take 3 ~ 9 g, appropriate for external use. In addition, volatile oil mugwort mild skin irritation, can cause fever, flushing and so on. Oral administration of a small amount of 3 ~ 5 g can enhance appetite, has attracted a large number of acute gastrointestinal inflammation [19].
        3 Conclusion
        Mugwort is a kind of drug, food and other multi-functional plant, located throughout the country, medicine source is rich, low toxicity, low cost, with a wide range of development and utilization of value. Human research and development and utilization of Artemisia is still very limited, the chemical constituents of Artemisia-depth study of the significance of there to make Artemsia argyi more widely used in clinical.
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