Papers Category:Medicine Papers
- Medicine Other Papers
Of the problem
Psychologists have found that people often social categories of knowledge as the basis for social judgments and reasoning. Where stereotypes are the most common, affecting the largest category of social category knowledge sets. A large number of facts show that we have formed the impression, when a person will always be associated with activation and use of certain members of the Information [2 ~ 5]. This process has the advantage of all we need less mental effort, you can target to a quick formation of a clear and consistent before and after the evaluation of the impression; while processing advantages of this effect shows that the stereotype of a target characterization itself a kind of internal consistency, which for its rapidly formed a clear, consistent before and after the evaluation provide the basis for the impression. However, in a particular social group stereotypes characterization, often contain both contradictory and mutually strife stereotyped Information. In addition, the social perception of the evaluation were the need for consistency in a number of social psychological theory has become a core assumption [8,9]. Meanwhile, the large number of facts shows that the perception of others who prefer to evaluate the formation of a consistent impression of [10 ~ 13]. If a target of the stereotypical characterization of itself is fraught with contradictions, then in particular situations, it is also how to help people to quickly form an evaluation of the target consistent impression?
Quinn, who made an initial study on this issue, results show that: in the characterization of the stereotype, the information is in accordance with the principle of potency consistent organization, namely, positive messages and positive information organization together, the negative information and negative information organizations in the together . But they selected only the potency of the two neutral stereotyped label study and therefore can not fully explain the above issues. If the existence of a group of strong positive or negative stereotypes, then the stereotype of the content is still the same in accordance with the principle of potency organization? In specific situations, different potency how is work?
In this study, memories - practice paradigm Variant (soon replaced by the free recall task recognition task) and re-recognition paradigm to explore these issues. Classic memories - practice paradigm will produce a very typical practice - inhibitory effect (retrieval-induced forgetting effect, that the RIF effect): Practice some of the information would enhance the memories of such information, but also inhibit the other pairs with the same category does not exercise the memory of the information [15,16]. Anderson and McCulloch described the structure of this paradigm for understanding the role of representation, they found: In the learning phase to guide the scope and sample were tested on the relationship between the association will reduce the inhibition caused by exercise or even forgotten, that those who are conceptually Practice Information Integration did not practice together, the information will avoid being contained. This shows that the composition from a variety of close contact with the composition of the knowledge structure will reduce inhibition. The stereotype is that according to this structure characterization. A large number of studies have shown that: stereotypes can facilitate information integration, and this integration with the flexibility to target related to the interpretation and understanding of the characteristics of other information; if the stereotype can promote integration, and if such integration can reduce inhibition, then when there is a activated stereotypes guide information integration, then the information would be less inhibited . Dunn and Spellman use of memories - Exercise paradigm study of social information processing in the process of inhibition mechanism, they found that the parallel degree of inhibition characterized by the type of close contact with each characteristic degree of influence . Anderson et al study shows that characterization of structural diversity will produce different degrees of inhibition [15 ~ 17].
In this study, a positive, neutral and negative three different potency of occupational stereotypes as experimental objects in an attempt to stereotype the information representation of the model and its features in-depth discussions with a view to more fully test the following hypothesis: whether the stereotype of the potency how stereotypes of information representation model is consistent, positive message that is integrated with the positive information and negative information and negative information integration together; the pattern of social cognitive processes play a parallel promotion of a suppression effect. At the same time, this study further to explore information processing in the community occurred during the promotion and inhibition effects, whether they are perceived by extracting information from the memory with the current attention to information whether or not the regulation of the same potency. Specific assumptions are: the perceiver of information the focus of attention, their memories will be promoted; rather than the focus of attention will be memories of the information to promote or inhibit, depending on their potency and focus information on the relationship between two types of cases: ( 1) The stereotype is not activated, all the non-focus of attention of the information will be stifled (ie, the typical RIF effect). (2) In the case of stereotype activation would give rise to the following two cases: For the rigid-type information, if the potency is inconsistent, it will be restrained, if the potency of the same, then not only will not be inhibited, it will be the promotion of ; while for non-rigid type of information is, regardless of their potency to both will not be inhibited and will not be promoting.
Use VB6.0 programming, all subjects were on the computer to complete this experiment.
2.1 were tested
From the Northwest Normal University, 288 randomly selected undergraduate students, 137 male, 151 female; Humanities 139, Science 149; aged 19 to 24 years old.
2.2 Experimental Materials
Obtained by predicting the three dimensions of occupational stereotype model. Specifically, the positive dimension of the male and female labels were two types of career diplomats and flight attendants, neutral dimensions are two types of professional chefs and secretarial label and negative dimensions of the two types of occupational labels are labor contractor and geting Miss. Each label corresponds to a career consistent with their character name and 24 words. Among them, these 24 words by six characteristics of the positive traits stereotyped words, six negative and stereotypical characteristics of words, six words and the positive non-stereotypical characteristics of six non-stereotypical trait negative word composition, the formation of the final total of 144 'name - the word character right '. Among them, the word used to constitute the right word is the name and characteristics were tested through the forecast for the six occupational categories obtained from the stereotype of a collection of names and adjectives were selected out.
2.3 Experimental Design
With 3 (Occupational titer: positive, neutral, negative)? (Label: a label, no label)? (Practice target gender: male, female)? (Practice rigid word valence: positive stereotyped words, negative stereotypes words) between the two groups experimental design. The dependent variable for the old words the correct recognition rate and the average response time.
2.4 Experimental Procedure
2.4.1 Label manipulation - the stereotype activation phase will be the first test by occupational titers were randomly divided into three groups, each group of subjects were then randomly divided into 2 groups according to the label. Directions for the 'This is one on' social memory 'in a learning task, you will see the names of two people, including one's own career was a true description of the other people in their career have not been described in Please remember that each name of your efforts and described the characteristics of professional imagination. 'The next tab is divided into two groups according to the guidance of language have a different purpose is to activate each group were tested only one of the targets of these stereotypes, for example, the guidance of a group of words as' Rui-feng said that he was a diplomat, LIU Ya-juan of her career have not been described '; the other group's guiding words as' LIU Ya-juan said she was a flight attendant, LI Rui-peak of his career have not been described'.
2.4.2 learning phase to the subjects were randomly presented with the previous stage to see the names of all the relevant names - traits word pairs (48). Each word of the present 1s, after the interval of 0.5s present the next word. Directions were asked to remember the efforts presented by each name - features the word pairs.
2.4.3 Exercise stage of memory in both directions from the positive and negative stereotypical traits of six word pairs of each randomly selected 3 for memory exercise. Directions for the 'request you to just see the name of - characteristics of the word right, will be presented by the deterioration of memory words (such as: LIU Ya-juan - Self-___) to add a complete, and after the completion of the word read out aloud, presented three times each word. 'According to the principle of showing incomplete Latin square term for each word pairs presented 2 s, after the show the next interval of 0.5s. Each test has been by practice and practice of gender stereotypes target word valence were randomly divided into four groups memory exercises. Overall, therefore, were tested were randomly divided into 24 groups, half of stereotype activation memories under conditions of practice, and the other half in the stereotype is not activated under the conditions of memory exercises.
2.4.4 distraction task 3 minutes Lianliankan small games, aimed at undermining the subject's long-term memory effect.
2.4.5 Recognition phase of distraction operation, immediately after entering the stage. In the 48 studied word added 24 words have not studied the characteristics will be presented to the 72 words were tested randomly. Directions to 'The following will show you just randomly saw two names, and then will present a number of adjectives, those words used to describe the characteristics of either, and some are not. Please respond to keys under the recall prompt (D keys on behalf of 'yes' K keys on behalf of' not ')'. Name rendering 1.5s, interval of 0.5s. After the adjective is beginning to show, first presented 10 words as a practice. First names, and related adjectives presented after this interval of 2 s, is beginning to show the second names.
Records of 2.5 dependent variable methods and data processing
Subjects were reported to study the nature of the word if ever before and with the names match then the record is correct. Recall the correct word for each character fall into the following nine categories in a class, in Table 1.
Table 1 the dependent variable in the two observed indicators of the recording method
Recognition correct recognition rate of target types of the primary target response time P: Exercise-off characteristics of the word rigid P-rt (Primary target) P-SC: did not practice consistent with the P valence P-rt1 stereotyped characteristics of the word P-SI: did not practice is inconsistent with the P valence P-rt2 stereotyped characteristics of the word P-NC: did not practice consistent with the P valence P-rt3 a non-stereotypical trait words P-NI: did not practice with the P mixed valence P - rt4 caused by the non-stereotypical traits term control of target O-SC: potency consistent with the P stereotyped special O-rt1 qualitative terms (Other control target) O-SI: with the P valence inconsistent trait stereotypes O-rt2 word O-NC : P potency consistent with a non-stereotypical characteristics of O-rt3 the word O-NI: inconsistent with the P potency of non-O-rt4 plate engraved with the word character
Note: The primary target (Primary target) that conducted a recall of its part of the characteristics of the target practice; control target (Other control target) means no memories of their practice characteristics of the target.
SPSS13.0 of this experiment using the data for statistical processing.
3 Results and Analysis
3.1 Effect of test variables grouped
Occupational valence, with or without labels, practice and practice potency four grouping variables gender MANOVA test. The results showed that the main effect of occupational potency in the recognition rate of indicators is extremely significant, F (18,512) = 4.221, p <0.001; whether the main effect of labeling observed in the two types of indicators are very significant: recognition rate of indicators, F (9,256) = 4.815, p <0.001, reaction time indexes, F (9,256) = 3.723, p <0.001. The two grouping variables are the focus of this study, will be below them to make a detailed analysis of the effects. In this, the main effect of exercise price, exercise gender, and the interaction between the two groups of variables influence the observed variables. The results showed that the main effect of exercise potency observed in the two indicators were not significant: in recognition rate indicators, F (9,256) = 1.113, p = 0.354, indicators in the reaction time, F (9,256 ) = 1.604, p = 0.114; practice main effect of sex only in the recognition rate index is significantly, F (9,256) = 2.167, p = 0.025; whether the labels and practice a significant interaction of valence, F (9 , 256) = 2.518, p = 0.009, practice and practice of gender-potency interaction is extremely significant, F (9,256) = 4.061, p <0.001, career potency, practice and practice of gender three valence interactions significant, F (18,512) = 2.074, p = 0.006, a significant interaction between the above is only reflected in the recognition rate indicators. Other interactions are not significant.
Practicing sex Univariate tests found significant differences occur mainly in P-NI and O-SI these two types of dependent variable, the test results were F (1,264) = 10.506, p <0.001, F (1, 264) = 4.332, p = 0.038; after multiple comparisons found that, in these two types of dependent variable, the same trend has emerged, that target women, the rate of correct recognition was higher than for men the correct recognition rate of target.
Whether the label on the potency of the interaction of practice and a simple effects tests and found the labeled cases, positive stereotypes practice group the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.654) than the negative stereotypes the correct word and then practice group recognition rate (M = 0.635); while in non-labeled, then the opposite situation: an active group of rigid practice the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.623) lower than the group of negative stereotyping practice the correct word recognition rate ( M = 0.635).
On the practice of gender in the other two factors (occupational and practice potency titer) level portfolio of simple effect test results show that gender is only in professional practice potency of the first level (the active career) and the exercise price of the first level of efficiency (positive stereotyped words) within a combination of simple effect was not significant; in all other levels of the portfolio, practice the simple effect of gender were significant. Further multiple comparisons showed that the positive employment dimension, male group of negative stereotyping exercises the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.634) higher than the negative stereotypes of women practice group of the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.604); while in neutral professional dimension, the positive stereotypes of women practice group the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.604) than men practice group of the positive stereotypes correct word recognition rate (M = 0.591), Similarly, the negative stereotypes of women practice group of the word the correct recognition rate (M = 0.629) were also higher than men practice group negative stereotypes the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.595); on the negative employment dimension, women actively practice group stereotyped the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.740 ) are also positive stereotypes than men practice group of the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.649), but the negative male stereotypes the word practice group the correct recognition rate (M = 0.706) was higher than the negative stereotypes of women practice group of the correct word and then recognition rate (M = 0.674).
Over a number of effects is noteworthy, but this study is more concerned about the nine categories the dependent variable in different potency of the stereotype and the stereotype of the case whether or not to activate the various effects have emerged, the next will be a concrete analysis of its .
Table 2 The potency of occupational P and O-SC project in two types of observation indicators of the average and standard deviation of
Occupational valence correct recognition rate of reaction P O-SC P-rt O-rt1 active professional M 0.7778 0.5851 57.02 59.77 SD 0.2402 0.1979 14.28 16.13 neutral professional M 0.7604 0.5920 58.42 60.86 SD 0.2452 0.7240 16.68 21.32 negative vocational M 0.8611 0.7240 55.51 61.75 SD 0.2033 0.2279 21.60 21.27
Note: P said that the primary target of the stereotypical traits practiced words, P-rt to express terms of reacting to these qualities; O-SC, said control target and the potency of the same rigid P trait words, O-rt1 words to express these qualities reaction time.
3.2 Exercise memories of the project
The primary target of the stereotypical characteristics practiced words (P) and control the target of their potency stereotypical characteristics of the same words (O-SC) memories for Repeated Measures test, in which professional titer were tested between the factors target type is within-subject factors. The results showed that the main effect of occupational potency only in the correct recognition rate of indicators very significant, F (2,258) = 17.467, p <0.001; target type main effect in the recognition rate of indicators is extremely significant, F (1, 258) = 68.757, p <0.001, when the indicator reaction is also very significant, F (1,258) = 7.061, p = 0.008; the interaction between the two indicators in the two observations are not significant. As Table 2 shows, in different occupations on both potency showed the correct recall rate of P higher than that of O-SC the correct recall rate, P, recognition should be significantly faster than the pairs of O-SC re-recognition. It showed a certain stereotypical characteristics of potency memories of the word practice, such information is bound to promote the memory of enhanced potency in the three kinds of occupations have demonstrated that memories of practice effect.
3.3 does not exercise the memory of the project
For failure to exercise the memory of the project is the focus of this study, sub to explore the following two situations:
3.3.1 stereotype is not activated under the conditions of the memories of the exercises target the memories are not carried out under the conditions of tags Repeated Measures tests, career titer were tested between the factors target type (the primary target, the control target), characteristics of type (rigid words, non-stereotyped words) and valence types (with P titer consistent, inconsistent) as within-factor. The results showed that: Occupational potency of the main effects only in the correct recognition rate of indicators significantly, F (2,141) = 7.565, p <0.001; target type main effect in the recognition rate of indicators significantly, F (1,141 ) = 5.493, p = 0.02; in the reaction time indicators very significant, F (1,141) = 18.329, p <0.001; characteristics of the type and valence of the type of main effects was not significant; target type and characteristics of types of interaction in the recognition rate index on the very significant, F (1,141) = 25.555, p <0.001; indicators in the reaction time significantly, F (1,141) = 5.479, p = 0.018; were tested in the interaction of all the other factors not significant; all occupational potency of the interaction is not significant.
Titer of career recognition rate index on multiple comparisons and found that negative and positive professional occupations, there was a significant difference between the neutral professional, positive and neutral professional career was no significant difference between, as in Table 3 (lower half) shows, the subjects were on the correct recall rate of the negative employment (M = 0.6732) the best, followed by the correct recall of positive rate of employment (M = 0.6007), the correct recall of the neutral rate of employment (M = 0.5747) compared to in terms of the minimum.
Table 3 target three types of occupational potency of the average and standard deviation (M, SD)
Target type of an active professional career-neutral professional negative reaction to the correct recognition re-recognize the correct response when a correct recognition response time when the primary target of M 0.5799 72.9219 0.5538 69.1146 0.6528 66.7448 SD 0.1589 24.0701 0.1885 21.5101 0.1623 30.6014 Control of target M 0.6215 59.2604 0.5955 59.7813 0.6936 61.4167 SD 0.1642 10.7111 0.1667 13.6761 0.1572 21.7286 overall M 0.6007 66.0911 0.5747 64.4479 0.6732 64.0807 SD 0.1282 15.4345 0.1375 14.5337 0.1194 20.0386
Multiple comparisons of the target type found in both the primary target on the Observation and control targets were significantly different, combined with Table 3 (upper part) can be seen that the primary targets were tested for the correct recognition rate (M = 0.5955) lower the control target in the correct recognition rate (M = 0.6369), to control the speed of response target (M = 60.1528) significantly faster than the speed of response of the primary target (M = 69.5938), the three potency career also have shown this effect, that is the primary target of the memory of the outstanding characteristics of exercise was significantly lower than the control target practice characteristics of the outstanding memories.
Target types and characteristics of the type of simple interaction effects analysis found (see table 4 no label part) recognition rate indicators: In the primary target level, rigid and non-stereotyped word word there was a significant difference in the performance of the stereotyped words the correct recognition rate (M = 0.5660) lower than that of non-rigid and the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.6250); while in control of a target level, despite the stereotyped words and non-rigid and there is the word most significant differences, but the performance of the stereotyped words the correct recognition rate (M = 0.6748) higher than that of non-rigid and the correct word recognition rate (M = 0.5990); the reaction time indicators, performance indicators compared with the recognition rate of the same trend: that is the primary target of the level of rigid word reaction rate (M = 71.7778) than the non-rigid term reaction rate (M = 67.4097) slow, while in the control of a target level of rigid word reaction rate (M = 58.3750) than the non-rigid term reaction rate (M = 61.9306) fast.
In order to more precise testing hypotheses, the characteristics of two types of target type, the type titer after each match paired t test results in table 5. Table 5 shows that the primary target of the stereotype is not activated under the conditions of two kinds of observed indicators are indicative of the stereotypical characteristics of the control of target words recalled than the primary target of the stereotypical characteristics of word recall (with no label part of Table 4, As can be seen O-SC> P-SC, O-SI> P-SI, O-rt1 <P-rt1, O-rt2 <P-rt2; while the non-stereotypical trait words recalled two types of target almost no significant differences.
Table 4 under the conditions of whether the labeling characteristics of type, target type and the type of match the potency of the average and standard deviation of post-(M, SD)
SN titer of whether the tag type P-O-P-O-recognition rate of reaction time the rate of reaction time recognition recognition recognition rate of the rate of reaction time reaction time unlabelled CM 0.5729 73.01 0.6771 56.86 0.6308 68.14 0.6123 65.33 SD 0.2679 56.06 0.2223 16.66 0.2502 33.36 0.2538 41.82 IM 0.5590 70.55 0.6725 59.89 0.6192 66.68 0.5856 29.09 SD 0.2589 35.18 0.2294 23.51 0.2582 58.53 0.2870 24.92 labeled CM 0.7268 56.63 0.5903 64.73 0.6192 63.49 0.6041 60.21 SD 0.2482 12.77 0.2429 21.63 0.2346 25.57 0.2461 20.50 IM 0.5451 69.06 0.6574 57.68 0.6389 66.08 0.5995 63.88 SD 0.2342 38.82 0.2388 17.37 0.2406 27.92 0.2496 57.08
Note: S for the rigid characteristics of the word, N word for non-stereotyped traits; P-primary target, O-for the control of a target; C indicated that the stereotyped nature of practice and had the same potency of the word; I said with the practiced efficiency of the stereotypical characteristics of the word Price inconsistent.
Table 5, the stereotype is not activated target types circumstances paired t test results
Observation tp recognition rate of P-SC-O-SC -3.853 0.000 P-SI-O-SI -3.996 0.000 P-NC-O-NC 0.669 0.505 P-NI-O-NI 1.087 0.279 reaction time P-rt1 - O-rt1 3.309 0.001 P-rt2-O-rt2 3.521 0.001 P-rt3-O-rt3 0.668 0.505 P-rt4-O-rt4 2.655 0.009
Note: P-SC ~ O-rt4 represent the significance of Table 1 Note. df = 143.
3.3.2 stereotype activation memories of the same circumstances, to practice target memories of a label also carried out under the conditions of repeated measure analysis of variance test result is also found to have been among the factors that the main effect of occupational potency only in the recognition rate index is significantly , F (2,141) = 5.891, p = 0.003; were tested within a factor that is a target type, character type, and the main effect of valence type is not significant; subjects were between the factors and were tested in the interaction of the factors, only Valence characteristics of the type of professional interaction in the correct recognition rate indicators significant, F (1,141) = 12.768; p <0.001; other job-related to the interaction of valence were not significant; potency type and target type , trait type interaction were significant; their interaction of the three indicators in the recognition rate very significant, F (1,141) = 29.719, p <0.001; indicators in the reaction time is also very significant, F (1, 141) = 8.176, p = 0.005.
Titer of career recognition rate index on multiple comparisons, there is not activated with the rigid conditions the same result, namely, negative and positive career professional, neutral, significant differences exist in employment, and actively between the professional and neutral job no significant difference, the same is a negative test for the correct recognition rate of employment (M = 0.6697) the best, followed by the right of active professional recognition rate (M = 0.6024), the correct neutral professional recognition rate ( M = 0.5959) compared to the lowest terms. In order to further explore the differences between occupational potency, potency and characteristics of occupational types in the correct recognition rate index on the simple interaction effects analysis, the results in table 6. Table 6 shows that three types of occupational potency significant difference between the expression of just a stereotypical character in the memories of the word, the word for non-stereotyped traits memories of three types of job there is no significant difference between the.
Table 6 Occupational potency (A) and characteristics of the type (B) of the simple effect tests
Sources of variation MS F pA Dui 0.504 12.768 0.000 at the b1 level 0.285 17.486 0.000 at the b2 level 0.001 0.054 0.947
Note: This is in the correct recall rate of observed indicators of the test; b1 for the rigid characteristics of the word, b2 non-stereotypical trait words. df = 2.
On the target type, character type and potency of a simple type of interaction effect of testing, the results shown in Table 7 for the rigid characteristics of the word, regardless of their potency over whether the characteristics of the word and practice the same potency, in the re - recognition rate and reaction time 2 observation indicators, the primary target (P) and control targets (O) were all very significant differences exist; while for non-stereotypical characteristics of the word is, regardless of their potency to, the primary target and control target there is no significant difference between the.
Table 7 characteristics of target types in the type and valence of the level of portfolio of various types of simple effect tests
Observation types of valence type of trait F p correct recognition rate of SC 23.662 0.000 I 19.395 0.000 NC 0.322 0.571 I 1.959 0.164 reaction time SC 15.755 0.000 I 13.675 0.000 NC 1.941 0.166 I 0.202 0.654
Note: Each F tests are a target of type character types and the level of potency of various types of portfolio of simple effect tests. S for the rigid characteristics of the word, N word for non-stereotyped traits; C indicated that the characteristics of practice and had the same potency of the word; I said with the practiced word potency characteristics of inconsistencies. Hypothesis df = 1; Error df = 141
To further reveal the difference in the host, the same characteristics of two types of target type, the type titer after each match paired t test, the results in Table 8. Table 8 shows that under the conditions of stereotype activation, in the two kinds of observation indicators are indicative of the P-SC memories of the project were significantly higher than O-SC project memories; while for the P-SI project, recalls that in two kinds of observation indicators are indicative of the P-SI project memories was significantly lower than the memory of O-SI project (combined with Table 4 labeled section, you can see the P-SC> O-SC, P-SI <O-SI, P-rt1 <O -rt1, P-rt2> O-rt2); for non-rigid characteristics of memories, the primary target and control target of no significant difference.
Table 8 stereotype activation target types circumstances paired t test results
Observation tp recognition rate of P-SC-O-SC 4.877 0.000 P-SI-O-SI -4.432 0.000 P-NC-O-NC 0.568 0.571 P-NI-O-NI 1.397 0.164 reaction time P-rt1-O -rt1 -3.996 0.000 P-rt2-O-rt2 3.702 0.000 P-rt3-O-rt3 1.402 0.163 P-rt4-O-rt4 0.451 0.653
Note: df = 143
The experimental results show that, regardless of how the potency of stereotypes in the stereotype is not activated cases, the primary target did not exercise the memory of nature are subject to the suppression. That is when the concentration of attention on the part of the characteristics of the primary target inhibit other characteristics of the target memories; and that they did not practice characteristics and practice characteristics of potency is the same potency, are shown: the control of target traits did not practice memories compared to the primary target of the recall did not practice characteristics typical RIF effect emerged.
However, when the stereotype is activated, the result was found: in both observational indicators have shown the project to the P-SC was significantly higher than the memory of O-SC project to the memory, indicating to some stereotypical characteristics of the word practice will promote the consistent with its potency does not exercise the memory of the stereotyped characteristics of the word, that appeared typical of the promotion effect. As for the P-SI program, recalls that in two kinds of observational indicators have shown to the memory of the project P-SI was significantly lower than on the O-SI program is recalled that this description and practiced potency of the stereotyped characteristics of the word is not inconsistent with Exercise stereotyped traits were suppressed memories of the word, that is a typical RIF effect emerged. To sum up, when there is a stereotype is activated, exercise part of the stereotypical characteristics of the term would promote or inhibit other non-rigid characteristics of the word practice is recalled that this practice is not to be stereotyped according to the word and practice characteristics of the stereotypical characteristics of the word over the efficacy of determined whether or not the same price. Exercise part of the stereotyped word exercises will not only promote the memories of the project, but also to promote and practice the project did not practice the same potency stereotypical trait words recalled; but at the same time, and practice the project is not inconsistent potency of the stereotypical characteristics of the word practice memories are suppressed. This is because, when the target of a stereotype is activated, then the priority of information to its rigid organization, making other non-rigid type of practice information readily available, but the premise must be the potency of such information with the stereotypical characteristics of practice potency of the word line; if the titers are inconsistent, then the information will not exercise rigid restrained. In addition, the results also show that the word for non-rigid characteristics of memories, not only will not be to promote, and will not be stifled. The reason is that, because nothing to do with the stereotype of non-rigid and rigid character traits will not integrate, so the memory of such information will not be promoted; the same time, but also because nothing to do with the stereotype of non-rigid and rigid character traits will not phase conflict, so the memories less susceptible to suppression.
These conclusions validate the assumptions of this study, but also with the findings of Quinn and others in line. However, this study is different from the stereotype of the starting titer, the stereotype of the model and its functional characterization of information carried out a comprehensive and in-depth discussion. The results showed that, regardless of the potency of the stereotype is positive, neutral or negative, and its content organization model and the model in the social cognitive processes in the function are the same, the immediate impression of the information board followed the pattern of representation potency of the principle of consistency - the positive information and positive messages tightly integrated together, the negative information and negative message to closer they are together, the pattern of social cognitive processes play a parallel promotion - inhibition. This discovery is the study of Quinn and others a perfect. In addition, the methodology used in this study (to be recalled - practice paradigm combined with the recognition paradigm, and the reaction time as an observation indicator) in relation to Quinn, and others use only memories - memories of practice paradigm, and only the correct rate as the Observation With the great progress to more rigorously clarify these issues.
Some people might think that the above effect is a common emotion priming rather than on the promotion and inhibition potency, but the results of this study do not support this hypothesis. In the results, we can clearly see that: For the primary target of the non-stereotypical information and the target for the control of the rigid and non-stereotypical information is in, regardless of their potency potency and practice of information is consistent, their memories have shown essentially the same level, that is, in the memories of these items were obtained from promoting or inhibiting effect.
In addition, this study also found the following unexpected results: on professional potency multiple comparisons found that both the focus of the information or non-focus of the information, and whether the stereotype is activated, all subjects were shown pairs of negative memories of better information, a phenomenon that has once again proven the social cognitive processes in a typical negative bias . Whether the practice of labeling and potency of the interaction of the test also found that in the absence of other factors that case, the subjects were more likely to remember negative information, the phenomenon also verified the impression that people in the community during the formation of the negative message to the preferences of [ 20]. On the practice of sex was found after multiple comparisons, it is easier to remember and female-related characteristics; right career titer titer exercises and practice tests and post-gender interactions multiple comparisons found the same trend, the phenomenon from a certain extent, reflects the impression formation process of attention to the gender preference .
This study of social cognitive theory has very important significance. It is the first comprehensive evidence that when the stereotype of a target there is a conflict assessment, promotion and inhibition can be at the same time , this effect in a variety of impressions of potency will appear. Characterization of the stereotypes that exist in these two processes at work at the same time is worthy of our attention - because it implies that the characterization includes not only the stereotypes used to describe the characteristics of a particular social group, but more importantly, it also includes links among these characteristics as a model - the same potency of the link between those who are inconsistent than the potency of the link between those who more closely, so despite the stereotypes exist in the characterization of positive and negative valence of the content of , but the stereotype of the characterization of models with the promotion of an inhibitory mechanism would be made available to the perceptual experience of those who evaluate the same situation. For example, in some situations those who activated the perception of a target number of positive stereotypes, this stereotype would be automated to promote other positive stereotypical information extraction, but also makes the evaluation of information extraction inconsistent rigid restrained. This process of social perception are concerned there are at least two senses: first, to promote and inhibit the process at the same time helps to avoid the perception of a target of those who produce ambivalence or attitude, it is because the cognitive system through the right and focus of attention of information consistent information on the activation potency, while the inhibitory potency of inconsistent information, avoiding the inconsistency of information and the focus of potency of competition awareness of information resources, and interfere with the perceiver information on the potency of the same attention to motivation. In recent years, researchers in the field of cognitive neuroscience is emphasized cognitive inhibition mechanism for maintaining awareness of the importance of the system [16,23,24]. As noted above, this parallel inhibition mechanism to effectively avoid the perceiver of a controversial contradictions between social groups, the mood or attitude. Secondly, the study of parallel inhibitory mechanisms in the social cognitive processes in the important function - the perceiver just a little effort you can respond to complex situations - provides a more reasonable explanation. When the perception in the deciding how to respond to a target, if the positive information and negative information on the impact of competing judgments and behavior, when the promotion of an inhibition mechanism of the unconscious would be to eliminate this possible conflict. For example, when the situational factors make the perceiver to focus attention on a particular target of some of the positive stereotypes of information, because the symptoms follow the stereotype potency of the principle of consistency, which will promote other positive stereotypes of information retrieval; At the same time, the parallel inhibition mechanismAlso reduced the negative stereotypes of information and positive stereotypes of information relative to the possibility of confrontation, thus reducing the need for the interference of information processing fluency and ultimately making the same perception of those who made a quick assessment and behavioral responses.
Needless to say, despite the perception would have a variety of social groups are often contradictory emotions and attitudes arise, but in certain situations, when faced with specific members of a group, the cognitive system will automatically activate the potency of the same information, at the same time inhibitory potency inconsistent information, we can see that stereotypes of information representation model and its features help other theories to explain the contradictions such as these mood or attitude. For example, in a study of racial ambivalence, often in response to expand the theory to explain this phenomenon - perception tend to by members of ethnic out-group to produce a within-ethnic group members than the more strongly positive or negative responses to reduce the perceived inconsistency , But this study emphasizes the stereotype of the characterization of model and its key features - parallel to the promotion and inhibition - provide the basis for this theory. The reason why people react in a certain area will be expanded because of competition in the reaction process, the situational factors to activate and expand the positive or negative information, thereby making some of the ideas of a group dominated the thinking of the perception and behavior. Specifically, in the perceiver's memory, with the current focus of attention for the information titer consistent information will be the promotion of stereotypes, but it also makes the potency of inconsistent information is inhibited stereotyped. This kind of valence-based information representation model allows perception by those who experienced positive or negative emotions can easily be expanded, which will naturally lead to positive or negative behavior. Need to be further explored is the stereotype of how such a characterization of model form, but also how to activate and suppress it? Resolution of these issues will help to further clarify the social cognition and interpersonal behavior of many problems.
Wang P. The interaction between stereotype and the causeseffect construction of social context. Psychological Science, 2003, 26(4):738~ 739
(Wang Pei .Stereotypes and social context of the interaction between cause and effect construct .Psychological Science, 2003,26(4):738~ 739)
Allport G W. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge: AddisonsWesley, 1954
Brewer M B. A dual process model of impression formation. In: Srull T, Wyer R eds. Advances in social cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.1~ 36
Fiske S T, Neuberg S L. A continuum model of impression formation, from categorysbased to individuating processes: Influence of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In: Zanna M P ed. Advances in experimental social sychology. New York: Academic Press, 1990. 1~ 74
Macrae C N, Bodenhausen G V. Social cognition: Thinking categorically about others. Annual Review of Psychology, 2000, 51:93~ 120
Bodenhausen G V, Macrae C N, Sherman J W. On the dialectics of discrimination: Dual processes in social stereotyping. In: Chaiken S, Trope Y eds. Dual process theories in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press, 1999. 271~ 290
Fiske S L, Cuddy A J C, Glick P et al. A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, 82:878~ 902
Festinger L. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Oxford, UK: Row, Peterson, 1957
 Heider F. The psychology of interpersonal relationships. New York: Wiley, 1958
 Asch S E. Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1946, 41:258~ 290
 Bodenhausen G V, Macrae C N. Coherence versus ambivalence in cognitive representations of persons. In: Wyer R S ed. Advances in social cognition: Associated systems theory: A systematic approach to cognitive representations of persons. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994. 149~ 156
 Hampson S E. When is an inconsistency not an inconsistency? Trait reconciliation in personality description and impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, 74: 102~ 117
 Srull T K, Wyer R S. Person memory and judgment. Psychological Review, 1989, 96:58~ 83
 Quinn K A, Hugenberg K, Bodenhausen G V. Functional modularity in stereotype representation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2004, 40:519~ 527
 Anderson M C, Bjork R A, Bjork E L. Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in longsterm memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, and Cognition, 1994, 20:1063~ 1087
 Anderson M C, Spellman B A. On the status of inhibitory mechanisms in cognition: Memory retrieval as a model case. Psychological Review, 1995, 102:68~ 100
 Anderson M C, McCulloch K C. Integration as a general boundary condition on retrievalsinduced forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 1999, 25:608~ 629
 Dunn E, Spellman B A. Forgetting by remembering: Stereotype inhibition through rehearsal of alternative aspects of identity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2003, 39:420~ 433
 Baumeister R F, Bratslavsky E, Finkenauer C et al. Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 2001, 5:323~ 370
 Ito T A, Larsen J T, Smith N K et al. Negative Information Weighs More Heavily on the Brain: The Negativity Bias in Evaluative Categorizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, 75(4): 887~ 900
 Ito T A, Urland G R. Race and Gender on the Brain: Electrocortical Measures of Attention to the Race and Gender of Multiply Categorizable Individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, 85(4): 616~ 626
 Wittenbrink B, Judd C M, Park B. Spontaneous prejudice in context: Variability in automatically activated attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001, 81:815~ 827
 Houghton G, Tipper S P. Inhibitory mechanisms of neural and cognitive control: Applications to selective attention and sequential action. Brain and Cognition, 1996, 30:20~ 43
 Zacks R T, Hasher L. Directed ignoring: Inhibitory regulation of working memory. In: Dagenbach D, Carr T H eds. Inhibitory processes in attention, memory and language. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1994. 241~ 264
 Katz I, Wackenhut J, Hass R G. Racial ambivalence, value duality, and behavior. In: Dovidio J, F, Gaertner S Leds. Prejudice, discrimination, and racism. San Diego: Academic Press, 1986.35~ 60