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Post Time:2013/4/16 8:18:00
[Abstract] rational use of antibiotics to reduce antimicrobial adverse drug reactions, reducing antibiotic resistance [Words] rational use of antibiotics papers Download With the improvement of people's living standards, health requirements are increasingly high.
Often into errors in the use of antibiotics, the drugs more expensive the better, the more the better, incorrect, however, more emphasis on the dramatic growth of resistant bacteria on the other hand because of the antibiotics in the clinical application of a large amount of variety, fast update, the complexity of the relationship between the various types of drugs, the growing number of combination therapy, prophylaxis increasingly widespread. antibacterial drugs in clinical incidence of adverse reactions and drug resistance is still increasing every year momentum in this social environment, rational use of antibiotics is particularly important.
Clinical Pharmacology concept of a rational use of antibiotics in the basic principles of the rational use of antibiotics as safe and effective use of antibiotics, that is, under the premise of safety to ensure effective, this is the basic principle of the rational use of antibiotics.
2 How rational use of antibiotics
2.1 determine the pathogen
Sampling as soon as possible from the site of infection, patients with blood culture isolates of pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity test, the choice of antibiotics.
2.2 the choice of antibiotic
Antibiotic use is reasonable or not related to the success or failure of the treatment of the following points must be considered in the choice of medication.
2.2.1 must first master the antibacterial spectrum antibiotics has a different role of the characteristics of antibiotics, antibacterial spectrum of selected drugs be sure to make it compatible with the microbial infection, otherwise pointless, a waste of money, and delay treatment .
2.2.2 antibiotic efficacy and severity of adverse trade-offs: Most antibiotics are more or less therapeutic purposes unrelated side effects or other adverse reactions to general, should be as beneficial to the patient harmless or beneficial multi-drug harm less medication must be strictly controlled indications for drugs to prevent drug abuse, such as renal dysfunction mainly excreted by the kidneys should avoid the use of antimicrobial drugs damage the kidneys, liver dysfunction should avoid the use of the main antimicrobial drugs metabolized by the liver and liver damage, newborns, children, pregnant and lactating women and other special populations should be used in the safety of antimicrobial drugs. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
2.2. 3 combination drug combination may increase the original drug action, called synergy, also may make the original drugs weakened called the antagonism. improve the therapeutic effect and less the attenuated side reaction is the purpose of the combination, on the contrary, the treatment effect reduced toxicity increase, be harmful reactions in patients. Currently, antibiotics generally be divided into four types, the first class for the breeding of bactericidal drugs (Ⅰ, such as β-lactam antibiotics, second category is still of bactericidal drugs (Ⅱ, such as aminoglycosides, polymyxin class of antibiotics and other third category for the the rapid antibacterial drugs (Ⅲ, such as tetracycline, macrolides, fourth class for slow antibacterial drugs (Ⅳ , such as sulfa drugs. joint use of these antibiotics can produce a synergistic (Ⅰ + Ⅱ, antagonistic (Ⅰ + Ⅲ, sum (stage Ⅲ + Ⅳ, independent and additive (Ⅰ + Ⅳ four effects of combination therapy in order to achieve the purpose, to be based on the nature of the role of antimicrobial proper compatibility.
Overall use of antibiotics should be strictly controlled indications, as far as possible without all may or may not, and in addition to considering the antibacterial effect of antibiotics targeted adverse drug reactions must master the process in vivo efficacy of which fever of unknown cause should not be used antibiotics, the disease of viral infection without antibiotics, avoid antibiotic topical (skin. strictly control the range of preventive antibiotics preventive treatment in the following cases: rheumatic fever patients regularly using penicillin G to to eliminate pharyngeal hemolytic streptococcus, prevent rheumatism, rheumatic or congenital heart disease with penicillin G or other appropriate antibiotics before and after surgery to prevent subacute bacterial endocarditis recurrence, infection focus resection, based on sensitivity of the bacteria and the choice of appropriate antibiotics, war wounds or complex post-traumatic penicillin G or tetracycline family to prevent gas gangrene, neomycin for bowel preparation before colon surgery, severe burns, skin graft before application hemolytic streptococcus infection. penicillin G elimination of the wound Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com