Talking about diabetes care

Abstract of 136 patients with diabetes, for example, for diabetes care were studied and discussed. Author of intensive insulin therapy in diabetes causes were analyzed, from preventive measures, emergency handling, the three aspects of a comprehensive three-dimensional prevent diabetes prevention occurred nursing discussed, summed up the work of nurses, nursing issues that need attention, care workers come to be more communication with patients, pay attention to any adjustment in patients with recipes, meal volume and number of meals, pay attention to the patient's emotional changes conclusions.

Keywords: diabetes, care, diet, exercise, insulin

Abstract
In this paper 136 cases of diabetic patients, for the study and discussion of diabetes care. The author analyzes reinforcement causes insulin treatment of diabetes mellitus in place, from prevention, emergency treatment, comprehensive prevention three aspects to the nursing countermeasures to prevent the occurrence of diabetes were discussed, and summarizes some attentive problems in the nursing work of nurses, the nursing staff to communicate with patients, pay attention to adjust the patients recipes, food quantity and number of meals, pay attention to the patient's emotional change.

Keywords: diabetes; nursing; diet; exercise; insulin


Contents Preface .......................................................................................... 3
A diabetes clinical material ........................................................................ 3
Clinical information on patients ........................................................................ 3 1.1

1.2 onset of drug use ..................................................................... 3

1.3 Glucose Monitoring .............................................................................. 3

Two intensive insulin therapy in diabetes occurs because ............................................. 3

2.1 hypoglycemic drug factors ........................................................................ 4

2.2 daily dietary factors ........................................................................ 4

2.3 Patient age factor ........................................................................ 4

3 Strategies to prevent diabetes care

.
........................................................ 5

3.1 Preventive Measures

.............................................................................. 5

3.2 Emergency

.............................................................................. 5

3.3 overall three-dimensional prevention

........................................................................ 6

Four nurses nursing issues that need attention

.
.................................................. 8

4.1 drug therapy problems that need attention

......................................................... 8

4.2 Choosing the right parts of blood and blood collection methods

................................................ 8

4.3 Blood Glucose Monitoring

........................................................................... 8

4.4 Insulin configuration and save .................................................................. 8

4.5 micro pump use in nursing

............................................................... 8

4.6 Prevention of complications

........................................................................ 8

5 Discussion

.
...................................................................................... 9

References

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................................................................................... 10


Introduction Diabetes is more common clinical one kind of endocrine and metabolic diseases, mainly due to the blood of an absolute or relative lack of insulin, leading to high blood sugar, causing fat and protein metabolism, clinical emergence of polyuria, polydipsia, polydipsia , polyphagia, weight loss and other symptoms, may occur serious blood vessels, nerves and other parts of the system or chronic complications and acute complications such as ketoacidosis In recent years, China's rising incidence of diabetes, the incidence of which is mainly Type 2 diabetes. With the rapid economic and social development, people's living standards improve, people with diabetes have increased our emphasis on making lifestyle adjustments for people with diabetes, the prevalence of post-care and daily life Prevention is very important, therefore, it is necessary to diabetes care issues related to research and discussion.

A diabetes clinical data

1.1 The clinical data of patients

This study selected clinical cases for the hospital July 1, 2011 to July 31, 2012 admitted 136 patients with type 2 diabetes, are in line with the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria for diabetes. Age 36 - 78 years, mean 58 years , male 78 cases, female 58 cases, duration of 1-30 years. fasting glucose (10.8 4-3.61mmol / L, postprandial blood glucose (16.6 4-2.8mmol / L, all cases were consistent diagnostic criteria for diabetes. patients may show polyuria, polydipsia, polydipsia, weight loss, good drink, food, weight loss, fatigue, itching, aching limbs, numbness, pain, loss of libido, impotence, infertility, menstrual disorders, blurred vision, etc. Complications: chronic complications of diabetes can be all over the body organs, are: cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, nerve disease, eye lesions, skin lesions, infections.

1.2 onset of drug use on patients with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin to control blood sugar, control ineffective use of insulin therapy programs, mainly using dynamic double C treatment, the main methods are: First, patients with diabetes glucose monitoring for 72 hours, The 840 blood glucose data entry point specific computer system, and then under the control of the computer by the insulin pump patients who required insulin according to the normal physiological insulin secretion pattern input to the patient's body for people with liver and kidney dysfunction given symptomatic treatment for the symptoms of hypoglycemia, timely adjust the dosage.

1.3 glucose monitoring using Iona G-423 blood glucose meter for blood glucose monitoring. For newly admitted patients, seven times a day to monitor blood glucose, blood glucose decreased, and stable, it changed to four times a day to monitor blood glucose monitoring blood sugar It should be noted: ① possible at room temperature; ② Avoid placing the instrument in electromagnetic fields (such as mobile phones, microwave ovens, etc.) nearby; ③ blood volume is not too much or too little (especially photochemically glucose meter).

Two intensive insulin therapy in the treatment of diabetes occurs because there are many ways of diabetes, insulin therapy is in many ways a better kind, some diabetics need insulin therapy not only, but also intensive insulin treatment for patients with early type 2 diabetes and insulin Intensive therapy can protect islet B cell function, there is hope in large delay diabetes in the process. Studies have showed to HbAIc for the control indicators, HbAlc dropped one percentage point each, diabetes and diabetes-related mortality risk will be reduced 25%, all-cause mortality decreased by 7%, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction decreased by 18%, so, type 2 diabetes, intensive insulin therapy in reducing the risk of complications has important significance. However, during the course of intensive insulin therapy, still have elevated blood sugar, "polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss" and other metabolic disorders symptoms, and even the heart, brain, kidneys and other vital organs of complications or worsening situation. explore its causes, mainly from the following aspects:
2.1 hypoglycemic drugs commonly used in clinical factors commonly used intensive insulin therapy program are: four times daily injection, 2 times daily mixed injection and mixing injection three times a day, which can make blood sugar although several treatments to be more good control, but not well simulated physiological secretion of human insulin, blood sugar fluctuations, the risk of hypoglycemia is relatively large. currently intensive insulin therapy better solution is dynamic double C treatment, this intensive treatment is achieved by continuous glucose testing and fine insulin pump therapy to replace damaged islet accurate simulation of the physiological curve of insulin secretion, the method is as follows: First, patients with diabetes glucose monitoring 72 hours, the blood glucose measuring 840 data points input specific computer system, and then under control of the computer by the insulin pump in accordance with the needs of patients who insulin normal physiological insulin secretion pattern is input to the patient, thus better control of blood sugar, and there is a lower risk of hypoglycemia. However, if long-term use, Patients machine experience have some side effects, and even insulin resistance phenomenon, namely: increasing the amount of insulin to control blood sugar effect is reduced. Thus, it will increase blood sugar.

2.2 Factors daily diet diet therapy is commonly used in the treatment of diabetes therapy, known as the basis for the treatment of diabetes, are required to strictly adhere to the long-term. Everyday life, often in patients with inadequate understanding of diet therapy, the use of unscientific, or that can not stand, unable to control diet, or is controlled too harsh, resulting in low blood sugar, had to treat low blood sugar. so repeatedly, making the body often are in a crisis of the mediation process, causing great damage. dietary control is not good, intensive insulin therapy, insulin dosage control is not constant, it is not easy to measure and grasp of the treatment is very unfavorable. often reduce the efficacy of, and even make diabetes worse.

2.3 Patient age factor the effect of intensive insulin therapy with the patient's age and duration of illness are closely linked from the clinical investigation, the elderly are high risk for diabetes, largely because of the aging of the elderly with age , the decline of insulin secretion, insulin deficiency, making sustained increases in blood glucose in the intensive insulin therapy for patients, it should be fully taken into account the patient's age factor. Meanwhile, the long duration of disease in patients with age, islet functional decline, insulin dosage have to gradually increase the effect of insulin to control blood sugar gradually decreased and shortened. coupled with the elderly kidney function decline, year-round medication is to increase the burden on the liver and kidney, likely to cause damage to liver and kidney function .

3 Strategies to prevent diabetes care

3.1 Preventive Measures

3.1.1 Guidance patient-controlled diet, diet control is the treatment of diabetic patients a nurse to guide patients to master blood, urine, self-monitoring approach to weight control diet, teach patients about food awareness, learn to make diet with, adhere small meals, and consciously control diet. attention should eat slowly, not overeating, maintaining the regularity of life, eat more vegetables, eat as much as possible not in a short time containing glucose, sucrose, a large quantity of food effectively prevent the rapid rise in blood sugar in a short time. general principle is low fat, low sugar, low salt, thickness of grain and high-fiber diet. sure to follow recipes developed eating mainly vegetables not only to control the staple food , but also to control the fish, meat, eggs, oil, non-staple food intake, patients are subject to hunger, you can eat a small amount of pumpkin seeds, increased vegetable consumption, the use of low-salt diet.

3.1.2 Guidance patients should pay attention to proper and timely exercise, exercise intensity, the mild aerobic exercise is appropriate. Activity should not be too large, the time not too long, daily activity time is generally 40 to 60 minutes, and perseverance , step by step, in order to promote peripheral tissue glucose utilization. Avoid activities injuries, should pay attention to the environmental activities. activities carry the best dessert and condition cards, to prepare an urgent need - Type 1 diabetes before the event to pay attention to a small amount of supplemental extra food or reduce the amount of insulin.

3.1.3 Patients on oral antidiabetic drugs, patients should be educated on time and dose of medication, not free to increment or decrement. Observed efficacy and adverse reactions of drugs by observing blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin evaluation of drug efficacy. Oral sulfonylureas drugs should be observed in patients with no hypoglycemia. patients on insulin therapy, to observe whether the adverse reactions. adverse reaction of insulin therapy include hypoglycemia, insulin allergy and injection site lipoatrophy or hyperplasia. insulin nervousness with local injection site pruritus, urticaria based. subcutaneous injection site in order to avoid a change in the insulin fat malabsorption, there should be plans to change the site of injection [1].

3.1.4 attention to prevent infection. Strengthen oral care, prevention of oral, urinary tract infection. Were injected subcutaneously, in strict aseptic technique to prevent wound infection. Prevention of skin damage and infection, preventing diabetic foot.

3.1.5 Introduction to the patient drugs and oral glucose insulin injections on precautions, identify and explain how to prevent low blood sugar reflected hyperosmolar coma and ketoacidosis common sense, instruct their regular outpatient follow-up of abnormal medical attention immediately.

3.2 Emergency

3.2.1 ketoacidosis care: the nurse should perform a clinical accuracy to ensure that the liquid and insulin input. Should closely observe the patient's state of consciousness, each l ~ 2h specimens were inspected glucose, ketones and glucose, blood ketone the like.

3.2.2 hypoglycemia care: the use of insulin should be closely observed and prevention of adverse effects of insulin. Commonly have low blood sugar and insulin overdose reaction, eating disorders or excessive exercise, more common in type Ⅰ diabetes. Showed fatigue , dizziness, palpitations, sweating, hunger, severe cases can cause coma and when the patient appears strong hunger, with weakness, nausea, heart palpitations and even unconsciousness, or sleep with moist skin sweating sudden awakening when all should be alert to the occurrence of hypoglycemia. hypoglycemia, these measures include: immediate supine rest, blood glucose conditions should do first, according to the disease eat carbohydrate foods such as candy, cookies, sugary drinks to relieve symptoms. coma should immediately blood, check blood sugar, followed by intravenous injection of 50% glucose 20 ~ 30mL. adjusted according to the effective use of insulin dose and time, eating regular meals and regular exercise is the key to prevent low blood sugar reactions, if dinner was delayed, advanced eat some cookies may also be intravenous injection of 50% glucose and intramuscular glucagon [2].

3.2.3 Care of allergic reactions: Note insulin injection of local allergic reactions mainly as itching, hives, generalized rash rare. Rare serum sickness, anaphylactic shock and other serious allergic reactions. Nurse should prepare emergency preparations.

3.3 overall three-dimensional prevention

3.3.1 Health education on diabetes prevention and treatment of patients with positive propaganda and education, and more for knowledge lectures, encourage patients to mental relaxation, active treatment, optimistic face. Missionary awareness therapy for patients with patients is our mission theoretical basis for Some had no clinical symptoms or mild clinical symptoms, physical examination found only in patients, so that they understand the chronic hyperglycemia and diabetic chronic complications and development is closely related to [3]. Meanwhile, let them see diabetes can preventive and treatment, as well as the dangers of not anti died and severity of clinical symptoms or severe complications occurred in patients with different organs, so that they understand the delay and suppress the development of diabetes and complications of diabetes can be reduced and deterioration caused by disability and death. helping patients adjust emotional adopt supportive psychotherapy, as explained, comfort, encouragement, assurance and other means to be explained to the patient varies, so that the patient out of the confusion, adjust the patient's psychological state to help patients adapt to life problem diabetic patients after hospitalization role has changed, the living environment has changed, and to accept the treatment of diabetes, which means the patient to change their habits over the years, diet therapy is an essential treatment of diabetes, regardless of the patient's age and the severity of illness, and regardless of whether the application of drugs, the patient must be strictly enforced to develop long-term adherence to its diet program [4].

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3.3.2 reasonable diet and exercise control diabetes diet is an important therapeutic measures, a reasonable allocation of food is an important part of the treatment of diabetes, which aims to alleviate the burden of islet β cells, correct metabolic disorders, eliminate the symptoms of diet to control total calories should be the principle, the implementation of low-sugar, low-fat, moderate protein, high vitamin, high fiber, taking regular meals. for mild cases, can be used alone control diet can be based on the patient own weight and status, roughly estimating calories a day under normal circumstances resting adult: Daily 25-30kcal/kg; light manual: Daily 30-35kcal/kg Moderate manual workers: Daily 35-40kcal / kg, heavy manual workers: Daily 167.4kJ (40kcal) or more. growth and development, pregnant women, lactating women, malnutrition and wasting disease should be appropriate to increase 10% to 20% of overweight or obese corresponding reduction 10% to 20% for fat, protein, carbohydrate partitioning. fats: Daily 0.6 ~ 1.0/kg, accounting for about 30% of total calories Protein: Daily 0.8 ~ 1.2/kg approximately 12% of total calories to 15 % carbohydrate supplement the rest of about 50% to 60%. meals will be allocated according to food composition tables are translated into the calorie recipes, meals distribution is generally 1/5, 2/5, 2/5 or 1/3, 1/3, l / 3. meals dietary content to match even every meal has carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and to regular meals, small meals, to prevent excessive fluctuations in blood sugar, which will help slow down the absorption of glucose, increase insulin release Click recipes edible sugar 2 to 3 weeks should be dropped, the majority of patients with mild diabetes, the condition gradually improved, blood sugar, urine sugar returned to normal, if blood sugar, urine sugar was poorly controlled with medication may be added However, patients using insulin to avoid hypoglycemia, you should make the necessary adjustments, with meals or bedtime snacks, but it should be included in the total calories in [5].

Exercise therapy with glucose, blood pressure, weight loss, reduce hyperinsulinemia, lower triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein, reducing the amount of hypoglycemic drugs, and also avoid obesity and excessive stress. Arrangements for movement to follow the principle of gradual, moderate exercise, avoid over exertion principle, to understand movement contraindications: blood glucose> 16.8 mmol / L, ketoacidosis, proliferative retinopathy, nephropathy (creatinine 176 μmol / L, severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases , diabetic foot infections in patients with acute type 2 diabetic patients with moderate-intensity exercise as appropriate, simple calculation method is based on the age of the pulse rate calculating motion: motion pulse rate = 170 Age (years, according to the patient's condition, hobby to guide patients to choose the appropriate mode of motion, such as walking, exercises, tai chi, swimming, old disco, qigong and housework. general movement in the most appropriate meal about 1h, 2 or 3 times a day, every 30 ~ 60 min. campaign can not be interrupted, to persevere in order to avoid hypoglycemia, the best choice for high blood sugar after a meal, the activity should pay attention to the surrounding environment is safe, and bring dessert, and write the name, home address, relatives phone number and condition card in case of emergency [6].

3.3.3 universal home care home care of diabetic patients is very important. Patients' daily should rest, avoid over exertion. Attention to personal hygiene, maintaining systemic and local clean, especially the oral mucosa, skin, perineum clean. Less to public place, quit alcohol, keep warm, to prevent upper respiratory tract infections. attention to food hygiene, to prevent gastrointestinal infections. Nurses should instruct patients learn qualitative urine measured with a portable blood glucose meter who explain to the patient and demonstrate the use of blood glucose meter, while so that patients understand the results of urine and blood glucose significance for the prevention of foot complications, should guide the patient choose the right footwear, shoes should choose a square head, to ensure that the shoe is slightly wider than the foot, breathable and have some external force to fight role do not wear high-heeled, pointed, crusty and plastic shoes, they often check and remove foreign objects that may exist inside the shoe. should choose cotton socks and wool texture ground as well, both absorbent and breathable. socks not too much Do not wear socks with elastic band. daily wash, do not wear a patch or a rupture of socks to prevent uneven pressure on the foot, affecting blood circulation [7] For a long time ill patients to guide their attention to foot care, with special attention on the foot every day to check to see whether the inflamed plantar skin, chapped, blisters, crush injuries, athlete's foot, scratches and toe deformation followed to keep warm socks and absorbent, breathable , soft and loose, preferably cotton products, feet do not pay attention to the water temperature is too high, to avoid scalding. The key is to guide patients to take medication and monitoring of blood glucose, in case of problems and timely treatment [8].

Four nurses nursing issues that need attention

4.1 drug therapy problems that need attention

Insulin insulin therapy should be placed in the refrigerator care (4 ℃ in refrigerator, freezer prohibited, to prevent the injection site lipoatrophy, 1 h before use remove from refrigerator to room temperature, such as full-day total of two injections of insulin, the total dose 2/3 should be injected before breakfast, such as injections three times before breakfast dose should be maximum 40%, lunch and dinner before the 30% in fasting insulin subcutaneously 30 min after injection, within 0.5h meal to prevent hypoglycemia. optional arm deltoid injection site, abdomen and thigh, with plans to replace the injection site in sequence to avoid two weeks at the same site twice injection prevents the injection site atrophy or hyperplasia. guide patients in the injection Use your fingertips to touch each one before injection site, such as touching induration, lump or skin sag, leading to pain and color changes should eliminate the symptoms temporarily avoid the area before the injection of insulin [9].

Oral hypoglycemic drugs sulfonylurea, metformin. Educate patients to take medicine on time and the amount of the increment or decrement is not free to observe the blood glucose, GHB, FA, urine, urine volume and weight changes were observed drug efficacy and drug doses and adverse drug reactions. sulfonylureas: The main adverse reactions are anorexia, increased gastric acid secretion, stomach burning sensation while taking antacids can reduce or prevent the occurrence. taking overdose or hypoglycemia can react with diet . less common drug allergy, neutropenia, anemia, skin itching and rash. biguanides main adverse reactions were anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dry mouth, bitter, metallic taste, diarrhea, occasional allergic reactions. The hypoglycemic drugs on the liver, kidney dysfunction should not use. glucosidase inhibitors: The main adverse reactions are bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation. ulcer disease, gastritis patients should be hanged. taking food that should be at the same time with the first one Juefu [10].

4.2 Choosing the right parts of blood and blood collection methods

Blood glucose monitoring, pay attention to the correct location and method of blood to prevent impact on blood glucose monitoring results. Attention try not to choose refers to the abdomen as the puncture site, do not force squeezing the skin, blood from the heel of the attention to fingertips squeeze , should not squeeze at the tip.

4.3 Blood Glucose Monitoring

Should do blood glucose monitoring diary, including: blood glucose measurement time, blood glucose levels, the amount of meal time and eating, exercise time and exercise, the dosage and timing as well as some special events recorded [11]. If blood sugar is too high or too low, cast doubt on the monitoring results, you should immediately do intravenous glucose test.

4.4 Configuration and preservation of insulin

Insulin as a biological agent in use must be properly preserved. For those who do not immediately use insulin (unopened bottles of insulin and insulin refill should be kept in between 2 ~ 8 ℃ (refrigerator, freezer until the validity Before insulin will maintain its effective biological effects of insulin can not be placed in the refrigerator freezer, frozen thawed frozen insulin can no longer be used. bottled insulin at room temperature (about 25 ℃, can safely store six weeks or so Insulin can be stored at room temperature refill approximately four weeks. use bottled insulin can be placed in the refrigerator freezer, saving about three months. use of insulin and insulin pen refills do not put back together freezer, can carry for 4 weeks and all of insulin can not be exposed to heat and direct sunlight. no refrigerator, no insulin can be stored unopened in a cool, dry place, storage time is relatively short [12].

4.5 micro pump use in nursing

Step up inspections observation, close observation of medication local reactions to patients and their families the use of methods and therapeutic purposes, precautions to prevent self-regulation, micro pump infusion is dedicated channel, try not to share one with other drugs intravenously. Generally catheter in 5d that is to be replaced, avoid long-term infusion phlebitis and puncture caused by local inflammation, strengthen the sense of responsibility, standardized operation, be familiar with the micro-pump performance, correctly grasp the use and setting of each key, to understand precautions and common problems are a high degree of understanding. timely cleaning pump surface dirt, residue, medical education network collected to prevent corrosion machine after use kept by hand [13].

4.6 Prevention of complications

Attention to aseptic technique, action should be gentle, patient beds to be clean to prevent infection and other complications.

5 Discussion

Diabetes is a common present, China and multiple disease that affects the treatment of many factors. Patients with mood, disease prevention knowledge to master, diet control, exercise and other habits, the daily dose is the key to controlling blood glucose, so people with diabetes be especially attentive care and patience. care workers to be more communication with patients, pay attention to any adjustment in patients with recipes, meal volume and number of meals. attention to the patient's mood changes, the only way to meet the different needs of different types of patients.


Note:
[1] Zhouyun Hui, Zhou Xiaoyan. Talk about diabetes care [J]. New Medicine Tribune, 2007,7 (6): 7.14.

[2] Liu Hongying. Diabetes care [J]. Harbin Medicine, 2006,26 (674.

[3] Ren Huan, Ying Dong Yue, Liu Hongyan, etc. Progress in the quality of life of patients with diabetes [J]. Nursing Research, 2008,22 (2): 397.

[4] Ren Huan, Ying Dong Yue, Liu Hongyan, etc. Progress in the quality of life of patients with diabetes [J]. Nursing Research, 2008,22 (2): 397.

[5] Cheng Lian heart. Diabetes care. MATERIA MEDICA [J]. MATERIA MEDICA .2009,09.

[6] Cheng Lian heart. Diabetes care. MATERIA MEDICA [J]. MATERIA MEDICA .2009,09.

[7] Sun-resistant aromatic. Senile diabetes care [J]. Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine, 2003,10 (4:375.

[8] Chengpei Min. Elderly diabetic nursing experience [J]. In Medicine, 2006,11 (12): 57.

[9] Liu Hongying. Diabetes care [J]. Harbin Medicine, 2006,26 (674.

[10] Sun-resistant aromatic. Senile diabetes care [J]. Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine, 2003,10 (4:375.

[11] Zhang Yibo. Diabetes self-monitoring of blood glucose [J]. Journal of Nursing, 2006,2 (41): 2.

[12] Lee Soo Jun, money awarded. Insulin resistance and its clinical significance [J]. Chinese Journal of Diabetes, 1999,7 (2:163.

[13] Zhang Yibo. Diabetes self-monitoring of blood glucose [J]. Journal of Nursing, 2006,2 (41): 2.


References

[1] Zhouyun Hui, Zhou Xiaoyan. Talk about diabetes care [J]. New Medicine Tribune, 2007,7 (6): 7.14.

[2] Chengpei Min. Elderly diabetic nursing experience [J]. In Medicine, 2006,11 (12): 57.

[3] Cheng Lian heart. Diabetes care. MATERIA MEDICA [J]. MATERIA MEDICA .2009,09.

[4] Liu Hongying. Diabetes care [J]. Harbin Medicine, 2006,26 (674.

[5] Zhang Yibo. Diabetes self-monitoring of blood glucose [J]. Journal of Nursing, 2006,2 (41): 2. [6] Lee Soo Jun, money awarded. Insulin resistance and its clinical significance [J]. Chinese Journal of Diabetes , 1999,7 (2:163.

[7] Ren Huan, Ying Dong Yue, Liu Hongyan, etc. Progress in the quality of life of patients with diabetes [J]. Nursing Research, 2008,22 (2): 397.

[8] Pan Dongmei. Diabetes care [J]. Occupation and Health, 2006,22 (14): 1130.

[9] Ma Xueyi. Diabetes insulin application [J]. Intermediate Medical Journal, 1997,32 (4): 45.

[10] diabetes. Baidu Encyclopedia. Http://baike.baidu.com/view/923.htm?pid=baike.box
[11] Sun-resistant aromatic. Senile diabetes care [J]. Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine, 2003,10 (4:375.

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