Assumptions underlying management

We know that management is based on three fundamental assumptions above. First, management assumed that any organization employees are just some of the ordinary people, rather than Homo habilis or expert; secondly, assume management staff within the organization is non-noble motives, that they are not dedicated and irresponsible; Finally, management is assumed that employees are self-responsibility, that is, although they are not dedicated to work for you, not responsible, but when they work for themselves, but it is dedicated and responsible.

Management needs to be addressed is that under the above assumptions background, how organizations can improve their performance and achieve their goals, but also efficiently and achieve performance goals.

For the first hypothesis, management to solve the problem through the division of labor, processes and standardization. Taylor shovel sand from research actions, • to Henry Ford's assembly line, to the McDonald's standard operating procedures, are a concrete manifestation of this idea. For the second assumption, the management can be produced in the 20th century does not seem a big problem. We know that in a very long time after the generation management, the company's employees to the main manual workers, their work, such as a worker on the assembly line, whether a discharge of his duties to others can be seen, it is easy to manage personnel It will be able to supervise their work, and then through external rewards of the carrot and stick system, discipline, standardize their behavior to go into work.

However, with the development of the times, especially in the 21st century, all kinds of organizations, manual labor is no longer the mainstream, their absolute number and relative proportion of the labor share of the total population have dropped significantly, while Drucker He said knowledge workers but all types of organizations are becoming mainstream workers.

So, the question now is, first of all, of course, we can not be an expert or employees as capable, they expect a person will be able to get their work, but we must not be like Taylor did, just some of them as stupid and fools (Taylor likened the workers 'will not speak bull'). They are just ordinary people, and to maximize the potential and ability of ordinary people to play out, to enable them to grow and progress, so that ordinary people make unusual performance, but it is just one of the most important management tasks. However, by the division of labor, standardization of processes and means to solve the problem, the enterprises should not affect the work of the organization complete individual contributions, skills and judgment, rather than the strengths of all employees, initiative, responsibility and capacity, can the performance and benefits of the organization contribute. If this is in the main staff of fashion manual workers can barely accept it (in fact, in my opinion, even the manual workers, if they can maximize the use of their talents, but also can greatly enhance the performance and competitiveness of the organization force. for example, known as the 'people thinking system' Toyota's lean production, its essence is the production line will become more manual workers working through the minds of knowledge workers), then, for real value is its head, not its hands of knowledge workers, the organization of this kind of work but will inevitably lead to staff a great vitality and tremendous waste inhibition employees intellect.

At the same time, with different manual workers, knowledge workers work more to apply their knowledge, information, symbols and concepts, and these elements are inherent when a knowledge worker sitting at your desk, you can not determine mind to think he is a work thing, or just hand last night. It also is not the worst, at least you can see him, but for some knowledge workers, the most typical is the sales staff, you not only do not know what he was thinking, even you can not see the shadow of a ghost to him. Therefore, the enterprise is difficult to like that, to supervise the work of knowledge workers on the production line of manual workers, thus forcing them to go into work through the system and discipline.

In summary, the traditional management of knowledge workers in the 21st century has become the mainstream has not, at least not a good way to provide a solution for the basic assumptions of management, then this necessarily means that the organization was unable to fully utilize employee talent, and maximize their abilities and potential, and ultimately reduce organizational performance and competitiveness.

As a result, it will Drucker 'How to improve the productivity of knowledge workers,' the problem is called the greatest challenge faced by management in the 21st century, and clearly pointed out that in the future several years, only to improve knowledge worker take measures of productivity the most systematic and done the most successful countries and industries, only to squeeze into the forefront of the world economy.

In the '21st Century management challenge', the Drucker made six-point proposal including the 'knowledge worker jobs, tasks and responsibilities must include innovation,' etc., for that matter, but also particularly Drucker He emphasizes the study of this issue has just started, in terms of research productivity of knowledge workers, we probably only about a century ago, we have made in terms of research productivity of manual workers as the progress made in 2000. In other words, management of the academic approach to this challenge has not been found, so Drucker said, 'We need to act.'

This paper argues that, to improve the productivity of knowledge workers, knowledge workers in the individual level, first of all, we must be able to let them go into work voluntarily, from the heart to want to have the motivation and willingness to do the work, just as we We said earlier, knowledge workers work more to apply their knowledge, information, symbols and concepts, and these elements are inherent, unless they voluntarily go into work, otherwise the business is difficult as on the production line workers on it, their work supervision and control. So let knowledge workers to voluntarily go into work, it became essential to improve their labor productivity, but also the most important prerequisite and guarantee. Secondly, there is the will but also ways to improve the productivity of knowledge workers not only make its willingness to work, you must also allow them to do a good job. Therefore, we can not allow one of them to fight, but must work through analysis and research, and to build on the work of the organization-level solutions, the formation of organizational knowledge, so as to provide the necessary support and assistance for their work. It must be emphasized that the establishment of the work of the organization-level solutions inevitably involve standards, processes, and other details of these solutions staff capability issues of traditional management methods, however, for knowledge workers, through our standards, processes, their personal details will be incorporated into a system of arbitrary specification must also provide them with broad principles of autonomy and encourage individual initiative job, otherwise, you're actually telling them that the program and steps are important, but people's thinking and creativity are at the back. Finally, and most important, we must also allow knowledge workers to work smarter, more creative way to work, knowledge workers are really valuable part of their minds, not their hands, only when they are able to take advantage of the most valuable of their own minds continue to explore better, more efficient, more innovative at work, it may continue to fundamentally improve their labor productivity.

In the organizational level, we must also be able to strive every knowledge worker harmonize to the overall mix and unite in a common direction - the organization's goals. This is not difficult to understand, if the target behavior of knowledge workers and organizations deviate too much, do not form together, then they wasted efforts will offset each other, and can not be converted to maximize performance and competitiveness of the organization. Not translate into performance and competitiveness of the work is far from natural high work productivity. At the same time, we must be able to organize the organization's goals and the environment coordinated, otherwise, playing some extreme analogy, when the human traffic has entered the high-speed rail, high-speed era, your business still in the efficient production of the carriage and attempted with the high-speed rail and high-speed competition to grab a slice, what will result? Knowledge of the staff's efforts, what is the point? No meaningful work but also about what it productivity?

In short, if we can make knowledge workers voluntarily go into work, for their work to provide the necessary support and assistance, as well as be able to make them wiser and more creative way to work, and, in this basis, we are also able to target their personal efforts and the organization, and the organization of the environment of the three organic coordinated, we naturally increase their labor productivity.

Due to space limitations, this article can not be discussed in detail how to make employees into voluntary work, how to provide support and help for their work, how to make them more intelligent and more creative way to work, and on this basis, we how to target their personal efforts and the organization, organizational environment in which three organic coordinated. The author has been the subject of 'From the perspective of management to see the' Chinese Dream 'realization - How to improve the productivity of knowledge workers,' a text of the above issues in detail in the discussion, interested readers can go to Web search. This article just hope readers understand, traditionally manual labor management methods can not meet the development of the times, in the 21st century, the organization has a truly competitive dynamic that must be able to maximize inspire knowledge workers and maximize intelligent organization of knowledge workers.