With the rapid development of the domestic economy, the constant improvement of the regulations, the growing competition in the construction market, the low bid is the inevitable trend of development of the market, the construction market has entered a low-profit and non-profit times, survival of the fittest, survival of the fittest, construction through its own strategic adjustment must improve the meticulous management standards in order to get the most value for money, the former SASAC Director Li Rongrong once said: "The competition among enterprises is the first performance to price competition, price competition behind the main cost competitive . "
The cost index is good or bad indicators that reflect the level of enterprise management, cost control, project management, is gaining access to a source of economic benefits.
Second, the impact of the main part of the cost management of construction enterprises.
A wide range of cost management throughout the entire process of project management activities, planning began from the pre-bid contract to the project, construction preparation, site construction, until final acceptance, each cost management aspects are inseparable in this case under advanced cost management concepts and improve cost management system enterprise market initiative and competitive advantage and cost management a part of any deviation will affect the project benefits.
Pre-bid evaluation. Marked before the deviation of the cost estimate and economic assessment will lead to project cost management "deficiencies" current construction market supply and demand imbalance between the prevalence of vicious competition within the industry, in the face of market pressures, many construction companies hesitate take the low bid, earnings hopes in subsequent project claims change as well as other ways to another pre-bid investigation a mere formality, tender documents and drawings reviewing research is not thorough, project construction difficulty, risk estimates are not in place, resulting in cost budget is not in place, resulting in budget omissions budget error, the winning projects of losses, a result trapped in a quagmire and unable to extricate themselves.
The project manager's choice selection of the project manager is the key to the cost of construction projects can be effectively controlled.
Project manager as a project contractor responsible person, its organizational experience, professionalism and professional level is directly related to the quality of the project is good or bad, corporate image good difference, the speed of the implementation of the corporate brand strategy.
Construction organization design. Implementation of the construction organization design is reasonable or not a prerequisite for project profit and loss. Implementation of the construction organization design throughout the main line of the entire project construction process, prepared scientific and reasonable direct impact on project safety, quality, schedule , benefits.
4. Process management and control of the project cost. Process management and control of the project cost is a critical stage of the project cost management. Project cost control management is a very complex and systems engineering, is a dynamic management process include safety management, quality management, technology management, labor management, machinery management, materials management, financial management and other link, the link will impact on the cost of the item, just varying degrees of impact only.
5. Changes to the work on the claims. The change claim work project on the impact of the final operating results. Grasp the change claim opportunities, identify the change claim facts and full change claim is based, is the key to the success of the construction claims. Claim is an important means to restore cost-loss, may decide operating results of the final project.
Third, how to strengthen cost management.
Efficiency and profits is the fundamental purpose of the survival and development of construction enterprises, corporate profit, project cost, the profit of construction enterprises on the basis of the construction project to do the cost management of construction projects, it should establish a construction concept of full cost of the project, the operational risks of the a reasonable forecast construction project, from the pre-bid, construction implementation, completion of finishing the whole process of dynamic management of the construction cost of advanced cost management and cost management system becomes the enterprise market initiative and competition advantage of the foundation.
1. Strengthen the standard before the full research and scientific assessments to strengthen the work of the project planning and full investigation to establish the standard before the joint hearing mechanism, focusing on the cost and benefit analysis, to carry out the pre-bid cost estimate and economic assessment to ensure the quality of the winning project for some The low limit, risk, and the harsh conditions of the project should choose to take the initiative to give up.
Construction party construction project tender cost by a professional consulting firm responsible for the preparation of tender documents, the terms of the contract are drawn harsh bring more difficulties to the operation and management of construction enterprises. Therefore, companies must carefully understanding of the situation at the scene, seriously study the tender documents, fully predict the project risk, careful assessment of the tender credit capacity, funds the same time, according to their own situation, give full consideration to the market conditions, construction technology, material prices and fees , combined with the characteristics of the project, careful decisions by corporate management, financial, engineering and other departments to reasonably determine the tender price successful fight at good prices.
2 focus on the establishment of the project management team. Enterprises should focus on the characteristics of the project, seriously looking for a project manager and project management team candidates. Unity, harmony, and efficient management team is essential for a project, it is a project management core framework, the project leader is the backbone of the project management team, a decisive influence on the strength of its business, management, interpersonal communication, judgment, decision-making, strain capacity will be brought to the project management. The responsibility costs make up the project, signed with the project manager of incentive contract that is to mobilize the enthusiasm of the project manager, but also its somewhat constraints prevent the cause of the cost of construction projects out of control.
3. Concentrate on the implementation of the construction organization design preparation and improve the optimization work. Implementation of the construction organization design is the basic technical and economic documents guiding the project construction preparation and organization of construction, design the perfect pre-bid and deepen the concrete practice of technological innovation and technological progress, the quality of construction projects and technical support. Implementation Xing Shi Group design preparation must comply with the following characteristics:
3.1 operability construction enterprises after winning situation according to its own personnel, machinery and equipment, to develop a detailed operational construction program, so that the construction in an orderly manner, to make full use of its own resources, the most for the interests of maximization .
3.2 flexibility due to the influence of various factors in the construction site, construction can not be all plain sailing, construction enterprises should be based on a variety of factors, adjusting the construction program, construction process, reduce the work slowdown, in order to achieve the purpose of the guarantee period.
3.3 perfection according to design drawings and related technical data, construction methods, construction procedures, job organizational forms, mechanical equipment selection, technical and organizational measures to optimize the analysis, timely adjust and optimize the construction design optimization of the construction program perfection is the main way to reduce the cost of the project, the construction of the project.
3.4 global and comprehensive implementation of the construction organization design content is comprehensive, the role played by a full range of in the program development process should be focused, taking into account a comprehensive, state-of-the-art technology, economic rationality, to ensure quality safe for realistic dynamic adjustment "as the guiding principle, and improve project economics combined schedule leave room, detailed construction program feasible and reliable technical organizational measures.
4. Strengthen the project whole process of construction pipe control project construction phase of the process control management is cost occurs the main stage, cost management key stage only through effective management tools and tight production organizations, in order to ensure the cost of the project has always been in the can control state.
4.1 earnestly drawings reviewing work. Drawings reviewing is a solemn and serious technical work is one of the main contents of the construction preparation phase technology management. Earnestly drawings reviewing design perfect for reducing errors in the construction drawings improve the quality of the project and to ensure the smooth construction of great significance. drawings of the the triage main purpose is to find the design drawings if there are omissions or ambiguities, and to communicate with the owners and design units, and to make reasonable suggestions for the design reference facilitate convenient site construction cost.
4.2 the preparation of the implementation of the construction cost of the scheme., The construction cost of the plan is an important part of the construction project cost control, a guiding document to reduce the construction cost of the task. Key to the construction cost of the scheme is to determine the target cost, the need to combine the construction of sexual organizational design, through continuous optimization of the construction technology program and the rational allocation of factors of production, consumption analysis of work, materials, machines, and to develop appropriate cost savings and tap potential measures.
4.3 construction cost of the process control.
(A safety management Safety management is a very important content in the construction enterprises in project production and business activities, it is related to corporate survival and development related to the future and destiny of the enterprise. ① establish a sound safety management regulations, good security plan measures to strengthen the sense of responsibility, to establish a "people-oriented principle of safety first thought. safety management work must be done to government decrees, upload issued, curried (2) implement the responsibility system for production safety, down to every level of responsibility, increase incentives punishment, to take "implicated" policy, one illegal, many punished. ③ effectively strengthen the targeted three safety education work, to achieve full participation, full control, comprehensive coverage, pictures, case learning enhanced security awareness, from the perspective of themselves, their families, interests, and repeatedly stressed that the safety of their own interest. implementation of safety education classes before the ten minutes, so that every workers know to do today, how dry, security risks and how eliminate hidden dangers.
④ increase investment in security funding, improve security measures, to eliminate safety hazards, safety work how do can not be overemphasized.
(2) Quality Management Quality is a business based on the fundamental premise of the development of production, is a symbol of corporate quality.
(1) establish a sound internal control quality inspection system, the implementation of quality responsibility system, down to every level of responsibility, and strengthen the quality of management of the construction site.
② carry out the full quality of education, strengthen the sense of quality, to improve the quality consciousness, to grasp the technical disclosure Publicizing the work of strengthening the construction specifications and procedures.
③ establishment of the finished file visa regime, in-depth study found quality problems, to carry out the analysis and discussion, and to develop preventive measures.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
(3 materials management.Material fee is the total cost of construction, the proportion of the largest general in about 60% -70%, an important degree of natural self-evident.
Detailed drawings and engineering amount of triage work calculated the total demand of the various types of materials that is relatively accurate to submit purchase plan, (2) control material prices, in accordance with the requirements of the construction cost of the scheme, through mastery of market information, the application of tender and Inquiry such as control of the purchase price of good material, shop around and buy cheap materials, ensure compliance with the design requirements and quality standards, according to market price movements reasonably determine the incoming batch and batch, unless prices were buoyant material reserves, or to reduce as much as possible, avoid the stock is too high tying up funds.
The ③ materials storage acceptance control. Material with the project site is served by the purchasing department, warehouse department, quality inspection departments with their quantity, quality, specifications, model acceptance, warehousing registration on custody or arrival that use of the material, after the acceptance of direct unloading materials used on-site, reducing secondary transportation costs.
④ the materials requisitioned control sound out of the library ledger and approval requisitioned procedures for the materials consumption indicators agreed in the contract, to impose a quota sends the material system. Requisitioned batches within the prescribed limits, the recipients of the excess of the limit , you must first identify the cause, after approval by picking.
Material control under ⑤ construction cutting materials, especially steel-like material, valet guidance, technicians or experienced technicians should be according to the specifications and design requirements, develop a reasonable standard of cutting and reduce wastage.
⑥ the waste return of materials management. Fully tap the waste be returned material reuse and revitalize this part of the assets to avoid long expected short with the excellent material inferiority use, strengthen the management of the return of material disintegration, cleaning, stacking and use process to avoid The savage job, arbitrarily cutting, so that the classification stacking Xiadian superstructure waste must be promptly dealt with in accordance with the refunding, to prevent loss.
⑦ turnover materials management of construction enterprises should establish Turnover materials unified management agencies, is responsible for the acquisition of custody, lease management, unified deployment, maintenance and recycling disposal and resource information management, and to improve good rates and utilization rates, increasing the value of, so as to enhance Reusable materials library competitive advantage on a project to set up facilities group needs to set up a temporary warehouse or storage yard, good turnover materials acceptance, storage and custody work.
(4 labor subcontracting management.
① selection and technology, equipment, funds, personnel, labor service companies with outstanding construction capacity subcontracts signed labor subcontracting unit price must be reasonable, and strive to achieve a win-win situation to overly low labor subcontracting Price, the project can not blindly seeking the most effective so it will lead to increased costs, schedule delays, if the regulation is not in place, but also serious quality problems, and not worth the candle.
② implementation of the volume and price separation from the signing of the contract, quality and progress in process control, process settlement, completion and acceptance, the final settlement payment, etc. earnestly strengthen the management and control of labor subcontractors.
Contract business negotiation process, the majority of small equipment and sporadic the material Feinarulao Service sub-unit price in the implementation of the contract system, not only to reduce their own workload, but also conducive to material savings.
(5 mechanical equipment management of construction enterprises should strengthen the internal deployment of the machinery and equipment, in order to improve the comprehensive utilization rate of equipment. Reasonable use of the machinery and equipment management, including equipment matching to inspection, maintenance, repair and maintenance of the whole process. Machinery costs generally account for about project cost of 5%-l0%, reasonable choice of machinery and equipment is of great significance for cost management should be based on engineering characteristics according to the project schedule requirements and the size of the project amount, in accordance with technologically advanced, economically reasonable and feasible production the maintenance convenience "to matching the required equipment. For larger initial acquisition cost, the life cycle is not long, but must use the equipment, can be taken into account in the form of the rental market rental.
Process machinery and equipment used should be reasonable arrangements for the construction process and construction loads, improve efficiency in the use of the equipment, reduce equipment idle time, to reduce Jixietaiban use cost.
(6 schedule management. Progress with safety, quality, cost somewhat conflicting, contradictory, and it involves the management ideas, tools, models, scientific and strict management is very important.
Multi-program (1) establish a schedule and the selection of the concept of a reasonable allocation of resources, scientific organization of the working face, take the necessary economic incentives as possible before the loose after tight strive to save costs, guarantee period.
(2) construction phase decomposition, highlighting the control point.
For clues on the critical path, starting and ending mileage for network planning control point, to identify priority control objects in different stages of construction, development of construction rules, to secure the realization of the control node.
③ dynamic control scheme. Ever-changing conditions and circumstances of the construction site, to grasp the various information about the construction schedule, a day coordination meeting system, found at any time, at any time to solve the problem do exist in the construction, with a corresponding adjustment phase sexual plans, which guarantee period.
(7 on-site management of funds. Reasonable allocation of human resources, many people will not necessarily achieve the best good internal control, Off scene expenditure of funds, control of non-productive expenditure within the enterprise should also regularly published within a certain range of the purpose of non-productive expenditure, to be compared with each other, to promote the project to reduce costs.
(8 operating inventory analysis. Operating the main purpose of the inventory work reflect the true situation of operation of the project, understanding of the project cost structure, to facilitate the analysis bias reasons to take targeted corrective measures to strengthen the project economic management accounting processes, in order to achieve the project costs of dynamic control and active control through a meeting, drying data contrast, the existing problems in a timely manner exposed and enlarged, thereby contributing to the management.
5. Increase the intensity of the change claim. Engineering change can often contract for the construction enterprises to get rid of the low price, and expand their own profit margins to restore cost losses provide opportunities for so-called "bid by the low prices, earnings rely on change" is the truth, by a reasonable change minus the part of the profit margin is not high the subkey project, make a fuss in the relatively high profit margins on the sub-items at the same time, in order to increase profit margins.
5.1 striving for change, expanding profit margins in the project construction process, it is often possible that there are fundamental differences exist in the description of the situation at the scene with the tender documents, which required part of the project on the original design process, method, and the number of to make changes, optimize.
5.2 when the case of engineering change matters, should be promptly issued by the change of single contact, the consent of the design units, supervision and owners agreed, timely organization and implementation of changes to the completion of the project should contact single issued in respect of quantities and price, in a timely manner, please design, supervision, owners visa confirmation in the reporting process, should be good at the "encounter", to declare the amount of focus on large, high-profit items, make big changes can be more smoothly confirmed approval.
5.3 project from the beginning of the contract compliance, according to the contract, it is necessary to strengthen the claims of the owners to focus on claims of evidence collection and validation work visa handling often claim letter sent to the owners and timely urging confirmed. Claims to maintain corporate interests, improve the income of the project. attaches great importance to the claims of the owners at the same time, to enhance the awareness of performance of the contract itself, to prevent owners from counter-claims.
Attaches great importance to the end of the project and the final acceptance of the work. Completion of the final phase of construction enterprises in the project because of the relative lack of management and technical force, often the project has been completed technical force deployed to other projects under construction, the very great importance to the completion of finishing work, leading off the work dragged on, the gradual loss of the existing economic interests.
6.1 to appoint someone, the formation of a lean handover, acceptance, data archiving team, specific implementation based finishing touches to the transfer of the acceptance and completion archive. Seriously study according to the design requirements and the contents of the contract, you may say, to ensure that the information is correct and complete in a timely manner.
6.2 with particular emphasis on the the finishing work plan. Closeout responsible person in accordance with the actual situation of the project, combined with the terms of the contract to the preliminary version, under the form of a document issued after the joint hearing of the internal perform. Hold regular system of regular meetings, the report reviews the progress on a regular basis, to solve the problems in a timely manner in order to maintain the plan timeliness.
6.3 in time for the budget of the project to strengthen the accounts receivable management.
(1 project completion, the project accounts in a timely manner, to clear the debt, and debt.
(2 designate a person responsible for communication with the owners, strengthening accounts, Dunning efforts to enter into a repayment agreement through consultation with the owners, and urge owners to clear repayment plan and time.
(3 analysis summary the feedback assessment project after the completion of final accounts to deal with the entire operation and management to summarize, analyze, explore successful experience, analyze problems and deficiencies, to provide a reference for future project management experience.
(4 enterprise financial audit department should have finished clearing data and the construction cost of the project, project performance for a detailed examination, evaluation, and analysis of gains and losses reasons, raised the incentive opinion of the staff, according to the actual situation in a timely manner to honor.
The cost of construction enterprise project management is a systematic, comprehensive, full dynamic management, only through its own strategic adjustment, rising meticulous management level, so that safety and quality standardization progress control rigidity, the civilized construction normalization, cost fine management process through strict cost management and control, in order to obtain maximum economic benefits.
 the national level, the construction of Qualification Exam books written Committees << Construction Project Management >> China Building Industry Press, 2010Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com