You're welcome and You're welcome, the syntactic and semantic inquiry

Summary syntactic level, "you're welcome" only as a predicate, and "you're welcome" can be used as predicate, object, adverbial, complement. Semantic level, in the words of righteousness domain, the two are the same; "you're welcome" No OK domain righteousness and knowledge domain righteousness, and "blunt" There are rows and knowledge domains domains righteous righteousness.

Keywords syntactic semantic level domain Yoshiyuki word meaning knowledge domain righteousness domain

I. Introduction
At present, of the "you're welcome" and "You're welcome," the syntax and semantics of a more detailed study carried out with only two thematic papers: Tang Xiaoling's << a modern Chinese phrase "you're welcome" >> and Pan Yi Yan Analysis << "You're welcome" and "Do not mention it." >> The former comparison of the "rude" and "You're welcome," the pragmatic differences, analysis of the "no" and "Do not," the difference and autonomy adjective "polite", etc. dynamic significance show the way, and finally reveal the reasons for the differences caused by the latter first is that "you're welcome" in addition to their daily lives as a common courtesy, there are two semantic connotation - no mercy for people with attitude not warm, friendly, very cool; then from the frequency of use, syntactic function, semantic meaning, for stylistic, several aspects of language use summary analysis of the "rude" and "You're welcome," the difference between this two writings on " You're welcome "and" You're welcome, "the syntactic and semantic analysis, observation and description have achieved some results, but has not done enough in explaining our search through the entire corpus of Peking University Research Center of Chinese Linguistics (hereinafter referred to as Peking University Corpus) Modern Chinese parts (total 632,428,846 bytes) found that: The corpus contains "You're welcome," the sentence is only 140, which contain "You're welcome," the sentence was up over 1200, both the frequency of use is a big gap In this connection the phenomenon, this paper combined with "OK, know, the words" three field theory and the broader corpus from the syntactic and semantic levels for two people to explore and resolve deep.

Second, from the "Line domain knowledge domains, domain words" see "you're welcome" and "you're welcome" Shen Jiaxuan (2003) in the analysis of complex sentences, cf sweetser (1990) distinguish three levels: "eontent", "ePistemie n10dality '' and "sPeechacts" proposed "OK, know, the words" three fields of view. Moreover, Shen Jiaxuan (2008) also pointed out: Language world also exists within the corresponding three World - OK domains, domain knowledge, speech domains. three Not only have a parallel relationship between the domains, as well as extended relationship OK domain is essential righteousness, which gives rise to blur the knowledge domain righteousness, and further blur the domain derived word meaning. language is also the reason why there is a world inside the world speech In the final analysis is due to the language have two characteristics: First, the language can be used to refer to or representations in language itself, which is the language of 'reflexivity', (reflexivity); Second, the power of language, that is to ask questions, request, promise so-called "language ability" (illoeutiona potassium foree) from speech act itself can.

In this section we try to learn from Mr. Shen theory through, combined with the specific sentence to the right, "you're welcome" and "you're welcome" semantic similarities and differences are discussed.

1 Introduction domain << >> Modern Chinese Dictionary (5th edition, hereinafter referred to as ((Dictionary >>) on the "polite" Interpretation is: ① (adjective) human humility, polite; ② (verb) to say kind words, make gentle movements. "you're welcome" in the "Do not," the usage and meaning, should be >> << dictionary of "Category 4", Section l of: (adverb) means that prohibit or discourage, with the "do not's" the same meaning. "blunt" in the "no" usage and meaning, should be >> << dictionary of "no" Article 8: (adverb) without; Do (restricted to some kind words) from The dictionary definition of << >> view, "Do not" and "no" to have a "do not" meaning, so "you're welcome" and "you're welcome" can be used to talk to others after a euphemism to say thank discouraged. such as: (1) A: Thank you! B: Do not mention it / You're welcome.

In this case, they can be generic, presentation functions, they are courtesy, sense, also roughly according to Mr. Shen Jiaxuan's "Three Worlds" - OK domains, domain knowledge, made field theory, the case The "you're welcome" and "you're welcome" is polite language, should belong to the word domain because they are neither made for each other after being reported thanks to the behavior in response to discourage sexual behavior, nor is it on the other side is sincere thanks likelihood inference, but do not say thank nature discourage other words, their "power of language" was "discouraged", so the domain is made in the "Words Domain" and "You're welcome" and "You're welcome," the meaning is the same , are "Do not say kind words" justice.

But are equally polite language, "You're welcome" and "You're welcome," there are still nuances that is in verbal communication activities, in addition to the discourse as a courtesy, the speaker if it indicates an intention to persuade or dissuade others do not talk about politeness, humility means, only with "You're welcome," and not with "You're welcome." such as: (2) above, a juvenile seat, very quiet place, ladies first general to ask Ms. la carte , the menu to her, and I was even told her that I said you pick, do not jump to gas, you point it ①.

(3) Shucks, you are occasional visitors, less than weekdays are, please please, do not pose stand, eat some fruit, eat some fruit.
In all these cases of "You're welcome" is the domain for words, except as a courtesy discourse, but also intends to indicate a need to persuade or dissuade others polite, humility means. Meaning of this domain for words The "You're welcome," can not be used "you're welcome" replaced.

Corpus in the North, although the use of "You're welcome" in sentences (more than 1200 cases) is "You're welcome" (over 140 cases) of nearly 9 times, but for the "word domain" "You're welcome," but far " You're welcome, "and more, which fully shows that in answer to the discourse of others thanked written works on" You're welcome "and" you're welcome "is mainly on the choice of using the" Do not mention it. "However, based on our 20 years in March Anhui University, 100 students (South and North to 50 people) oral questionnaire survey, the use of "you're welcome" and "You're welcome," the frequency of about 50-50%, indicating that in the spoken language used Politeness " Thanks "significantly higher frequency of use of written language.

Interestingly << >> Modern Chinese Dictionary 3rd Edition (19%) "no" the first eight definitions "(square) not; Do (restricted to some kind words): I sent a thank I a a kind. "This shows that" You're welcome "was originally from the dialect while << >> Modern Chinese Dictionary 5th Edition (2005) is no longer marked" (square) "character, which indicates" You're welcome "has been completely into Mandarin. Peking University corpus collected modern Chinese corpus, some modern works accounted for a certain proportion of the vast majority of contemporary part before 2005, it is difficult to reflect the situation after 2005. << our findings and modern Chinese dictionary >> interpretation are shown "You're welcome," the stronger penetration, catching up with "You're welcome" trend, which may be due to "no" pronunciation of the word than "do" the word easier to reason.

2 line field "Do not mention it" can not be used for line domain, because it's the only language ability was "discouraged", which is a typical word domain righteousness see "you're welcome" for the row field example: ( 4) Pirates of the fish king speaking, merit or nepotism does not solve this problem.

(5) If the king concubine site that we in Lanzhou better impression than in Xi'an.
(6) It is said that for me, you are a monk, I was the only priest, had wanted to hear you say something, since the law says I steal, I also was a concubine of jade, and you may wish to contest contest.

(7) There are some things that criticism is to criticize; naughty but incorrigible, but also "fired", even relatives and friends also welcome! Above examples of "You're welcome" are used to line the domain is "unflinchingly (hard-nosed)" means, in the case of (4), (5) is as adverbial, is mercilessly his own views, in the case of (6), (7) is as predicate, is mercilessly make their own behavior. domains defined for the line "You're welcome" in "polite" is used as a verb, "mercy surface (about feelings)" means, "You're welcome" in the "no" is used as an adverb, the verb "polite" to indicate negation.

3 domain known as "You're welcome" The only force phrase "discourage", which is typically made domain defined, so it is also known to the domain can not be used.

See "You're welcome" is used to know the domain examples: (8) This time, Turner looks a little concubine Yu Li, mainly blamed the wrong policies of Chiang Kai-shek led Incident occurred, support Zhang's political views.

(9) is Dingwen hands of a general Chiang Kai-shek, President of the Central Military Front commander, Zhang Xueliang Wang concubine rather fish.
(10) However, Hou Tiancheng stretched arm, and all of a sudden, put Sky King's manager pushed aside to go; Hou Tiancheng how so King's manager on the day of Chinese jade cup gas it? (11) long-haired boy said very Jade concubine fish.

In all these cases of "You're welcome" are used in the domain knowledge, is "rude attitude of people, not humility, not warm, unfriendly," meaning, the speaker or writer is based on their existing knowledge and experience to evaluate people's speech acts, the concept of "You're welcome," the council function is used to know the domain defined "blunt" in "polite" is used as an adjective, "human humility, polite, warm and friendly "meaning," You're welcome "in the" no "is used as an adverb, used in the adjective" polite "to indicate negation. posted on free download
4. From the" three domains "look , 'gU polite "," You're welcome, "the difference,' Z hundred polite" can only be used for speech domain, which means that "discourage", which crossed the line of domains and domain knowledge, is it not with Mr. Shen Jiaxuan theory "line domain righteous is the most basic, which gives rise to blur the knowledge domain righteousness, and further blur the domain derived word meaning "contradiction? answer is no, in fact," polite "is the term used for the three domains for the line domain, such as 'he always found something to be polite, "for knowledge domains, such as' he treats very polite," domain for words such as "you are what kind". "you're welcome" The reason can only be used for word domain , because "you're welcome" in the "other" Only one meanings: (adverb) means that prohibit or discourage, with the "do not" have the same meaning; in other words, "Do not," the only meaning of this term makes the "Do not mention it." only for words domains.

"You're welcome" is used for both speech domain, but also for the knowledge domain, because "you're welcome" in the "no" has two meanings, when the "rude" domain for words, "no" means are: (adverb) without; Do (restricted to some kind words) when "you're welcome" for row domain knowledge domains, "no" means: the verb, adjective to indicate negation. "Not kind "for the row field," polite "is used as a verb," ​​mercy surface (about feelings) "justice;" You're welcome "for knowledge domain," polite "is used as an adjective," human humility , courteous, warm and friendly "meaning.

Third, "you're welcome" and "You're welcome," the syntactic and semantic point to a function. "You're welcome" function and semantic point, "You're welcome" in the syntactic structure only as a predicate, such as: (12) Please, a $ 63 million range, you make a decision for me, you can not commission a few points, which you're welcome.

(13) We have many "concubine stand, I had gathered that night to accompany everyone in here, but, my wife came, I simply talk with my wife, too rude of you, I hope you play also pleased.

(14) Even today, no one fish stand, let three people to sing a song, I will sing, I naturally got it.
In all these cases of "You're welcome" are as predicate, its semantics are pointing to the front of the subject, that were pointing to "you", "we", "Who." In addition, from the above examples and corpus All can be seen in more than 140 examples of "You're welcome," the subject is only three pronouns of the second person pronoun "you", "you", not three pronoun "we", "Gentlemen", which means any means interrogative pronoun "who", etc. If we combine specific context to examine, non-three pronoun "we" gas "Gentlemen," and is actually pointing to the hearer, such cases (13), which means that any interrogative pronouns referring to the "who" also points to the hearer, such as cases (14), so "you're welcome" semantics are pointing obedient people.

2. "Blunt" the syntactic function and semantic point, "you're welcome" in the syntactic structure can be used as predicate, object, adverbial, complement.

As the predicate: (15) Yu Wang concubine Tianbai also Sunburn, his speech written order sent, by Julia income within a collection.
(16) He could hear very seriously, his memory and extremely alarming, for each one of the lines is wrong to point out that he can be timely, meticulous, vertical jump is also very holy.

In all these cases as the predicate of the "blunt" semantics are pointing to the front of the subject, ie, respectively, pointing to "Yu-day white", 'he. "
As object: (17) Unfortunately, today there are many who only learned concubine king fish, Chinese people good tradition of courtesy, but not anymore.

(15) I speak not much of a show jade jump stand, but it does bring out a sarcastic and arrogant unnatural frivolous.
With the above case as the object of the "blunt" semantics are pointing to the front center of the verb phrase, ie that point to "learn", "show."
As attributive: (19) I was engaged in technical background, to be straight without declaring it, these products are inferior products, can not be.
(20) Qian said: Mr. Wu Shi is a great man, his poems have no king concubine gas mockery, no lewd depictions; their seriousness to date (1937) until the old and the new love poems are rare.

The above examples as attributive use of the "blunt" Semantic all point back to the center of their language, that were pointing to "talk", "mockery."
Adverbial: (Cheung Ying Chuan Wang jump on the gas to sit down.
(22) back to Hangzhou later, responsible for security of the song Qi Yu Yu jump Sunburn is criticizing me.
The above examples as adverbial use of the "rude" are both pointing to its semantic verb also point behind its previous subject, namely cases (21) pointing to the verb "sit" and the subject "Zhang excellence", case (22 ) pointing to the verb "criticism" and the subject "Qu Qi Yu."
Complement: (23) I went alone, the ability to learn, to put jade fish jump point, according to their ability to play, has together with the designers to design five provincial-level new products, of which one has to fill the gap .

(24) long-haired boy said very king concubine fish.
The above examples as Complement "You're welcome," pointing to the front of the semantics of the general language of the verb center, this two cases are pointing to the verb "say."
From the foregoing, "You're welcome," the subject may be the first person "I" third person "he", of course, also be a second person, such as "you do, too polite, ie" You're welcome. " The semantics can point the speaker or hearer or a third party, its semantics point range than the "you're welcome" refers only to the hearer is much broader. Moreover, the semantic point on "Do not mention it" can only refer to before, "You're welcome" is not only former refers to, but also after the fingers.

In addition, by examining the entire corpus containing "You're welcome" and "You're welcome," the sentence shows that: In an interview with the modification of adverbs, they are subject to the scope of "Dou" adverbs of frequency "is also, or" and the adverb "on the , may "and other restrictions or modifications, but" you're welcome "may be subject adverb" even ", the degree adverb" very, very, very, quite, never, most, more, very, special, very, more "other and time adverbs of frequency "has been, have been, and, immediately, from, never, still, often, always" and other limitations or modification, you can also form a "bluntly" "never polite" and other phrases; and "You're welcome" is not by adverbs of degree and frequency adverbs such restriction or modification, but "you're welcome" may be subject to affirmative adverb "million" modification, and "You're welcome" can not.

IV Conclusion As the "You're welcome" is a polite term, only for words domain, which has a strong colloquial style, it is generally only used for spoken language, rarely used in written language. "Rude" as a courtesy language, they can only speak for the domain, with a strong oral style, generally only used for spoken language; "You're welcome" for the row field righteousness and justice knowledge domain, the vast majority of cases are used written language , only a handful are used in spoken language, so "you're welcome" is the spoken word, and "you're welcome" is both a spoken word, but also the written word.

① sentences unless otherwise stated herein are taken from the Research Center for Chinese Linguistics, Peking University corpus, anger does not indicate the source eleven, a few sentences for certain abridged.

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I3j Shen Jiaxuan. Three field world. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 2008 (6).

[4] Shen Jiaxuan. Complex sentences three domains "line, know, the words" mouth} Chinese Language, 2003 (3).

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[El Lu Jianming, Shenyang. Speak Chinese and Chinese Studies fifteen [C]. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2004.

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